US 2450541 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 5, 1948. E. E. CHASE ETAL 2,450,541
ARMED TURRET Filed March 27, 1945 l8 Sheets-Sheet l 0st. 5, 1948.. E. E. CHASE ETAL ARMED TURHET l8 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March 27, 1945 lm/eniars Ernesi EChase William V Goodhue Erne'si S/Vo/res Frank ESZrazzon ca. 5, 1948. E. E. CHASE ETAL 2 9 I ARMED TURRET Filed March 27, 1945 1a Sheets-Sheet s lnvemors Ernest E Chase William [[Gooa'hue Ernest SA/o/res Oct. 5 1948. E. E. CHASE ETAL. 2,450,541
ARMED TURRET I Filed March 27, 1945 1a Sheets-Sheet 4 lnz/enlars Ernest E Chase William [/Good/lie Ernest 3 Nukes Fran/r fidzra zton 5 the AzfLrne-y Get, 5, 1948, E. E. CHASEI-ETAL 2,450,541
ARMED TURRET 18 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed March 2'7, 1945 ZZ I have Hi0 rs ErneszE Chase William T/Goodhue ErnesidNo/zes gran/r ESzPatton ct. 5, 1948:. E. E. CHASE ETAI. 2,450,541
ARMED TURRET Filed March 27, 19%5 l8 Sheets-Sheet 6 [mm 27 fans Ernest EChase William VGood/zue fr'nesf Siva/(es Frank ESzrazzon 'rz'zorrze y c&. 5, 1948. E. E. CHASE ETAL. 2,450,541
ARMED TURRET Filed March 27, 1945 is sheets-sheet 7 Frank E szfrafion Oct, 5, 1948. E. E. CHASE ETAL 2,459,543
ARMED TURRE'I' Filed March 27, 1945 18 Sheets-Sheet 8 [22279 nimws Ernest E Chase William VGooa'hue Ernest 6'. Nokes 0st. 5, IMS. E. E. CHASE ETI'AL 2,450,541
ARMED TURRET 18 Sheets-Sheet 9 Filed March 27, 1945 .45 J an; H 36 [mi/"e nfars Er nest E Chase 4 WilZi a m V Good h we I Ernsz 5.No7 es Oct. 5, 1948. E. E. CHASE ETAL 2,450,541
ARMED TURRET F l M r h 9 5 18 Sheets-Sheet 1o raven zors .E'r'neszfI Chase William I/Gooa'hue Ernest 6. Nokes Frag: E 5fralfan Oct. 5, R948. E. E. CHASE ETAL ARMED TURRET l8 Sheets-Sheet 11 Filed March 27 lnve ars ErnestfEChase William Ernesz hrAorrze QNSKEQU -UN U Get. 5, 394, E. E. CHASE ETAL.
ARMED TURRET l8 Sheets-Sheet 13 Filed March 27, 1945 veninrs I Emesz E Chase PM E r'ne'st 5: Makes Fran/z EJzr'a ion 22mm T/Goodhue st. 5, 1948. E. E. CHASE ETAL. 2,456, ARMED TURRET Filed March 27, 1945 1e Sheets-Sheet 14 inventars Ernest E Chase l'Villiam VG'aodhue -.E'r-nesi S..Nokes Frank EJtratzfon z ir'Atiorne E. E. CHASE ETAL 2,450,541
ARMED 'IURRET Get. 5, 1948.
18- Sheets-Sheet 15 Filed March 27, 1945 m/eniars Ernest E Chase Wz'ZZiamIZGoodhue Err: esz SNokes Fran/r EGzrazzon t torney ct. 5, E948. E. E. CHASE ETAL 3,450,541
ARMED TURRET Filed March 27, 1945 18 Sheets-Sheet l6 Q [rm/e n50 rs Ernesz EC/mse William VGood hue Ernest 5 Nokes Fran/c ESzfr'azfzfo/z Get. 5, 3948 I E. E. CHASE ETAL. 2,459,543
ARMED TURRET Filed March 27,, 1945 I 18 Sheets-Sheet 17 in we mf rs fr'nesz E. Chase VVL'ZUam L G'oodhue fr'nesi S Nukes Fr-a nk E Siva Hon iriiorney atented Get. 5, 1948 PATENT ARMED TURRET Application March 27, 1945, Serial No. 585,150
8 Claims. (Cl. Sil -41) being readily set up at vantage points in the menaced areas.
It is an object of the present invention to provide an armed turret which may be readily set up wherever desired and which may be quickly and effectively trained on fast-moving targets.
The illustrative armed turret, which comprises a single gun of the Bofors 40 mm. type, is operated by a crew comprising a commander, azimuth and elevation trackers, and a gunner, mechanism being provided by which the commander may initially pick up, and train the gun on, the target and then turn control of the turret over to the trackers. Thereafter, the trackers, by the use of combined manual and power-operated rate control mechanism, rotate the turret, together with the gun, in azimuth and the gun in elevation while observing the target through their respective sights, the deflection angles between the gun and .the trackers and the observer's sights during such time being varied by lead setting mechanism controlled by the commander in accordance with the observed effect of fire upon the target.
The various features of the invention will be understood and appreciated from the following detailed description read in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which Fig. 1 is a perspective outside view of an armed turret in which the present invention is embodied; Fig. 2 is another perspective outside view of the turret, a portion of the interior of which is shown through an open door at the rear of the turret;
Fig. 3 is a plan view of a unit of an ammunition rack, which is mounted on an inside wall of the turret, supporting a clip of cartridges;
Fig. 4 is a rear end view of three of the units of the ammunition rack, a gunner being in the act of withdrawing a clip of cartridges from the center of said units;
Fig. 5 is a side view, partly in longitudinal vertical section, of the interior of the turret;
Fig. 6 is an enlarged side view, partly broken. away, showing in detail portions of the mechanism illustrated in Fig. 5;
Fig. 7 is a rear view, partly broken away, of the turret as viewed on line VIE-VII of Fig. 5;
Fig. 8 is a view on line VIII-VIII of Fig. 5;
Figs. 9 and 10 are detail views, showing portions of firing mechanism;
Figs. 11 and 12 are enlarged sectional and perspective views, respectively, showing a cover of a cupola of the turret;
Fig. 13 is a view, partly in side elevation and partly in section, showing an open sight mounted upon the cupola and mechanism through which the sight is operated;
Figs. 14 and 15 are plan and rear views, respectively, partly in section, of mechanism through which a commander of the turret operates control box levers which regulate thespeed of azimuth and elevation electric drive motors, respectively;
Fig. 16 is a section on line XVI-XVI of Fig. 14;
Fig. 17 is a section on lines XVII-XVII of Fig. 15, showing the interior construction of azimuth and elevation solenoids controlled by the commander;
Fig. 18 isa section on line XVIIIXVIII of Fig. 19, showing details of a dashpot construction;
Figs. 19 and 20 are sections on lines XIX-XIX, XX-XX, respectively, of Fig. 18;
Figs. 21 and 22 are side and front views, respectively, partly in section, showing mechanism operated bythe azimuth tracker for rotating the turret and also showing portions of electric drive mechanism which is controlled by the tracker and aids said tracker in the rotation of the turret;
Fig. 23 is a skeleton view of operating portions of the mechanism illustrated in Figs, 21 and 22;
Fig. 24 is a perspective view of a sight used by the azimuth tracker;
Fig. 24A is a section on line XXIVA-JIXIVA of Fig. 24;
Fig. 25 shows the sight, partly in side elevation and partly in section on line XXVXXV of Fig. 25;
Fig. 27 is a view showing, partly in section and partly in side elevation with covers removed, portions of the commander's sight and a lead setting box by the use of which the commander "throws" leads'into the various sights;
Fig. 28 is a sectionon line XXVIII-XXVIII of Fig. 2'7;
Fig. 29 is a plan view of the lead setting box;
Fig, 30 is a diagrammatic view, showing the various connections between the gun, the lead setting box, and the sights;
Fig. 31 is a wiring diagram; and
Fig. 32 is a diagram used in connection with the description of azimuth and elevation lead setting mechanism. The illustrative armed turret 38 comprises a Bofors 40 mm. gun 40 such as described in Ordnanc e Pamphlet No. TM9-252, rate controlled electrically operated means for rotating the turret, together with the gun, in azimuth and the gun in elevation with relation to the turret, and manually operated mechanism for actuating said means, portions of said mechanism being operated by a turret commander for initially training the gun on a target. After the gun 40 has been trained on the target, the commander renders his rate control actuating .mechanism inoperative, the training of the gun thereafter being turned over to azimuth and elevation trackers who are seated on stools 42, 44 (Fig. respectively, and drive the turret, through mechanical connections hereinafter described, said connections at such time being adapted to actuate said rate controlled electrically operated means, which may be referred to as aided tracking means and assists the trackers in following the target.
The commander, standing upon a platform 46 (Figs. 5, 8 and 9) and observing or spotting the target through an open sight 48 (Figs. 1, 2, 5, 13 and mounted upon a cupola 50 of the turret 38, initially trains the gun on the target by the use of a grip 52 (Figs. 5, l4 and 16) forming part of hereinafter-described rate control mechanism, a hatch cover 54 (Figs. 1, 2, 5, 11 and 12) of the cupola being open in the dash line position shown in Fig, 11. The commander then moves to a seated position upon a stool 56 (Figs. 5 and 8), which is positioned above the platform 46, and shuts the hatch cover 54, the target thereafter being observed by him through an elbow telescope 58 (Figs. 1, 2, 5 and 30) as he trains the gun 40 on the target. While the gun 40 is being initially trained on the target, the azimuth and elevation trackers observe said target through elbow telescopes 60, 62 (Figs. 1, 5 and 30), respectively, extending outside the turret 38 and forming parts of sights hereinafter described.
When the commander has trained the gun 40 on the target he releases solenoid control buttons 64 (Fig. 14) located on the grip 52, thereby transferring control of the electrically operated means to the azimuth and elevation trackerswho turn wheels 66 (Figs. 5, 21, 22 and 23) 68 (Fig. 5), respectively, to retain, through mechanism which will appear later, horizontal and vertical hairlines (not shown) of the elbow telescopes 60, 62,.
respectively, and accordingly the gun 40, on the target. The commander now being free to observe the fire on the target, throws leads into the elbow telescopes 58, 60 and 62 by turning azimuth and elevation wheels I0, I2 (Figs. 5, 28, 29
and 30) of a lead setting box I4 in accordance with the observed trajectory of tracer bullets fired at the target, thereby causing the trackers to shift the fire to the target, if necessary, and thereafter to maintain said fire upon the target as it changes its speed and/or direction.
A floor I6 (Figs. 5, 6, 7, 21 and 22) of the turret 38 is provided with a depending annular flange 18 (Fig. 5) the inner face of which is in engage- ,ment with a cylindrical surface of an upstanding sealed by an annular felt piece 94. Secured by screws 96 to the bracket 80 is a ring gear 98 (Figs.
5, 21 and 22) having teeth which are arranged in meshing relation with teeth of a gear I00 (Figs. 21 and 22) mounted upon a shaft IOI rotatably mounted in bearings I02 of a housing I04 secured by screws I06 to the floor I6 of the turret. Rotation of the gear I00, by mechanism which will be described later, causes the turret to rotate about an axis I08 (Fig. 5) of the ring gear 98.
Electric current is supplied to the turret through a collector ring unit 0 (Figs. 5 and 30) which is bolted to the upstanding rin bracket and comprises two large rings II2 (Fig. 5) for supplying power and four small rings 4 for supplying current through suitable wiring connections to light fixtures and to solenoids, as will appear later. Two heavy and four light power take-off brushes II6 (Fig. 31) on a brush holder (not shown) secured to the turret fioor I6 engage the outer races, respectively, of the collector rings and transmit current to a switch box H8 (Figs. 5 and 31) Surrounding the rings H2, H4 and the brushes H6 is a collector ring guard I20 secured to the turret floor I6.
The upstanding walls of the illustrative turret are welded or otherwise secured to the floor I6 and to the top of the turret as well as to each other, the front wall and the top of the turret for protection being approximately one inch thick and the other walls of the turret being approximately one-half inch thick. There is-provided in.
the front wall of the turret 38 an arcuate opening I22 (Fig. 1) sufficiently large to permit elevation of the gun through ranges varying from minus 15 to from the horizontal and a small opening I24 (Figs. 1, 5 and 6) in the lower front portion of the turret for the reception of a chute I26 (Figs. 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7) for disposing of empty cartridge cases. There are also provided at the right side of the turret 38 three openings I28 (Figs, 1, 2 and 25) for receiving sights I30 (Figs. 1, 2, 24, 25, 27 and 30) formed in part by one of the elbow telescopes 58, 60, 62.
A pair of trunnions I32 (Figs. 5, 6. 7 and 30) secured to a breech casing I34 of the gun 40 are mounted for rotation in horizontal bores of trunnion blocks I36 bolted to trunnion block supports I38, I40 (Fig. 7) which are bolted or otherwise rigidly secured to the floor I6 of the turret and are connected together by a transverse cylindrical web I42. Accordingly, the gun rotates with the turret for training in azimuth and is rotated, through mechanism hereinafter described, about the common axis I44 of the trunnions I32 with relation to the turret for training the gun in elevation. In order to swing the gun in elevation, there is secured to the breech casing I34 of the gun a segment gear I46 driven by a