US 2450934 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
oct. 12, 194s.
Filed May`25, 1946 l. x. cALHouN WELL PIPE HADLING APPARATUS 3 Sheets-.Sheet l IN V EN TOR.
Oct. 12, 1948. x. CALHOUN 2,450,934
WELL PIPE HANDLING APPARATUS n Filed May 25, 19,46 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN V EN TOR. I
Oct. l2, 1948. 1. x. CALHOUN WELL PIPE HANDLING APPARATUS s sheets-sheet s A Filed May 25, 1946 Fig. 8
1N VEN TOR.
Patented Oct. 12, 1948 f gianni UNITED STATES TENT OFFICEl WELL PIPE HANDLING APPARATUS Ingram X. Calhoun, Oklahoma, City, Okla.
Application May 25, 1946, Serial-N0. 672,273
This invention relates-towell drilling equipmentand more particularly ta hydraulically actuated tongsfor making and breaking joints of pipe.
The principal object of the invention is to provide a hydraulically actuated tong constructed and arranged with n, view towards preserving the safety of thek operators and workmen as well as to minimize the usually strenuous labor required in positioning pipe sections andin vmaking and breaking joints. The invention anticipates such a tong, mountedfon a post or upright on Va derrick floor, in close proximity to thework and provided wtih a detachable control head operable by means of flexible hydraulicr lines so disposed that an operator mayv manipulate the tong from a remote position'safe from falling objects.
Another object of the inventonis tofprovide, as. a complement to the tong, av hydraulically actuated, work positioning and orienting. arm
mounted on the supporting postv ofthe tong and actuated also by hydraulic lines connected to a source of pressure situated remotely from the point of operations. By virtue of the automatic work positioning arm, control of the work is assured with comparatively littlehazard and labor on the partv of `an operator.
Still another object of thel inventionA is to providepipe handling, assembling anddisassembling equipment,y hydraulically; actuated;-whieh is so constructed and arranged that all controls are conveniently operated in -the comparative safety of a-steel topped shelter located-at one side of the derrickiloor.
With the foregoingobjects as paramount, the invention has further reference to certainV featuresof accomplishment which willbecorne apparent as the description proceeds, taken inconnection with the accompanying drawings wherein:
Figure 1 is a fragmentary side elevational vview ofa Well derrick, showing the invention .mounted in operative position on the floor thereon, 1
Figure 2 is a side elevational view of the invention, showing the work positioning arm in longitudinal section.
Figure 3 is a top plan view ofthe work positioning arm in longitudinal section, taken on` line 3-3 on Figure 1.
Figure-4 is a plan view ofthe tighteningtong partly in section,r taken on line ll--I on liligure-l.`
Figure 5 is aplan viewpartly in section, showing the work holding tong, takenon linel--li` on- Figure 1.
Figure V6 is a side elevational view ofl ther-con- 2 trol panel, showing in vertical section the tong assembly elevating mechanism.
Figure 7 is a plan view of a joint spinning unit, which is a part of the complete assembly, and
Figure' is a detail plan view of the gearing and reversi-ble ratchetmeohanism of thespinning unitshown in Figure '7.
Continuing with a more detailed description of the drawings, reference is primarily made-to Figure 1 'wherein numeral I denotes Vthe derrick oor, resting on the foundation 2. Legs 3 constitute a part of the derrick frame and aremounted on the floor I. A hoisting unit il operates Ythe hoisting line 5to raise and lower` sectionsV 5` of the drill stemin a conventional manner.A A rotary table 'l is shown as being-mounted on supports 8 and a well control casing Q below the rotary extends into the well.
At one side of the derrick floor is a shelter I5 of steel whose top It protectsanoperator inthe shelter from any objects' likely to fallhinthe derrick.
An upright or post Ii) is secured by lag screws or bolts 5I extending through a base plate 5l1` into the derrick floor. This post is adapted to support the tong of the invention which, in Figure 1, is generally designated by reference numeral, II, and is employed tofscrew up and unsorew the upper too-l joint I3 from the lower tool joint All. Further reference in detail to this tong willbe made presently.
A manipulator arm, generally designated at I2 in Figure 1, is-constructedand arranged-toltake sections of drill stem 6, beingliited andheld from above by hoisting line 5 andposition .then-Lacourately over the lower tool joint Ill.
A control headIE located adjacent theY support of the tong I l contains valves designed to enable an operator to control the apparatus which isoperated by hydraulic pressure through line I6 'from pump I8, operated by engine I9. Line l1 returns` spent fluid to reservoir 2B.. A shelter l isprovided into which the operator may move should protection from-falling objects be needed.
Referring now tov Figures 2. and 3, it will be observed vthat an outer guide cylinder. 2|, forming a part of the workv manipulating arm I2, is
attached rotatively to the supporting post. Ifand contains an innerguide sleeve 22, the latten being movable axially with respect tothe guide cylinder 2|. A major actuating cylinder 23d-s attached rigidly to the closed endY oftheC guide cylinder 2| and a piston 25 mounted oncylinder 23 operates a piston rod 24 to move indexing cyllinder 28, thereby moving head I53- (Figure-3).
Piston 29 of the .indexing cylinder 28 actuates a piston rod 30 which is screwed into a jaw operating cylinder 33. This latter cylinder is rigidly attached to the inner guide cylinder 22 by means of the shank of the head |53, previously referred to. The piston 34 carried by the cylinder 33 operates a piston rod 35 to pivot jaws 38 about pins 31 by means of links 36, thereby contracting the jaws 38 onto the drill stem 6 to hold the same. To open the jaws 38, fluid is caused to ow into cylinder 33 through extensible pipe 40 and finds escape through extensible pipe 39 and to effect closing of the jaws, the flow of fluid is reversed.
An arm 4| is rigidly attached to post I0 and serves as a means of attachment of a cylinder 42 through the medium of a pin 49. Operating within the cylinder 42 is a, piston 43 which is actuated by a rod 44, pivoted by means of a pin 45 to a lbracket 48 attached to the outer guide cylinder 2 I. The described cylinder and piston arrangement is eiective to oscillate the manipulator arm about the axis of post through an angle of approximately 60. To operate the piston 43, fluid is caused to flow in line 48 and escapes through line 4'! to actuate the arm l2 away from the center of rotary table I. Reverse flow of fluid causes the arm to advance towards the center of the rotary table.
When the arm I2 is in the position shown in Figure 3, that is, with cylinder 23 fully retracted; cylinder 29 fully extended and cylinder 42 fully retracted, the drill stem 6 is directly over the center of rotary table 'l and upper tool joint I3, lower tool joint I4 are in position for threaded engagement. Fluid ows through pipes 26 and 2'I to operate cylinder 23, and through extensible pipes 3| and 32 to operate indexing cylinder 28. The piping is but fragmentarily shown in Figure 3 for the sake of clarity but all piping is connected to the control head I5, shown in Figures 1 and 2.
Referring now to Figure 4; frame assembly 52 is shown as pivoted about post I0 and contains the tightening tong, holding tong and spinning device in the relationship shown in Figure 2. A cylinder 54 is attached by means of pins 55 to a torque tong frame 53. The cylinder 54 serves as a gripping cylinder and its piston 56 extends and retracts the rod 'I of the piston, thereby moving jaws 59 by means of a connecting pin 53. Jaws 59 pivot about a pin 60 mounted in the torque tong frame 53, thereby pressing the upper tool joint I3 against hardened teeth 6I.
Hydraulic fluid check Valve 68 operates in the following manner to maintain heavy pressure for gripping of the tool joint I3 by by jaws 59:
Hydraulic fluid flows into check valve 68, past balls 69 and out through lines 64 and line 66, lling both ends of cylinder I2, collapsing jaws 59 by displacing pistons 56 and rods 51 in cylinders 54. Balls 69 prevent the return of any cf the hydraulic uid as torque cylinder 'I5 rotates the torque tong 53. Piston 'I3 in cylinder 'E2 is actuated by a piston rod 'I4, creating high pressure in cylinder 72, proportional to the force applied by the piston 'I6 in cylinder 15. This high pressure is transmitted through line 65 to right hand cylinder 54 when the joint is being loosened and through line 66 to the left hand cylinder 54 when the joint is being tightened, thereby increasing the holding power in proportion to the torque applied.
To unclamp jaws 59 from the pipe, fluid is admitted under pressure through line 62, exerting pressure on piston 'I0 in cylinder 68, unseating 4 balls 69, allowing uid to ow out line 63, whereupon piston rods 5I will be retracted by means of uid flowing into the rod end of cylinder 54 through line 61.
Torque cylinder 'l5 is connected to the frame assembly 52 by means of a pin '|'I in an arm 18. The piston I6 of the torque cylinder 'I5 is connected by means of rod I4 to piston 'I3 of the cylinder I2 which latter serves as an intensifier cylinder. A pin II attaches cylinder 'I2 to the torque tong frame 53.
In order to screw up a joint, uid is admitted to cylinder I5 through line 'I9 and nds release through line 80. Obviously, ow of uid is reversed when a joint is to be unscrewed.
To rotate the frame assembly 52 (Fig. 4) a cylinder 8| is provided, its piston rod 83 being attached to post ||J by means of a bell crank and a pin 84. A pin 82 connects cylinder 8| to the frame assembly 52 which is rotated away from the center of the derrick floor by admitting uid through a line 86 and discharging through line 87. Reverse movement of the frame assembly is eected by reversing the flow of uid.
Referring now to Figure 5, it will be observed that the frame or bracket 52 referred to above as the frame assembly, also supports and guides a pipe holding tong frame 88. A pair of cylinders 89 are attached to the tong frame 88 by means of pins 90 and, through the medium of pistons 9| and rod 92, serve as a means for actuating jaws 94. These jaws are pivoted on pins and the rods 92 are pivoted to the outer ends of jaws 94 by means of pins 93. The cylinders 89 are therefore effective as gripping cylinders. When piston rods 92 are extended, as shown in Figure 5, the jaws 94 clamp the lower tool joint l 4 against hardened teeth 96 in the tong frame 88.
Hydraulic uid check valve 91 operates in the following manner to maintain heavy pressure for gripping of the tool joint I4:
Fluid under pressure flows through line |54, into check valve 9'I, past balls 98 and out through lines |00 to line I0| and line |02, filling both ends of cylinder |04 and into cylinder 89, extending piston rods 92, thereby causing jaws 94 to advance upon and clamp the pipe joint I4. Torque applied by the upper tong causes relative movement between cylinder |04 and piston |05, generating pressure in proportion to the torque applied. This pressure is transmitted by line |0| to the left hand cylinder 89 when the joint is being tightened and by line |02 to the cylinder 89 on the right in Figure 5 when the joint is to be loosened, thereby increasing the holding power in proportion to the torque applied.
To unclamp jaws 94, fluid is admitted through line |55, into check valve 91, causing pistons 99 to move upwardly, upsetting balls 88 from their seats, permitting fluid to ow out through line |54 and in through line 53, thereby retracting piston rods 92.
Piston rod |06 of cylinder |04 transmits torque from holding tong frame 88 to frame assembly 52, cylinder |04 being attached to tong frame 88 by means of pin |03. Piston rod |06 is attached to frame assembly 52 by an arm |08 and a pin |07.
Referring to Figure 6; post I0 serves in the capacity of a piston rod for a piston I I0 and a cylinder |09, the latter embracing the post I8 and raises and lowers the complete tong assembly with respect to the derrick door Fluid admitted through line II| raised the tong assembly while uid admitted through line ||2 lowers s. the assembly; aswill.v become obviousffrom anexlamination of Figure 6;
Thecontrol headv I 5 is detachable from the post I and, by means of flexible lines, thecontrol head is. enabled` to operate the machine from any suitable point at the well site. This being true, the operator may eflciently operate the controly head at a safeposition such as inthe shelter I', protected by itssteel roof I9. Line I6: delivers hydraulic iluid" under pressure to the control valves ofihead' I5and' line I1 conveys spentand excess fluidback to its source.
Thevalvesof the control head: I5lare connected to their respective unitsby suitable-rigidlandexibl'e; lines. Valve II 3 is 'connected to lines |54 and |55 and! ser-ves to clamp and un'clamp the lower holdingA jaws. Valve 'II4 is connected to lines (i2-and 63 and serves to clamp and unclamp the upper torque jaws. Valve II 5is-:co'nn`e`cted to linesv 19- and 89' and serves to' rotate the upper torque tong for loosening and tightening` joints. Valve II'Ii` isv connected to lines |39 andV I4()v (Fig. '1)' and-serves to clamp and unclamp the spinner roller jaws |28. Valve I-I'1 isvconnect'ed to" lines ,|435 and |44 (Fig. '1) and controls rotation of thespinner driving rolls. Valve IIS-'s connected to lines II'I'and'I I2 (Fig. 6) and controls theraisin-gand lowering of the complete tong assembly. Valve- I I Sfis connected to lines 19 and 8D and controls rotation of the upper torque tong. Valve |120 isconnected tolines 39 and 49 and controls the clamping and unclarnping action of manipulator armrjaws` 33Vv (Fig. 3). Valve I2I is connected to lines 41 and 48' (Fig'. 3) and controls rotation of the manipulator arm l2y about thesupporting post I0. Valve |22 is connected to linesv 2B and 21 (Fig. 2) and controls the operation of the main extending and retracting cylinder of the manipulating or work orienting arm I2. Valve |55 is connected to lines 3| and 32 and is effective to extend and retract the indexing cylinder 28 of the manipulator arm I2'. All of the valves mentioned are connected to pressure line I6l and return line I1.
In Figure 7` is shown the rapid spinner mechanismfor screwing joints up to al1 torque within itsy capacity before actual tightening is effected lIcy-means of the main tong. The spinner mechanism isr also applied to complete the operation of separating the tool joints once they are broken by the tong. The tong frame assembly 52 supports and guides the spinner in operation.
The spinner assembly consists of the hydraulic clamping cylinder |23, with piston rods I 24 attached to arms |23 by means of pins |25. The arms |26 pivot about pins |21 in the frame assembly 52 and are supplied with rollers I28on pins |29. The rollers |28, when in clamped position, press the drill stem 6 back against the knurled driving rolls |32 for spinning in or spinning out the joint.
Drivingly attached to knurled rollers |32 are sprockets |34, about which a chain |33 is passed as shown in Figure 7. This chain also extends about a sprocket |30 which is mounted on a driving shaft I3I. In Figure 8 is shown fan arm |49, which is connected to shaft I3! by a key |48. An escapement lever I5I is pivoted to oscillate on a pin |59 mounted in the arm |49 and a spring |52 holds the lever I5| in the position shown for counterclockwise rotation of ratchet wheel |41 which is the direction of travel when spinning in joints. In spinning out joints, ratchet wheel |41 is rotated in a clockwise direction, the lever I5I is pivoted about pin I 59 until the opposite en-d engages lratchet vwheel I"41i, springf |252 alsogholding' it. in' thisg. position.
A gear |346.A is also' mountedi on' shaft` |3;I.' and is.`- driven-'by` a rack. |531; andV rotates1 in',1 common with ratchet wheelA |411; ALroller I,45,.mounted:on ashaft If35bears against` theA reverse side 0L the rack |38 andI maintainsA meshed'.- relationship of the-teeth; ofitheirack with those'of" the gear |461 Referring again' to:Fig.ure 1; a cylinder |3e1l is shown clampedin the frame assemblyI 52; by; means of a bolt |138:- and: thel extendedA end of the piston rod of this'V cylinder is: actually the aforementioned rack bar |361, Which as stated', engagesthe gear Ifll=1 to drive. the sameforactuating the spinner mechanism inthe. manner-'de'- scribed.
A line |44 supplies fluidA to cylinder |315 for theeXtending; stroke of its. piston to, actuatei the rack |33 longitudinally while a, line I43a supplies fluid forl theretracting. strokeoi the cylinderY |31.
In operation, the pipe handling equipment described isv set upinthe manner illustrated in Figure 1. As the operating line 5is actuated to lower the pipe elevator (not shown) tosuspend a section of pipe 6 over that already in ther we11,.the lower portion ofthe suspended section is clamped by the jaws 3.3 of the manipulating. arm I2 to orient its threaded end with that of the set pipe section. Operation of this arm having been, described, it is suilcient. to point out that the arm is actuated by suitable valves accessible to anoperator from his. position in the shelter |15. It is obvious. that the. :arrangement makes. possible the positioning of'pipe without the necessity, as heretofore, for handlers to graspandposition the pipe by hand;
After the tool joints. I3' and I4'. have been engaged in the mannerA described, the rapid spinner mechanism isset in motion by the operator without leaving his position in the shelter I5' and theA upper joint is spun to the limitedtorque capacity ofthe spinner after which theoperator actuates valves necessary to set into operation the jaws offthe holding tong illustrated'in- Figure 5 to clamp the lowermost pipe section preparatory to threading into the same the suspendedpipe section thereabove.
Having completed the operations of positioning, spinningand clamping the pipe, the operator then actuates the described valves for closing thejaws 59 of the main tong illustrated in Figure 4 and subsequently opening valves which supply uid effective to oscillate the jaws for the application of the required torque to tighten the joint.
vIn breaking and spinning out joints in pulling pipe, the above described operation is reversed.
Manifestly, the construction as shown and described is capable of some `modiiication and such modification as may be construed to fall within the scope and meaning of the appended claims is also considered to be within the spirit and intent of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. Pipe handling equipment for well drilling including in combination with a single supporting post adjacent the drill hole of a well, providing a common mounting for said equipment, the latter comprising a frame oscillatably and vertically displaceable on said post, a jaw carrying member supported by said frame for holding a pipe string in said drill hole, a complementary jaw carrying member above said rst member for rotating a pipe section suspended above said pipe string, a third jaw carrying member above said second member for imparting to said suspended pipe secgenesi 7 tion rapid rotation preliminary to the action of said second mem-ber, a pipe manipulating arm oscillatably mounted on the upper end of said post and having pipe engaging jaws, hydraulic means associated with each of said members and said manipulator arm for actuating the jaws thereof, a detachable control head on said frame and separate valve means in said head for controlling pressure fluid to and selectively actuating the hydraulic means in each of said jaw carrying members and said manipulator arm.
2. Pipe handling equipment for well drilling ncluding a unitary structure mounted for oscillative movement towards and away from the drill hole of a well, a single post adjacent said well hole affording a support for said structure, the latter comprising a pipe engaging and positioning member, a pipe holding tong, a pipe rotating tong and a spinning tong, hydraulically actuated jaws carried by said positioning member and each of said tongs, a hydraulic control head detachably mounted on the supporting post of said structure, a cylinder embracing said post and supporting said pipe engaging, pipe holding and pipe spinning tongs, a piston stationary with said post -within said cylinder, and valve means in said control head for selectively operating the jaw assemblies of said positioning member and said tongs and for displacing said cylinder on said post to raise and lower said tongs.
3. Pipe handling equipment for drilling wells including an upright post adjacent the drill hole of a well, providing a common support for said equipment, a horizontal disposed frame, a cylinder vertically movable on said post adjacent its lower end, a piston on said post Within said cylinder, means for hydraulically charging said cylinder to effect oscillative and vertical displacement of said frame on said post, a pipe holding tong mounted on said frame having hydraulically actuated jaws, a torque imposing tong also mounted on said frame having hydraulically actuated jaws, a spinning tong supported by said frame having hydraulically actuated roller jaws, a pipe positioning arm supported oscillatably on the upper end of said post above said frame having hydraulically actuated jaws, a control head on said frame and valve means in said control head for selectively operating said tongs and said pipe positioning arm.
4. Apparatus for assembling and disassemblng' pipe strings in a well from a position spaced from said well, including a single upright adjacent said well, having a piston stationarily mounted thereon, a frame having an integral cylinder embracing said upright and said piston and hydraulically movable longitudinally and oscillatively thereon. pipe gripping and holding means carried by said frame, torque imposing means in said frame above said gripping means, pipe spinning means in said frame above said torque imposing means, said gripping, torque imposing and spinning means having hydraulically actuated Work engaging means therein, a pipe positioning arm mounted on said upright above said spinning means carrying pipe engaging jaws and means assembled on said upright for controlling the flow of hydraulic uid to each of said means for selectively actuating the same.
5. Apparatus of the character described including a single supporting post having a piston stationarily mounted thereon, a cylinder surrounding said piston, a frame mounted on said piston and disposed for oscillative and vertical displacement in a horizontal plane adjacent aV well hole, independent, hydraulically actuated means carried by said frame for holding, rotating and spinning pipe sections for assembling and disassembling a pipe string with respect to said well hole, hydraulically actuated means above said pipe holding, rotating and spinning means for engaging and positioning pipe sections above said well hole, pipe engaging jaws in each of said hydraulically actuated means and means assembled on said post for controlling the iiow of hydraulic uid to said pipe holding, rotating and spinning means and said pipe positioning means to actuate their respective pipe engaging jaws.
INGRAM X. CALHOUN.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the le of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,311,225 Grable Feb. 16, 1943 2,317,306 Smith Apr. 20, 1943 2,351,851 Young June 20, 1944