US 2448782 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept' 7 1948 A. H. DAVIS 2,448,782
COMPOSITE STRAND AND FABRIC Filed May 14, 1945 Patented 7, 194s Archibald Il. Davia, Washington, D. C.
Application May 14, 1945, Serial No. 93,693
This 'invention relates to novel composite textile strands and to textile fabrics made therefrom including woven, knitted, plied and laminated sheets. webbing. belts. tapes, cordage and the like.
A general object of the invention is the provision of composite textile strands and fabrics including fibers of high tensile strength. high resistance to atmospheric influence and to biological attack, and highheat stability and having likewise a high degree of adhesiveness to coating and laminating compositions.
While materials such as siliceous, nylon and fine metallic fibers possess in high degree the strength, resistance and stability desired in many cases. particularly in industrial applications, these fibers are all characterized by relatively smooth non-adhesive surfaces which entail serious disadvantages in the use of fibers of vthis type.`
I have found that by suitably combining high strength fibers of low surface adhesion with organic plastic fibers, it is possible to .provide composite strands and fabrics in which the adhesion of the components is greatly increased without any sacrifice of the strength and resistance properties of the high strength fibers.
In general, the 'invention includes composite textile strands comprising an organic plastic fiber and at least one high strength fiber of low surface adhesion, such as glass, nylon, or metal, disposed about the organic plastic fiber in contact with a portion' only of the surface of the organic plastic fiber, whereby the adhesive properties of the strand is greatly increased not only by' the adhesiveness of the organic plastic fiber but by the effective mechanical interlocking provided by the channels and projections embodied in the strand and fabric construction. The invention also includes textile `fabrics broadly, woven, knitted, plied and laminated from the strands of the invention into sheets, webbing, belts, tapes, cordage and the like which may be coated, laminated or otherwise treated to produce articles of improved utility or appearance.
Typical of the high strength fibers of low surfacefadhesion useful in the invention are glass fibers` produced in the known way of any desired dimensions, composition and color. Other high strength fibers suitable for use in the invention are asbestos fibers, mineral wool fibers, nylon fibers. and metallic fibers or wires.
The organic plastics useful in the invention may be selectedfrom a wide variety of classes of organic resins and elastomers including cellulose esters and ethers; polymerization and copolymerization products of oleilnic compounds.
4' Claims. n (Cl. 57-440) such as vinyl compounds, styrene, acrylic acid and its derivatives; synthetic or artificial rubber compositions, such asl poiymerized dienes and the of Fig. 5, and
various modifications thereof, rubber halides and hydrohalides, and chloroprene; urea, thiourea-, and melamine-aldehyde resins; phenol-aldehyde resins; glycerol-polybasic acid resins; polycarboxylic amide condensation products; and mixtures of two or more resins or clastomers. The plastics may include suitable plasticizers, pigments, fillers and other modifying agents well known in the plastic art.
The composite strands of the invention may be made in a wide variety of ways. such as by plyinger twisting together one or more threads or fibers of high strength material of relatively low surface adhesion.
The strands may be so formed that either the high .strength fibers or the organic plastic fibers project in the strand beyond the effective diameter of the other fibers in the strand in accordance with the use to which the strands are to be put.
In forming the strands-by twisting, the relative tensions on the high strength fibers and on the plastic fibersy may be adjusted with respect to the relative diameters of the fibers to cause either of the fibers to overiie the other in the strands as may be desired. The amount of projection of the organic plastic fiber in the strand section may be increased after formation of the strand by a suitable treatment such as by heating or by treating with a suitable swelling agent. The fibers may be, twisted or plied in a multiple of directions in the strand. The strand and fabric construction of the invention is th-us subject to a wide variation without departing from thecharacter- The invention will be more scribed with reference to the accompanying drawing showing illustrative emb iments oi.' the principles of the invention. y
Fig. 1 is an enlarged diagrammatic representation of acomposite strand embodying the principles of the invention;
In the drawing:
Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 are enlarged diagrammatic representations of further embodiments of the invention; v
Fig. 6 is an enlarged diagrammatic section of a coated fabric embodying the composite strand Fig. 8 is an enlarged diagrammatic section of assenso a coat 'd fabric embodying the composite strand of Fig.
In the strand shown in Fig. 1, the high strength ber i and the organic'plastic ber Ii are of substantially the same diameter. As shown in the ber, the high strength ber i., of glass. for example, is caused to project to a greater diameter in the strand by giving it a greater degree of twist, for example, by subjecting the plastic ber to greater tension than the high strength ber while twisting the two bers into the strand.
In the strand of Fig. 2, the high strength fiber i0 has a greater ber diameter than the organic plastic ber I I so that when twisted into a strand at substantially the same tension the high strength ber projects to a greater distance in the strand than the plastic ber.
In the strands of both Figs. 1 and 2, the relative positions of the bers in the strand may be reversed. In the forms shown, the mechanical interlocking effect in fabric structures and in coated constructions is more predominant t 'n when the organic plastic ber is outermostin the strand.
In tlie strands of Figs. 3 and 4, high strength bers or wire i0 are plied or twisted about substantially straight organic plastic bers Il. A plurality of high strength fibers I0 of different directions of twist may be utilized as in Fig, 4.
Fig. 5 shows a strand having six high strength bers I0 plied about a relatively straight organic plastic ber Il of substantially greater ber diameter.
' Fig. 6 shows diagrammatically the combined adhesive and-mechanical interlocking eect of the strands of Fig. 5 when combined into a fabric and coated with a coating composition I2.
. Fig. 'I shows a strand having three high strength bers I0 plied about an organic plastic ber il of substantially smaller ber diameter.
Fig. 8 shows the strands of Fig. 7 composed into a coated fabric construction combining high strength and a high degree of cohesion of the fabric elements the coating composition being indicated at lI 2.
The strands of the invention in their various forms adapt themselves to plyin. knitting, weaving and the like into fabric structures of a wide variety of patterns. For example, by weavo ciples of the invention as defined in the following claims.
1. A composite textile strand comprising an organic plastic fiber and at least one glass fiber intertwisted therewith in contact with a portion only of the surface of the organic plastic ber, the relative twist'of .the glass ber being greater than that of the organic plastic ber by an amount sumcient to project the glass ber to the periphery of the strand.
2. A composite textile strand comprising an organic .plastic ber and at least one glass ber of lesser fiber diameter than the organic plastic ber intertwisted therewith in contact with a portion onlyof the surface of the organic plastic ber, the relative twist of the glass ber being greater than that of the organic plastic ber by an amount suicient to project the glass ber to the periphery of the strand.
3. A textile fabric comprising a plurality of strands including an organic plastic ber and at least one glass ber intertwisted therewith in contact with a portion only of the surface ofthe organic plastic ber, the -relative twist of the glass ber being greater than that of the organic plastic ber by. an amount sulcient to project the glass fiber to the periphery of. the strand. and a coating composition bonded to the glass bers of the fabric by contact rwith the organic plastic bers.
4. A textile fabric comprising a plurality of strands including an organic plastic ber and ing the strands into a ribbed fabric structure both the structure of the strands and the fabric structure itself cooperate to `increase adhesion and mechanical interlocking in coated and laminated structures.
`It will be clear from the foregoing construcl tion and examples that the construction and .arrangement of the strands and fabrics may be widely varied without departing from the prinat least one lglass ber of lesser ber diameter than the organic plastic ber intertwisted therewith in contact with a portion only of the surface of the organic plastic fiber, the relative twist of the glass fiber being greater than that of the organic' plastic ber by an amount sumcient to project the glass ber to the periphery of the strand, and a coating composition bonded to the glass fibers or the fabric by contact with the organic plastic bers.
' ARCHIBALD H. DAVIS.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the le of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,110,979 Rider Mar. 15, 1938 2,217,826 van Laer Oct. 15, 1940 2,252,999 Wallach Aug. 19, 1941 2,308,781 Francis Dec. 29, 1942 2,313,058 Francis Mar. 9, 1943 2,313,104 Wallach Mar. 9, 1943 2,335,844 Camp Nov, 30, 1943