US 2447984 A
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A. LODGE Aug.. 24, 194s.
APPARATUS FOR SPINNING ARTIFICIAL STAPLE FIBERS Filed Feb. 22, 1944 b Fw. m
o o o o 3f a o o o d l1 1 :5
um LM Arnim/ry Patented ug. 24, 194g srmafrrus.I non sPIrINIIIG. ARTIFICIAL s'rAPLE Fresas Alvin-Lodge, Detroit, Mich., assigner to American" Viscose Corporation, Wilmington/,Dein a corporation oi Delaware 22, 1944, Serial No. 523,392
4 ci'ams. (C1. ifs- 8) Application `February rlhis invention relates to an apparatus for' the production ofartificial fibers; andmore particularly for the productionof artificial-staple fibers.
rihe conventional methodl of producing staple fibers is to cut continuous' filaments into' short lengths. With the apparatus of'this invention, staple fibers are produced*duringtlie'r stretching or `textile working of continuousiilaments, without the necessity of submitting the lattery toa special cutting operation.
According to the invention, continuous `iil'aments are provided, during production thereof, with weakened sections at spacedpoi'nts along their length. The portions which undergo weakening are less resistant to tensile stress; than the remaining portionsl of'the filaments,fand`f-vvhen the latter are stretched, asb-y drawing in adraw'- ing frame, or between godets? revolving at different weakened points, may be of substantially uniform varying nonuniform lengths, depending `upon the regularity or irregularity of` occurrence of the weakened portions along the lengthlofthe continuous filaments.
In accordance with the invention, abundle of filaments being extruded through'th'e orifices of a spinneretor other extruding device, into` a suitable setting medium, which may bea cooling, evaporative or liquid medium, is subjected tothe movement of a stream, blast or j'et ofV fluidi gaseousA or liquid, relative thereto, said movement comprising a transverse component, as thefllaments pass progressively away fromethe face of the extruding device. The fluid iet'fmo'ving relatively to thebu y-dle strikesv against atleast somev of the laments comprising it, while the filaments, are suiciently plastic toensure vthat the portions thereof whichA receive the iluidl jet are susceptible to weakening, whichmay bedue to a change in cross-section, suchas flattening, or to a reduction indenier, or both, in response to the impact of the fluid jet thereagainstl.
The invention will be better understood Aby reference to the accompanyingdrawing inwhich A Fig. 1 is a view, partlyin vertical cross-section oi apparatuswhich may be utilized'in` carrying out one embodiment of the invention; and
Fig. 2 illustrates a inodiiicationl ofthe device shown in Fig. 1.
Referring to Fig. 1, thereisfshownfa spinneret I having connections with-.asupply oi spinning solution (not shown-J', saidi spin-neret beings held in a conventionalV spinning head' comprising" a coupling member 2. An annular sleeve member 3is detachably secured to coupling 2 by a bayonet joint 4: A ring member' is rotatably supported by a bali'bearing 6 upon the coupling member 2. The adjacent surfaces of the members 3 and 5 are grooved to form an annular duct 1 which is sealed by a packing 8. The periphery of the ring member is provided With teeth 9A for meshing with pin-ion IE! driven byV shaft II, which is in turn driven by suitable means (not shown) The member 3 has a passage I2` connected to an outside source of fluid (not shown) for' introducing a stream'thereoi to duct 1 and thence through the passages l3toone'or morenozzies or projecting jets I4 (two being shown).
As the selected spinning solution is extruded through the Aorifices of spinneret I, fluid is introduced under pressure to duct l, and then to nozzles I4, in the manner described, and the ring member is caused to'revolve about the bundle of filaments. The pressure under which the fluid issues'from nozzles Id-V may be ysuch that the `fluid stream has sufficient force to penetrate to the center of the bundlecomprisinga multiplicity of filaments or the pressure may be such that allof the individuallaments are not affected bythe uid and the jet exerts itsY force against only the outer lamentsof the bundle, leaving a central group' of continuous laments within the bundle which are not affected thereby.
The'appar'atus shown in Fig. 1 is designed to direct the fluid stream or the like against the filaments to effect weakening thereof at substantially equidistantly spaced points along the length thereof'.v
By suitablev adjustment of thespeed at which the revolving fluidi delivery means is rotated, with respect to the velocity oiextrusion of the spinning solution, the distance between the regularly occurring weakenedportions along the filament length may be varied, within limits defined by the conditioner' plasticity' ofr the filaments, and thusv thelength ofthe staple bers may be varied all of the fibers obtaine'dfrom anygiven bundle of filaments' being s bst'antially uniform in length, however.
Thev revolving nozzles i4 mayfb'e': caused to move relatively to thebundle of filaments emerging from the spinnereti in such manner that the streams or jetsof fluid strike the plasticV` filaments at: irregularlyy spaced pointsv alongi the length thereof; This" may be accomplished-by driving the'gear I0", which inturn drives ringmember 5., byf-m-ean'sl otl elliptical gears` I1 and I3i: (see Figure 2) which gears' may be mounted above. gearE IIJ-fon'shaft I I'. Continuous filaments provided with such irregularly spaced weakened self. Thus, when viscose is extruded into a cosections readily break, upon stretching, to proagulating bath comprising an aqueous solution of duce staple bers of non-uniform length such sulfuric acid, sodium sulfate, and zinc sulfate, as are preferred for use in many textile operain conventional or modied amounts, a stream tions. or jet of the same solution may be directed against The effect of the fluid stream on the larnents the iilaments from a nozzle positioned about the may also be varied by directing the same against spinneret in the coagulating bath, and the force the filaments from a fluid delivery means adapted exerted by the stream of liquid against the plastic for revolution eccentrically about the bundle of filaments will cause the portions thereof which filaments. receive it to undergo weakening as compared with In the practice of my invention, there may the remaining lamentary portions. As another be obtained bundles of filaments in which some example, when solutions of certain ber-forming or all of the lainents comprising the bundle resinous materials, such as copolymers of vinyl unevenly spaced along the length thereof.` Such into a coagulating bath comprising a lower albundles of filaments are directly useful fOr teX- phatic alcohol, as, for instance isopropanol, a tile working into staple yarn. stream or Jet of isopropanol may be moved rela- Thusl a single bundle of such filaments, as for tively to the iilaments, as the larnents move pioeXaInple, a bundle of filaments from one spingressively away from the spinneret face, to eiect neret, Cun be Worked 0n drafting equipment t0 20 weakening or reduction in strength at predetersuch bundles can be combined into a sliver-like or melt spinning, where the operation of setting form which can then be converted into spun yarn. consists in simply cooling the extruded materials In the simplest case, as where the iilaments below their point of fusion, as for example, in are extruded through a spinneret having a single the spinning of nylon, a stream, blast, or jet of such staggered weakened sections have advanherein and in the form, construction, and artases 1n subsequent textile working For oxrangement of the various parts of the apparatus ample, numerous such bundles can be worked into specifically shown, it is to be understood that the a sliver of substantially parallelized fibers withinvention is not to be limited except as set forth out having to undergo opening, carding, combinthe appended claims.
ing, etc. n I claim:
My invention may be practiced in Connection 1. Apparatus for the production of artiiioiai the production Of al'tlclal fibers ln aCCOl'dmaments having weakened sections at spa/Ced ance with the dry, wetI 0r fusion Spinning methods points along the length thereof which comprises and may be applied to fibers consisting of lemeans for extruding a plurality of filaments in generated cellulose from viscose of cuprammo- 40 the form of a bundle, Huid delivery means disnillm Cellulose, Cellulose deIlValtVeS SuCl'l 24S Celposed Outslde the bundle of laments for duectlulose esters including cellulose acetate, proing a, Stream of mud mwarmy agamst ai; least pionate, butyrate, cellulose acetate-butyrate, some of the laments comprising the bundle, and eto,; or cellulose ethers such as ethyl cellulose; means for moving said fluid delivery means to resinous materials, particularly 0f high molecular 45 eiect movement of the fluid stream circumferenchloride, and after-chlorinated copolymers orf comprises means for extruding a plurality of lavinyl chloride and vinyl acetate, nylon, and prO- ments in the form of a bundle, a ring member teinaceous materials, such as casein. adapted to revolve about said bundle, said ring The particular type of fluid, Whether gaseous member having a channel therein for reception 01 liquid, t0 be directed against the plastic` laof a stream of iiuid and being provided with at orices of the spinneret into an evaporative atfilaments having sections of reduced strength at is practiced in connection with .the wet spinning rotatably supported upon said coupling member phase, and may have any suitable composition the escape of fluid from said channel through the same composition as the coagulating bath it- '15 spinneret.
4. Apparatus for the production of artificial filaments having sections of reduced strength at spaced points along the length thereof which comprises means for extruding a plurality of filaments in the form of a cylindrical bundle, revolvable fluid delivery means disposed outside the bundle of filaments and provided with at least one inwardly directed nozzle, said uid delivery means being positioned concentrically with respect to the bundle of laments, and means for revolving the uid delivery means concentrically about the periphery of the bundle of laments emerging from the extruding means to direct a stream of fluid thereagainst through the nozzle at spaced points along the length thereof.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
Number Number UNITED STATES PATENTS Name Date Roberts Sept. 12, 1933 Alibert June 3, 1941 Heckert Feb. 17, 1942 Williams June 2, 1942 Manning Dec. 14, 1943 FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date Great Britain Oct. 25, 1928 France Sept. 18, 1911 Germany Feb. 7, 1925 France Jan. 6, 1927