US 2451366 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 12, 1948. M. c. TERRY 2,451,355
AIR CONDITIONING APPARATUS 7 Filed March 16, 1946 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 7.9 43 4/ 70 26 INVENTOR,
42 ama/v c. TERRY nan/r M. c. TERRY AIR connn'ronma APPARATUS Filed March 16, 1946 2 Sheets- Shoot 2 flllfilllllra m n a u I m r o uvmvrm P78715018 CI TEE/Y)" BY ran/mm Patented Oct. 12
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE I j 2,451,366 I v Y AIR CONDITIONING ArPAaA'rUs Matson C. Terry, Ryd'al, Pa., assignor, by mes'ne" assignments, to Philco Corporation, Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania I Application March 16, 1946, Serial No. 654,923
The present invention relates to air-conditioning apparatus. More particularly, the invention pertains to improvements in that typeof selfcontained air-coolers which are adapted to be partly or wholly mounted within a room to absorb heat from the. air therein, and which are provided with means to reject such heat outside the room.
' For that purpose, coolers of that type are gen erally provided with .air pumping-means and with passagewaysfor the forced circulation ofv air through the apparatus. Also, such coolers are usually'provided with damper means adjustable to regulate the flow of air through said passageways,. so that the desired condition, in effecting cooling and ventilation of the room, may be obtained. Moreover, air-conditioning apparatus of this general type, are commonly adapted to be used, as an exhausting fan, to withdraw foul air from the room. This has been done by so adjusting the damper-means that the so-calledv room-air outlet .(which discharges into the room) is completely closed and the socalled pump-out" outlet -(which communicates with the outside) is fully opened. In this manner, air drawn from the room isdischarged outdoors instead of being recirculated into the room,
. as is the case when the apparatus is used to conally adjusted to maintain the function of the airpumping means but to interrupt the operation of the motor-compressor in the cooling system, whenever the apparatus is to be used for the sole purpose of withdrawing foul air from' the room., However, with an arrangement of that kind, the damper and the motorscompressor controls must be individually and separately adjusted. Furthermore, in resetting the apparatus for operation as an air-cooler, the controls must again be individually and separately adjusted in proper position for that function. Thus, in adapting the apparatus to the desired function, the user must pay particular and careful attention to the relative positions of the controls and must make certain that the respective adjustments of said controls are properly correlated. It is, therefore, the primary object of this invention to eliminate the necessity of manipulating a plurality of control devices when adapting the apparatus to perform its various functions as an air-conditioner or as an exhausting-fan. This is accomplished by providing a novel arrangement or parts whereby adjustment of the damper means, to open the "pump-out" outlet and to close the "room air" outlet, will automatically adjust switching means to stop the operation of the motor-compressor. Also, the arrangement is such that adjustment of the switching means, to initiate operation of the motorcompressor, will automatically adjust the damper means in position toopen' theFmom-air" outlet and to close the "pump-out" outlet, should the damper means be in the reverse position when the switching means is so adjusted.
It is another object of the invention to provide a control arrangement which is capable of accomplishing the results mentioned above, but which is adapted to permit limited adjustment of the 'damper means for thepurpose of allowing a certain predetermined percentage of room-air to be "pumped-out without effect on the setting oi" the switching means'w'hen in position for the normal operation of the cooling system. This is made possible through a novel association of the elements providing the structure which establishes the connection between the "pump-out" damper control and the control-switch knob or dial.
Still another and more particular object or the invention resides in the simplification of the control mechanisms to avoid confusing the user and to insure optimum efliciency of the apparatus under all operating conditions. With that end in view. the controls are confined in two readily accessible locations (one for the switch control means, the other for the damper control means) and the controls themselves-are so constructed that they can be readily associated with identification markings and adjustment indicia, in full view of the user.
Moreover, the apparatus, as a whole, is characterized, generically, by improvements in the relative arrangement and association of the various elements, which make it possible to realize, in a most advantageous and practical way, the more specific objects of" the invention, as above referred to. Furthermore, the partic ular disposition and cooperation of the various elements, as embodied in an apparatus constructed in accordance with the present invention, contribute toward increasing the operational efficiency of such an apparatus when used to perform any one f ings, in which:- l
enemas Figure 4 is an end view of the apparatus with certain parts shown in section;
Figure 5 is an enlarged cross-sectional view illustrating the preferred construction of the switch and showing the same in "of!" position;
Figures 6 and 7 are schematic views illustrating the control mechanisms in different operative positions.
The apparatus, shown in the drawingsJs of the i type adapted to be mounted and supported directly in a window of a room to be cooled. However, it is to be understood that the invention is also applicable to other types of air-conditioning apparatus. For instance, the improved control mechanisms, as well as the improvements in the construction and relative association of the parts, are adaptable for incorporation in those apparatus which include a console designed to be placed on the floor of a room and provided with a duct structure communicating, through a window or like opening, with the air exterior to the room.
Referring particularly to the drawings, the apparatus, as shown, includes a housing In adapted to extend horizontallythrough' a space between "the sill and partly open'sash of "a window, as
representedin Figures 1 and 4, so that the front portion of the housing projects into the room and the rear portion of the housing projects outside the room. A cabinet structure ll, made of wood or other suitable cabinet-fabricating material, en-
'closes the portion of the housing which projects into the room.
As can be seen in Figure 2, the housing It) contains a conventional refrigerating system of the expansion-compression type which basically comprises an evaporator l2 and a condensing unit, the latter including a condenser H, a compressor l4 and a motor iii adapted to actuate the compressor through a belt and pulley drive I6. The housing is so constructed and the refrigerating system is so arranged, that room-air passes in heat exchange relation with the evaporator l2, and outside-air flows in heat exchange relation with the condenser l3. In this manner,the liquid refrigerant, as it evaporates in the evaporator, may absorb heatfrom the room-air to cool the same before re-circulation into the room. The heat-laden gas, forming in the evaporator during the vaporization process, is drawn through a suctiOn line I! into the compressor I 4, where the gas is compressed and discharged through a conduit I8 into the condenser i3. There, the gas gives up its heat to the circulating outside-air which carries the heat outdoors. Removal of heat from the compressed refrigerant condenses the same back to liquid state, and the liquid refrigerant, from the condenser, flows to the evaporator througha liquid line it in which is interposed a suitable flow restrictor, such as an expansion valve 20,
With further reference to the particular construction, asshown clearly in Figure 2, the housing I 0 is provided with relatively spaced partitions 2! and 22 which cooperate with the walls of said housing to define three main 23, 24 and 2B.
, The compartment 23 takes up substantially the entire portion of the housing projecting outwardly of the room window, and provides a machinery chamber which enclosesthe condensing unit of therefrigerating system. As represented by the sets of, arrows A in Figure 2. circulation of outside-air through the machinery chamber is effected by means of a centrifugal fan 23 mounted to be driven by the compressor-motor ii for drawing outside air into said chamber through groups of side apertures 26 and for blowing such air directly across the condenser and out a group of rear apertures 21. It is to be noted that one group of side apertures 26 is positioned opposite the compressor and its motor. In this manner, both the compressor and motor areeflectively air-cooled.
The compartment 24 constittues a room-air conditioning chamber which encloses the evaporator i2 of the refrigerating system; Room-air is admitted into this chamber through an opening 20 provided in the top wall of the housing ill (see Figures 1 and 4) and registering with a hinged inlet-grille 32 arranged on the cabinet structure II. In order to provide for proper circompartments culation of room-air through the evaporatorv and to assure adequate heat exchange therebetween, the inlet 30 is located ahead of one end of the evaporator l2, and a centrifugal fan 33, driven by a motor 34, is mounted in back of the other end of the evaporator. Thus, as represented by the set of arrows B in Figure 2. room-air is drawn into the conditioning chamber and directly through the evaporator l2, and is then blown through an opening 35 in the partition 22. A
filter 36 is interposed in the path of the room-air flow, preferably at the entrance to the evaporator, where the filter may be readily accessible through the air inlet 30, for cleaning or replacement.
The compartment 25 provides, in eifect, a plenum chamber which receives the air discharged through the opening 35. The provision of such a chamber eliminates objectionable air noises and prevents undesirable drafts in the room. The conditioned air is discharged from the plenum chamber into the room through openings 31 provided in the front wall of the housing ill and registering with outlet-grilles 38 in the front wall of the cabinet structure i I. I
As indicated by the. set of arrows C in Figure 2, fresh outside air may be admitted into the conditioning-chamber through a passageway Mi formed in the partition 2|; This passageway is located ahead of the filter 36 so that the fresh outside air admitted in the conditioning chamber, may be properly intermixed and conditioned with, and in the same manner as, the re-circulated room-air. A shutter M, of suitable construction, is associated with the passageway 40 to regulate the size thereof in accordance with the desired percentage of fresh outside-air to be mixed with the re-circulated room-air. For that purpose, the shutter M is conveniently mounted to slide in guide-means 42, provided with a graduated scale, so that the position of the shutter may be readily and accurately determined for the admission of the desired percentage ol fresh outside-air into the conditioning chamber. I
Moreover, as indicated by the set of arrows D in Figure 2, air may be pumped out of the room and discharged outdoors through passageways 44 and 45, formed in partitions 22 and 2|, respectively. For that purpose, a damper structure, including adjustable. interconnected hinged dampers 4 8, is provided in the ple'num chamber to'control the flow of all" thret-h'rough. 'I'ri order to sheet thoroughjpump-ou the dampers 48. when adjusted in one extreme position, coinpletelyf'close the froom-alr, outlet-openings t1,
'aslrepresented in Figure 6. In thismanner, air
discharged in the plenum chamber 2 5 is prevehtedjirom beingflrecircuiated into the room, and is divertedthrough the pump ou passageways the :46. It. is to be noted. that one of..'the
represented by arrows'B in. Figure2to berecirculated in the room. Itv may be desirable at times, to allow, pump-out" oi.'. a small percentage the air discharged into: the plenum chamber while thegreater percentage .of such air is being blown into the room. For that purpose, the dampersAG. are adjustable in an intermediate position, as shown in Figures 2 and 4. With reference to th e pumpou feature, it is to be noted that the pump-out" openings 44 and 45 are located in line withthecvaporator-ian motor. 34 so that the flow of air is directed to traverse said ii'ictbr (see Figure 2) thus eflectively cooling the same. Moreover, the fan motor 34 is advantageously providedwith. ataii fan 34a to assist in the circulation of the cooling air about said mo- In accordance with the present invention, ad-
justment of the damper structure is accomplished by means of an improved control mechanism conveniently located for access through the roomair inlet 30, upon opening the grille 32. This control mechanism includes a pivoted lever 48 ,sization of the: motor 15 to ve. the compressor "[4 and'thecohdehser fan '8. and. enersizatiop ll) to a rotatably' mounted rod 58, the latter beir'ig stumps/m suitable'bearings prhvided in. the side portions, or a box-like elementjta' (Figures .2 Landf ll "grhe vtori-ur element isolates the slotted,. po rtion through which the. dial projects and thus prevents the escape of air through such portion. The rod 53 is. adapted. to, actuate. a switch 54'which may be orany suitable known construction. ,As shownjn Figure 5, the switch 54 is preferably of the type includinga pair of movable contacts 55 and, a pair of fixed'contacts 51 and 58,. and a cam-shaped actuator iil for said movable contacts. The motor circuits are diagrammatically illustrated in Figures 6 and 7. As indicated in these figures, the movable contacts are connected through a common lead 60 with one of the lines a! which provide thc source of electrical energy; one-fixed contact is connected with the compressor-motor l5 through a lead 62; the other of the fixed contacts isconnected with the. evaporator-fan motor 34 through a lead. 63; and the motors l5 and 34 are respectively connectedthrough leads 64 and 85 with the otherpf said. lines 6!. When the control dial element ,52 isset in "Off" position,;the
cam-shaped actuator 58 assumesthe, position shown in Figure 5 and .thereforeallows the movable contacts 55,and 58 to disengagethe fixed contacts 51 and 5.8accordingly opening both the fan-motor circuit and the compressor-motor circuit. When the control dialele ment 52 is set in Fan position, the actuator assumes the poand a link 49 hingedly interconnecting said lever and the damper structure. The free end of the lever 48 is adapted to be adjustably moved in a' slotted guide 58 which is conveniently provided with a graduated scale so that the user may readily and .accurately set the damper control for the desired percentage of air to be pumpedout.
In order to effect retention of the dampers in intermediate position, means such as a notch 50a (Figures 1 and 2) is provided in the slotted guide 58 ata fixed point to permit pump-cu of the predetermined percentage, say 25%, of the air sition shown in Figure 6 and therefore moves one movable contact 56 into engagement with its associated fixed contact 58, accordingly closing the fan-motor circuit to energize the same. When the dial element is set in Cool position, the actuator assumes the position shown in Figure 7 and therefore moves the movable contacts into engagementwlth their respectively associated fixed contacts thereby closing both motor circuits to energize the same.
As hereinbefore mentioned, the dampers 48 may be adjusted, through manipulation of the lever 48, to close completely the room-air outlet'openlugs 31 and to open fully the pump-cu outlet passageway 45 for the purpose of effecting "pumpout." When this adjustment is made, the switch is automatically set to interrupt the operation of the compressor-motor. This automatic setting is accomplished by the provision of means eifective to move the dial to Fan" position whenever the lever 48 is manually set in the position shown in Figure 6 to effect pump-out. For that purpose, the switch actuating rod 53 carries a cranklike lever 68 adapted for engagement with an extension 61 (Figure 2) provided on one of the dampers 46, when the damper structure is moved, from the position shown in Figure 4 or from the position shown in Figure '7, to the position shown in Figure 6. In this manner the dial, when set either in Oil? or in "Cool" position, is moved to TFan position by adjustment of the damper 7 cally into position for closing the pump-out" passageway,-when the dial is manuallyset from the Fan-position to either the Oil' or the manual adjustment of said control means to start operation of the refrigeration-providing means,-
W and also operable to effect automatic adjustment Cool" position. This is eifectively accomplished by engagement of the crank-like-lever 66- withfrig'eration-providing.means upon manual adextension 61 which returns dampers 46 and lever 48 to the position shown in Figure 7. The return of dampers 46 and lever 48 to this latter posi-- tion is assisted by action of the over=center spring 6! connected to damper-control mechanism, since said spring will urge the lever and damperstructure arrangement to position shown in Figure 7 when the dial is moved from its Fan" position.
It is pointed out that movement Of the dampercontrol to the 25% pump-out adjustment, will not disturb the adjustment of the dial and switch and that, likewise, adjustment of the dial and switch to its various positions will not act on the dampers when disposed insaid 25% "pumpou position.
From the foregoing, it will-be appreciated that an air-conditioning apparatus constructed in accordance with the present invention, provides for ready and accurate adjustment whereby to pera controlling means adapted for manual adjusta form, in a most eiil'cient manner, the several functions for which such an apparatus is intended. Especially, the-invention assures proper control of the apparatus, by providing only two main control-mechanisms which are so mutually related that, to meet special conditions, adjustment of one mechanism will automatically adjust the other mechanism.
It is to be understood that modifications may be made in the construction of the apparatus without departing from the spirit of the invention. Therefore, the invention is not limited to the preferred embodiment shown in the drawings and described in the specification, but is subject only to such limitations as are imposed by the prior art or are particularly indicated in the appended claims.
' 1. In air-conditioning apparatus: an air-conditioning-chamber; means operable to provide refrigeraticn in said chamber; control means adjustable to start and to stop the operation of the refrigeration-providing means; means including a damper structure selectively adjustable to direct the air from said chamber either to the inside or to the outside of a room; and mechanism including means operable to stop operation of the refrigeration-providing means upon adjustment of said structure to direct air from said chamber to the outside of the room, and also operable to adjust said structure to direct air from said chamber to the inside of the room upon adjustment of said control means to start operation of the refrigeration-providing means.
2. In an air-conditioning apparatus: an airconditioning chamber; means operable to provide refrigeration in said chamber; control means capable of manual adjustment to start and to stop operation of the refrigeration-providing means; means includin a damper structure adjustable in one position to direct the air from said chamber to the inside of a room, in another position to direct air from said chamber to the of said control means to stop operation of the rejustment of said structure in the second men- 7 to supply refrigerant to said evaporator; a'
motor-driven fan arranged to pass air-in heat exchange relation with said evaporator, and to discharge such air out of said chamber; air-flow ment to direct the air from said chamber selectively either to the insideor to the outside of a room; switch means adapted for manual adjustment to control the operation of said compressor and said fan; and mechanism including means operable to efiectautomatic adjustment of the switch means for stopping the operation of said compressor while maintaining the operation of said fan, upon manual adjustment the air-flow controlling means to direct the air from the chamber to the outside of the room, and operable to effect automatic adjustment of the air-flow controlling means to direct air from said chamber to the inside of the room upon manual adjustment of the switch means to re-, store operation of the compressor.
4. In'air-conditioning apparatus: a refrigeration system including an evaporator, a condensing unit and control means adjustable to initiate and to terminate operation of said unit; -a
said chamber having inlet means to admit air for circulation in heat exchange relation with said evaporator, and having outlet means to discharge such air; a second chamber adapted to receivethe air discharged from the first mentioned chamber, said second chamber having outlet means selectively adjustable to direct such air either to the inside or to the outside of a;
room; and, mechanism including means operable toeffect automatic adjustment of the condensing-unit control means to interrupt operation of said unit upon adjustment of said outlet means to direct air from said second chamber to the outside of the room, and operable to effect automatic adjustment of said outlet means to direct air from said second chamber to the inside of the room upon adjustment of said control means to'initiate operation of the condensing unit.
5. In apparatus for cooling airwithin a room: a refrigeration system including an evaporator, a condensing unit and control means capable of manual adjustment to initiate and to terminate operation of said unit; a housing provided with a plurality of compartments, one of said compartments defining an air-conditioning chamber enclosing said evaporator and having inlet means to admit air into said chamber, another of said compartments defining a plenum chamber communicating with the air-conditioning chamber to receive air discharged therefrom, said plenum outside of the room and in still another position chamber having outlet means capable of manual adjustment to direct air from the plenum chamber selectively either into the room to be cooled or out of said room; and, mechanism including means operable to effect automatic adjustment of the condensing-unit control means to interrupt operation of said unit upon manual adjustment of said outlet means to direct air from the plenumchamber out of theroom, and operable to eifect automatic adjustment of said outlet means to direct such air into the room upon manual adjustment of said control means to initiate operation of the condensing unit.
6. In apparatus for cooling air within a room:
a refrigeration system including an evaporator, a condensing unit and control means capable of manual adjustment to initiate and to terminate operation of said unit; a housing provided with a plurality of compartments, one of said compa'rtments defining an air-conditioning chamber enclosing said evaporator and having inlet means to admit air into said chamber, another of said compartments defining a plenum chamchamber to receive air discharged therefrom,
said plenum chamber having outlet' means capable of manual adjustment to direct air from the plenum chamber selectively either into the room to be cooled or out of said-room; still another of said compartments defining a machinery chamber enclosing said condensing unit and provided with means for circulating air,
including the air directed out of the room in heat exchange relation with said unit and for rejecting such air to the outdoors; and, mechanism' including means operable to efiect automatic adjustment ot'the condensing-unit control means to interrupt operation of said unit upon'manual adjustment of said outlet means to direct air from the plenum chamber out of the room, and operable to eflect automatic adjustment oi said outlet means to direct such air into the room upon manual adjustment or said control means to initiate operation of the condensing unit.
7. In an air-conditioning apparatus: an air chamber; refrigerating means operable to con- I dition the air in said chamber; and control mechanism including means operable to stop the operation of the reirigeratingmeans. to prebercommunicating. with the air-conditioning,
- municatio'n between said chamber and the outside of the room, to establish communication between said chamber and the inside of the room, and to start the operation of said refrigerating means.
vent communication between said chamber and a the inside of a room, and to establish communication between said chamber and the outside of the room, and also operable'to prevent com- 8. In an air-conditioning apparatus: an air chamber having a' first outlet adapted to provide for the discharge of air into 'a room, and a for discharge of air 'into a room", and a second i outlet adapted to provide for the discharge of air out of the room; a damper structure movable to close either of said outlets; refrigerating means operable to condition the air insaid chamber;
a control adjustable to start and to stop the operation or said refrigerating means; and instrumentalities disposed in cooperative relationship with said structure and control and operative to adjust said control to stop the operation of the refrigerating means in response to movement of said structure to close said first outlet,
and also operative to move said structure to close said second outlet in response to adjustment of said control to start the operation of the refrigerating means.
' MATSON C. TERRY.
summations cr'ran The following references file. of this patent:
' UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Rams Date 2,299,973 Jewell July 28. 1942* 2,332,730 Kucher --Oct. 26, 1943 2,343,121
Ilnerhart Feb. 29, 1944 are of record in the