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Publication numberUS2449807 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 21, 1948
Filing dateMay 14, 1943
Priority dateMay 14, 1943
Publication numberUS 2449807 A, US 2449807A, US-A-2449807, US2449807 A, US2449807A
InventorsFrei Jakob R
Original AssigneeBendix Aviat Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Coupling means
US 2449807 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 21, 1948. J FREl 2,449,807


Patented Sept. 21, 1948 COUPLING MEANS Jakob R. Frei, Sidney, N. Y., assignor to Bendix Aviation Corporation, New York, N. Y., a. corporation of Delaware Application May 14, 1943, Serial No; 487,025

This invention relates to coupling means for drivably connectin ro atable parts and more particularly to apparatus whereby both permanent and automatic adjustments of the angular relation of said parts be readily effected.

One of the objects of the present invention is to provide novel means whereby two rotating elements may be mechanically coupled to each other in such a manner as to permit angular adjustment of one of said elements relative to the other.

Another object of the invention is to provide novel coupling means of the above character which are adapted to be automatically operated as a function of an operating characteristic of an engine, such as the speed or load thereof.

A further object is to provide novel coupling means of the above character which is reliable and efficient and which is compact and ruggedv Still another object is to provide novel means adapted for automatically effecting adjustments in the timing of the sparks in the ignition system of an internal combustion engine.

The above and further objects and novel features of the invention will more fully appear from the following detailed description. when the same is read in connection with the accompanying drawings. It is to be expressly understood, how ever, that the drawings are for the purpose of illustration only and are not intended as a definition of the limits of the invention, reference for this latter purpose being had primarily to the appended claims.

In the drawings, wherein like reference characters refer to like parts throughout the severa] views, a

Fig. 1 is a side elevation, mostly in section and with parts broken away, illustrating one form of device embodying the invention; and,

Figs. 2 and 3 are similar views showing modified forms of devices embodying the invention.

Three embodiments of the invention. are illustrated inthe accompanying drawings, by way of example, in the form of means for adjustably coupling a rotor of a magneto or a shaft carrying a circuit breaker cam to a driving member of an engine or other prime mover. As shown, a shaft 5 has one end thereof journalled in a suitable bearing 6 mounted in a casing 1. Novel means, including fluid pressure actuated means, are provided in a removable extension 8 of the casing for drivably connecting shaft '5 to an engine member (not shown).

i In the form shown in Fig. 1, the novel coupling means for connecting shaft 5 to a driving 2 Claims. (01. 64-24) member are housed in casing extension 8 and comprise a sleeve 9 which has a solined connection with a portion of driven shaft, 5 and hence rotates therewith. Sleeve 9 is preferably surrounded by a suitable oilsealing means In mounted in a partition member it which divides casing 1. 8 into separate fluid-tight compart ments. The oil seal may be of the type commerclally known as a Grits seal. Sleeve 9 is preferably adjustably connected with a second sleeve l2 that loosely surrounds a smooth portion of shaft 5 by adjustable coupling means of the character illustrated in Spengler U. S. Patent No. 2,266,283. The left end of sleeve 9, as viewed in the drawings. is provided with a urality of ratchet teeth l3. which mesh with a like number of ratchet teeth on. one face of a i ring M that loosely surrounds shaft 5 is adapted for angular movement relative thereto. The adjacent or right-hand end of sleeve H has a plurality of ratchet teeth. i5, preferably one more or less than the number on sleeve 9, which mesh with a like number of ratchet teeth on the adjacent face of ring M. One set of said ratchet teeth is so arranged that the flat, axially-extending faces thereof transmit torque for one direction of rotation while the teeth of the other set are so arranged that the corresponding faces thereof transmit torque for the other direction of rotation. The purpose of this arrangement will clearly appear hereafter in the description of the operation of the device.

Sleeve I2 is drivably connected with a driving of the shaft. Driving sleeve it is ireeiy mounted i on a spacersleeve 21!, which is in turn freely mounted on shaft 5 for a purpose to appear hereafter. The outer end. of sleeve l6 extends beyond casing extension 8 and is adapted to mesh with a driving member of an engine (not shown) in any suitable manner well understood in the I art. Extension 8 is provided with ears 8' by means of which casing 1, 8 may be secured to an engine casing.

It will be noted that the inner end of spacer sleeve 20 butts against sleeve (2 and a retainer for a coil spring 2| formed. by a pair of oppositely disposed cupped washers 22 and 23 is interposed between the outer end of said spacer sleeve and a retaining Washer 2-4. The latter is held in place by a nut 25 threaded onto the end of shaft 5, the diameter of said washer being suflicient to hold driving sleeve iii in its assembled position. Sleeve 16 is thus interposed between the end of sleeve l2 and washer '24 with suilicient clearance to permit free angular movement of sleeve I S.

The pressure exerted by nut 251s transmitted.

through washer 2d, retainer 22, 23 and spacer sleeve 20 to sleeve l2 to thereb positively maintain the sets of ratchet teeth l3 and i5 in posi tive mesh so that parts 9, l2 and M rotate, in.

effect, as a single part,

When is desired to make-an adjustment in" the angular relationship of driving sleeve lii'and driven shaft 5 through the medium of the ratchet coupling, it is only necessary to loosen nut 25...

sufficiently to permit the ratchet teeth of one of sets l3 or IE to slide over one another.

amount equal approximately to the pitch of the ratchetteeth, very small. adjustments in the angular relationship of the driving and driven parts l S. and 5-may be effected, as is more fully described in said Spengler patent referred to above wherein the ratchet coupling per se is claimed.

It. will be apparent of the sets of. splines E8 or L9 is spiraled, axial movement of coupling sleeve llwill cause relative angular-movement of sleeves Hand 16 and, hence,

relativeangular movement of sleeve it and shaft 5 which is directly connected to sleeve H2. The desired axial movement of coup-ling sleeve; ll may be effected in a novel manner and-by novel means to be next described. As illustrated, said novel means comprises a ball bearing 26 or other suitable bearing mounted on a central poriton of sleeve ll, the inner race thereof. being held. in place by a retaining ring 21. The outer race of said bearing is engaged at one end by a: cup-- like-member 28 and at the other end by a ring 29, which in turn engaged by a heavy coil spring 30 that is installed under initial compression. The opposite end of said spring rests again-st partition l l and tends to maintain sleeve ll in its extreme left-hand position, said position being determined by an abutment 3! in casing member 8. which serves as a stop for member 28.

Movement of coupling sleeve l1 against the pressure of spring 30 is preferably effected by a plurality of fluid pressure operated pistons 32, only one of which is shown. Piston 32 is adapted to be reciprocated in a cylinder 33, which is fitted into a suitable recess in casing member 8. A light compression spring 34' normally holds piston 32 against an arm 35 which extends radially from member 28. This spring holds the parts'in ready position and obviates any lag in operation or r ttling.

The interior of cylinder 33 may be connected with any suitable source of fluid pressure (not shown) through an opening 36 in casing member 8 or other suitable inlet. The pressure exerted on piston 32 by the liquid or gaseous pressure from. said source may be made to depend upon though the ratchet teeth will be yieldably held i that if. either one or boththe speed, load, oil pressure, or other operating characteristic of an engine or other prime mover in any of many ways well-known in the art so that movement of coupling sleeve l1 and, hence, the angular adjustment of the connected parts during rotation thereof may be automatically effected as a function of the speed, load, etc, of the prime mover. It will alsobe understood that the pressure to cylinder 33 may be manually controlled in any suitable manner at the will of an operator. A plurality of fluid pressure devices 32, 33.may be equally spaced about shaft 5 to thereby obviate any tendency toward tilting member 28 when'the pistons exert a pressure thereon.

'In the operation of the above-described apparatus, sleeve I6 is driven by the engine or other primemover and the rotary motion thereof is transmitted through splines M3 to coupling sleeve I l and-thence through spiral splines 19 to sleeve [2. As pointed out above, sleeve l2, ring 14 and sleeve. 9 rotateas a unit withshait 5. Relatively frictionless rotationof sleeve I'l relative tolme'mr her 26. and spring Wis permitted by. the. rollenor, ballthrust bearing 2.6. The partslare held'by said spring in the axial poistions illustrated. until.

the. fluid pressure in. cylinder 33: is sufficient-to overcome the spring. pressure. The fluidpressure. may either be continuous and increased slowly. to. gradually overcome the pressure of the spring orit maybe controlled in any other suitable mannerl to get the desired angular adjustment at the. properv time or times. For example, the fluid pressure may be controlled so as to cause the parts to move rapidly to their extreme righti-handposie tion or to cause the same to. move slowlyor in stages through a series of intermediate positions. Movement of sleeve ll to-the right, as. viewed-in the drawings, will cause shaft 5 to be-retarded or advanced relative to sleeve l 6; dependingnpon the direction of the spiral splines 19. By thus advancing-or retarding the shaft and, hence, the magneto rotor or circuit breaker cam mounted on the shaft, the timing of the sparks in-an ignition system may be automatically varied. a The modification shown in Fig.2 differs fro the embodiment described above only inthat. a.

modified hydraulic or fluid pressure means-is. pro:- vided for shifting coupling sleeve ll; during operation of the unit. Accordingly, all partsofthe coupling unit of Fig. 2 which are the same asor similar to parts of the first embodiment are designated by the same reference characters and will not be again described.

In the embodiment of Fig. 2, member 38 corresponds with member 28 of Fig. l and also servesas an annular piston of the hydraulic actuating. means. The outer periphery of member'38slidably engages the internal walls of a cylinder 39 which may be integral with casing 8 or remov ably secured therein, as illustrated, byset screws 4B. A cylindrical extension 4! is formed integral. ly with member 38 and slidably extends through an opening 42 in the end of casing member 8. Anannular expansible chamber 63 is thusformedforreceiving a fluid under pressure, said chamber be-- ing bounded by the outer Wallof cylindrical extension M, the inner wall of cylinder 39 and the adjacent radially-extending faces of casing 8- and. member 38. Fluid pressure, either liquid or gaseous, may be directed into chamber 43'from any; suitable source through one or more passages in casing'member 8.

When sufficient pressure is exerted on piston 38: to overcome the effort exerted-by spring, 30, there will be no tendency to tiltv and, hence, bind;

the axially movable parts since the fluid pressure is applied equally around the entire face of the annular piston. If desired, suitable packing material 45 may be provided between extension 4i and the walls of opening 42 in casing member 8 as insurance against leakage from chamber 43. Said packing material may be retained in position by a gland ring 46 which is shown secured to casing 8 by set screws 41. Piston rings may also be employed on the periphery of member 38 if necessary to avoid excessive leakage.

In the modification illustrated in Fig. 3 of the drawings, the fluid pressure or hydraulic shifting means of Fig. 1 are shown and designated by the same numerals. It will be understood, however, that the Single cylinder fluid pressure means of Fig. 2 might be used in this embodiment. The modified form of the invention shown in Fig. 3 differs from that shown in Fig. 1 in that the adjustable coupling means I3, l4, I5 is eliminated and spiral splines [9 are cut on an enlarged portion l2 of shaft 5' instead of on a sleeve corresponding to sleeve l2.

Splines l9 mesh with corresponding spiral splines on coupling sleeve I! and internal splines H at the outer end of said sleeve mesh with a set of external splines lBa on the inner end of driving sleeve I6 which is loosely mounted on shaft '5' between nut 25 and the enlarged portion l2 of the shaft. On the outer exposed end of sleeve I6 is a set of splines I8?) which mesh with a suitable drive member (not shown) of a prime mover, such as an internal combustion engine. The number and, hence, the angular extent of each of the splines I8?) is different from the number and angular extent of splines [8a so that by changing the meshing relation of splines lBa and I1, small angular adjustments which are fixed during operation may be effected in the angular relationship of shaft 5' and the driving member of the prime mover with which splines lBb are meshed. In one suitable embodiment of the invention, sleeve I 6' has seventeen splines 18b and twenty-four splines I8a, The splines of each set are preferably equally spaced and of equal angular extent.

If additional fixed or permanent adjustment is necessary, the bolt holes 8a in ears 8 of the mounting flange (shown only in Figs. 1 and 2) may be arcuate in shape with the center of the are on the axis of rotation of shaft 5 or 5', thereby permittin some broadly angular movement of casing 1, 8 around the shaft when the latter is drivably connected to the prime mover. Except for the manner in which the fixed or permanent angular adjustments are effected, the operation of the embodiment of Fig. 3 is the same as described above in connection with Fig. 1. The same numerals are employed in these two figures to designate like parts.

There is thus provided novel apparatus adapted for coupling rotatable parts together whereby fixed, small, angular adjustments thereof may be readily accomplished and whereby temporary angular adjustments of said parts may be effected during rotation thereof as a function of some variable characteristics or condition, such as the speed of an engine, for example. Additionally, said coupling apparatus is adapted to be compactly arranged in a small space but is nevertheless sturdy and reliable. The device comprehended is also adapted for either automatic or manual control insofar as adjustments during operation are concerned.

Although only three embodiments of the invention have been illustrated and described in detail, it is to be expressly understood that the same is not limited thereto since it will now be apparent to those skilled in the art that variations, particularly in the design and arrangement of parts illustrated, may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. For a definition of the limits of the invention, reference is had primarily to the appended claims,

What is claimed is:

1. In apparatus of the class described, a pair of rotatable members having external splines thereon, the splines on at least one of said members being spiral, a coupling sleeve having two sets of internal splines operatively meshing with said external splines, an annular element surrounding said coupling sleeve, means, such as a roller or ball thrust bearing, for connecting said sleeve to said element for axial movement therewith and substantially frictionless rotary movement relative thereto, yieldable means for normally holding said element in a predetermined axial position, and fluid pressure operated means for moving said element axially against the efiorts of said yieldable means, said fluid pressure operated means comprising a plurality of cylinders equally spaced around said element and a piston reciprocably mounted in each of said cylinders and operatively associated with said element.

2. In apparatus of the class described, a rotatable shaft, a plurality of spiral splines connected with said shaft for rotation therewith, an externally splined sleeve loosely mounted on said shaft for angular movement relative thereto, a coupling sleeve having internal splines meshing with said spiral splines and the splines on said first-named sleeve, an annular element surrounding said coupling sleeve, means for connecting said coupling sleeve to said element for axial movement therewith and relatively frictionless rotary movement relative thereto, yieldable means for normally holding said element in a predetermined axial position, and fluid pressure operated means for moving said element axially against the efforts of said yieldable means, said fluid pressure operated means comprising a plurality of cylinders spaced around said element and a piston reciprocably mounted in each of saidcylinders and operatively associated with said element.


REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,007,097 Gulick Oct. 31,, 1911 1,115,890 Berling Nov, 3, 1914 1,331,267 Key Feb. 17, 1920 2,063,848 Meyer et al. Dec. 8, 1936 2,107,070 Fleury Feb. 1, 1938 2,177,120 E. Schaeren Oct. 24, 1939 2,190,900 Von Tavel Feb. 20, 1940 2,230,487 Eideneier Feb. 4, 1941 2,266,283 Spengler Dec. 11, 1941 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 412,136 Great Britain 1934-

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3138967 *Sep 18, 1962Jun 30, 1964Cunningham Arthur WIndexing mechanism
US5163872 *Sep 5, 1991Nov 17, 1992General Motors CorporationCompact camshaft phasing drive
US5711318 *Feb 15, 1996Jan 27, 1998Japan Tobacco, Inc.Trimming control device for cigarette manufacturing machine
U.S. Classification464/26, 74/395, 464/2
International ClassificationF16D3/10, F16D3/02
Cooperative ClassificationF16D3/10
European ClassificationF16D3/10