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Publication numberUS2453369 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 9, 1948
Filing dateMay 15, 1945
Priority dateMay 15, 1945
Publication numberUS 2453369 A, US 2453369A, US-A-2453369, US2453369 A, US2453369A
InventorsGrable Donovan B, Jackson John M
Original AssigneeGrable Donovan B, Jackson John M
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Pipe tongs
US 2453369 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Nov. 9, 1948. D. B. GRABLE ETAL. '2,453,359

` PIPE ToNGs 4 4- sheets-sheet 1 Filed May 15, 1945 INVENToRs. y Ma( ArroRAv/Er:

Nov. 9, 194s. D, B, GRABLE ETAL 2,453,369

PIPE TONGS 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed May 15, 1945 0M-" 62 INVENToRs.

L/ohw M JACA' l ATTRNEK NOW 9, 1948. D. B. GRABLE ETAL 2,453,369

PIPE TONGS Filed May l5, 1945 v4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Douai/ANB. QAELE INVENTUM Jom/MJACL/ l' 4 AT 7' GRA/EX Patented Nov. 9, 1948 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE PIPE TON-GS Donovan B. Grable, Long Beach, and John M. Jackson, Santa Monica, Calif.

Application May 15, 1945, Serial No. 593,870

(Cl. Z55-35) 9 Claims.

This invention relates generally to improvements in ton-gs for making and breaking threaded joints between sections or stands of well pipe. In certain and more particular aspects, the invention contemplates improvements in the type of combined tongs and pipe spinner disclosed in the Grable Patent No. 2,311,225 issued February 16, 1943, on Pipe rotating apparatus.

One of the major objects of the present invention is to provide a novel self-powered tongs assembly characterized by its employment of relatively rotatable gripping means or jaws adapted to engage the pipe string at both. sides of the joint, and operable to produce relative rotation of the gripping means in either direction for making up or breaking the joint, as the case may be. In this connection, the invention contemplates constructing the tongs body with relatively rotatable sections, each carrying individual pipe gripping means and preferably individual power units for operating the gripping means, and in- A corporating in the assembly another power unit having such relation with the body sections that controlled and selective operation of the unit produces opposite relative rotations of the sections. Another object and feature of importance is the provision of an improved power-driven spinner mechanism for rotating one of the pipe sections independently of the aforesaid gripping means in the operation of taking up a loose joint to snug condition, preparatory to nal tightening by relative rotation of the body sections and gripping jaws. or disengaging the joint after initial loosening by the body section and jaw rotation. In serving the purposes of the invention. the spinner and its motor have novel association with the upper tongs body section and the jaw actuating power units, all in a manner permitting predetermined sequential application or release of the spinner and jaws with relation to the pipe.

' contemplated also is the use of fluid pressure actuated power units, all driven by high pressure fluid `from a single source, for operating the spinner motor, the jaw actuating power units, and the power unit by means of' which relative rotation of the body sections is elected in making up and breaking the joint. As will appear, the invention includes the provision of a simple valve assembly. conveniently mounted on the tongs body, for selectively controlling the operation and communication of pressure fluidto the several power units.

Various additional features and innovations might preliminarily be recited at length, but all these, as Well as the features and objects referred to above will be explained to best advantage in En the following description of the typical and illustrative embodiment of the invention shown in the .accompanying drawings, and in which:

Fig. 1 is a perspective View of the tongs assembly applied to the pipe string at a joint;

Fig. 2 is a longitudinal vertical sectional view of the tongs assembly;

Fig. 3 is a cross-section on line 3-3 of Fig. 2;

Fig. 4 is an end view taken from line 4--4 of Fig. 2;

Figs,A 5 and 6 are fragmentary vertical sections taken on lines 5-5 andv 6--6 of Fig. 2 through the spinner and tongs section mechanisms;

Figs. '7 and 8 are horizontal sections taken on lines 'l-1 and 8 8 of Fig. 2; and

Fig. 9 is a diagrammatic illustration lof the control valve mechanism and its connections with the swivel power units.

Referring mainly to Figs. 1 and 2, the tongs assembly is shown to comprise a body structure, generally indicated at IU, including upper and lower relatively rotatable sections I I and I2. The general form and 'construction of the sections may be given any suitable design adaptable for accommodation of the various working parts. Typically, the upper section II may comprise vertically spaced members I3 and I 4 interconnected by channels I5 and I6, the end portions of which toward the pipe I6 are deformed outwardly as at Il. see Fig. 6. for purposes that will later appear. To 'the right of member I3. the channels I5 carry a pair of members 20 to which is 4secured the housing or cover ZI for the pipe spinner and motor assembly generally indicated at 22.. The lower tongs section I2 ysimilarly comprises spaced. members 23 and 24 interconnected by channels 2li, the latter having outwardly deformed portions 26 similar to and serving the same later described purposes as portion I'I of the channels and the upper tongs section.

One of the channels I5 of the upper body section extends at Ia part way about the pipe I6, the corresponding channel 25 of th'e lower section similarly being extended at 25a about the pipe. The channel portion 15a carries a body or support 2l within which the pipe gripping dies or jaws 28 are retained. The lower channel portion 25a. carries a pair of supports 29 and 30 each containing the gripping dies 3|, the support 3D- being mounted for movement radially with' relation to the pipe, Such movement is permitted by mounting the support 30 on pin 3| extending through the bossed portion 32 of the channel. coil spring 33 tending to thrust the die toward the pipe a distance permitted by the engagement of the pin head 34 with' the boss.

The body sections II and I2 have at 35 a swivel connection permitting their relative rotation about the pipe axis. The swivel connection is shown to comprise typically a ring segment 36 secured to member 23, and segments 3l and 38 secured to the underside of member I4 in interttin-g and interlocking relation with the segment 36. Roller bearings 39 may be employed to facilitate relative rotation of the sections.

The upper tong section Ii contains a reciprocable jaw mount or body 45 confined and guided within the ways 4I, see Fig 6, below the guide channels 42. The body 45 carries at its inner face the support 43 and jaw inserts 44. The body and jaw assembly is reciprocally operated by a power unit 45, preferably of a piston and cylinder type, the piston rod 48 having an end portion 45a pivotally connected to the jaw body pin 41. At a certain position in the later described operating sequence, movement of the jaw body and piston rod in a pipe engaging direction is resisted by coil spring 48 conned between the rod iiange 49 and bracket 50 attached to and depending from the underside of a spinner mechanism carriage I. As will be understood, the cylinder of the power unit 45 is stationarily affixed by suitable means to the body section containing it.

The lower body section I2 similarly contains a piston and cylinder power unit 52, the piston rod 53 having a direct pivotal connection at 54 with the jaw body 55, the latter being reciprocally guided within the side portions ofthe body section in a manner similar to the mounting and guiding of upper jaw body 40, as will be apparent from Fig. 6 without necessity for further illustration.

A suitable power unit, generally designated at 56, see particularly Fig. 5, is provided in interconnected relation with the upper and lower tong sections for positively producing relative rotation of the sections in opposite directions in the operations of making up or breaking the pipe joint. The power unit 46 also may be of a piston and cylinder type, comprising a cylinder 51 secured at 58'to the upper body section II, and a piston 59' having a pivotal connection at 6) with bracket 6I secured to the lower body section I2. As will be apparent, upon relative reciprocation of the cylindefr 51 and piston 59 in opposite directions, the tongs body sections and their respective pipe gripping jaws are caused to rotate relatively in opposite directions.

The spinner mechanism 22 comprises a, spinner wheel 62 having a suitable anti-friction pipe engaging surface, the wheel trunnion 63 being journaled within suitable bearings 64 for rotation within portion ,5Ia of the carriage overlying thewheel. The latter is rotatably driven by a fluid motor or turbine 55 ailxed to the carriage 5l, the motor shaft 68 carrying a bevel gear 61 engaging ring gear 62a carried by the spinner wheel 62.`

Carriage 5I, and therefore the spinner wheel andmotor assembly, are movable radially of the pipe I6 and relative to the body section I I, the car-v riage 5I for this purpose being mounted for recip, rocation within guide ways IIJ in members 2li, see. Fig. 5. Being attached to `the underside of the' carriage, bracket 5G travels with the carriage in its reciprocal movements.

Pressure fluid, e. g. compressed air, supplied to and exhausted from the apparatus respectively through lines 1I and 12, is controlled in its Communication to the cylinders 45 and 52, the power 4 unit 46 and the spinner motor 65, by a valve assembly 13, see Fig. 1, which may be mounted on either body section, for example the side flange of the lower section I2, as illustrated. As best showed by the piping vdiagram in Fig. 9, the valve assembly 13 comprises individually operable three-way valves 13, and 16 with their control handles 18, 19 and 30. The showing of the control valves need be diagrammatic only since three-Way valves suitable for this type of control are well known and .require no specific illustration. Valve 14 controls the delivery of pressure I iluid from line 1I to the cylinder 51, and the iiuid exhaust therefrom to line 12, selectively through .lines 8| and 82. yThe pressure fluid supplied to 'and exhaust from cylinders 45 and 52 similarly is controlled by a suitable valve mechanism 15 through lines 83 and 34 individually connecting with opposite ends of the cylinders as illustrated. Valve 16 controls the communication of pressure iluid to the spinner motor 65, and the exhaust therefrom, selectively through lines 85 and-86. As will be understood, the control by valves 14 and 15 permits positive operation of the pistons in cylinders 45, 52 and 51 in either direction, and valve 16 permits positive reverse operations ofthe spinner motor 65. Y

As indicated, the relatively high fluid pressure communicated through line 84 tothe cylinders 45 and 52, is sufiicient -to lbring the jaws and diesinto gripping `engagement with the pipe, against the resistance of springs 48, 33 and SI. To facilitate operation of the spinner -62 to rotate the upper pipe stand while the gripping jaws and dies remain disengaged from the pipe, we preferably incorporate in the control system, means for selectively actuating lthe -spinner carriage 5| under sufficient pressure to contact the yspinner 62 against the pipe, `but without advancing the pistons 4B and 53 distances suicient to caus-e the jaws and dies to grip the pipe. Referring lto Fig. 9, the valve mechanism 15 is adapted to selectively supply the high pressurefluid through line 15a to a pressure regulator 15b, the discharge from which occurs through check valve 15e and into line 84. It will be understood that in practice, the pressure regulator and check valve may be incorporated within the control valve mechanism 15 asv one unitary structure. The eiTect of the pressure regulator 15 is to permit communication to the cylinders 45 and 52 of pressure sui-cientv to contact the spinner 62 against the pipe, but insuilicient to overcome the resistance of springs 48, 33

and 9i to the extent of bringing the j-aws and diesinto gripping engagement with the pipe. As will` be understood, during advancement of fthe pistons and cylinders 45 and 52 under the lower or regulated pressure, iluid is displaced by the pistons through line 83. to the discharge line. At other times, when the high pressure iiuid is delivered to the cylinders through line 84, check valve 15e prevents back-How of the high pressure fluid to the regulator.

In considering the operation of the invention,

assume the tongs `assembly to Vhave three-point suspension on the cables 81 and to be applied to the pipe I6 with the jaw bodies 43, l43a positioned respectively above and below the ends of lthe pipe stands which are to .be screwed together to the joint line J. Assume also that the lower stand is held by the usual table slips, and that the upper stand has been lowered in position 'to be screwed onto the lower` stand. As the tongs are initially placed about the pipe the jaw body 3l! and its -dies 3l are 4thrust inwardly by coil spring 33 a distanceV sufci-ent :to iprevent engagement l of the ipipe with the jaws carried fby fthe :supports .fZLand 28. The pipe also 'will y'be :free :from gripped .engagement with-fthedies carried :by supports'llwand 43a. The pipe lis .supported diametrically :opposite theA spinner-wheeliBZ lby Vrollers .88 :carried .by yoke #B9 supported/.on lpinig, the roller fand'yolce'a'ssembly :being urged `toward .the ipipefbyI coil 'spring 9 I First the spinnerfmotort is 'started in operati'on :and frelativelyflowiluid 'pressure is lcommunicated through dine l'Hic to Vcylinders 45 and :52,to simultaneously advance lthe jaw tmounts '40 and 5.5 toward'theipipe adistance suicientto engage theispinner'wheel 62 againstthe `upper pipe-stand (movement of piston 46 beingdzransmitted through spring -148 yto the .spinner :carriage assembly) but '.without Iyet permitting gripping engagement cfthefdies 44 t.with "the pipe. Upon contacting the pipe, .the spinner wheel turns the'upper .stand in theproper direction 'tontalre' up the' joint toia more orl'esssnngcondition thereupon. Byoperation of the :lever .19, thefvalve mechanism .T .is :caused -to admit high pressure fluid through line :84 to the cylinders 45 and '.52 i iiuid delivery through line 15a`being discontinued) 'to cause the dies 114,28 and 44a, '3| to grip the pipe. Valve 114 now :is operated f-to iactuate ithe :piston and cylinder assembly 5.6 4tio-.produce relative rotation ofthe tongs sections :l l and 2 in Va vdirection rproducingrtighteningrotation of the upper t-pipe stand :and :complete make-up lof 'the joint .J :During the advancementofc-thezpistonsand cylinders A5 and 5.2, iluid is :displaced from the low pressure side of the piston-s Lthroug'hrpipef'83 `.to the discharge line.

.A reverse sequence of operations occurs in breaking a pipe joint. vFirst the vtongs are applied to the pipe andthe mounts uill'andS .thrustiully forward under .pressure communicated through line '84 -to cause the dies Il-'4, '28 and 44a, 3l to individually Ygrip the pipe sections. /At this time the spinner wheelBZ, which may :not be inoperation, is .pressed against the pipe by the thrust of spring f4.8. The piston landmflinder assembly 56 is operated to produce suflicient relative rotation of the tong sections il I and l2 to initially break or loosen :the joint :to an extent that the upper pipe stand then may be turned outyof the joint by the spinner wheel 62. The operating fluid there is communicated to cylinders 45 and 52 through line 15a and 'the regulat-or 15b, the-'pressure then `being reduced sufficiently to disengage the diesirom gripping relation with the pipe'but with the `spinner wheel remaining in contact with the upper stand. The spinner then is driven in a direction such as .to .turn the upper pipe stand out/ofthe joint.

1t will be vunderstood that the drawings areto beregardedmerely as Iillustrative of the invention in one .of its typical embodiments, and that various changes and modications may be made without departure from the invention in its in tended-spirit 4and scope.

We claim: y

l. A unitary pipe tongs assembly comprising upper and lower body sections having alined recesses providing openings through which the pipe may Venter said recesses upon bodily movement of the tongs transversely of the pipe, each of said sections including a lever extending outwardly from the recess, a connection between the sections maintaining said recesses in axial alinement and supporting one section by the other section While permitting relative oscillation thereof about the pipe axis, pipe gripping means carried by each section, and an actuating mechanism car- 6 ried by said :assembly and :connected tto louter portions of vsaid ilevers :radially beyond ysaid .connecti'on .and I'operable 'to -eff'ect said `relative 'foscillation :of vithefsections.

.2. A unitary pipe .tongs assembly comprising upper land flower body sections `having alined recesses :providing Aopenings through which the pipe ymay `zenter .said :recesses up'onlbodily moyernent of the :tongs transversely lof the pipe, reach' of said sections including a :lever :extending Lout-` Wardly l'from lthe recess, .said ^sections and .levers being spaced :apart `longitudinally .lof the rpipe, .a connection 'between the sections and within Athe space between them lfor supporting one section bythe othersectionfand maintaining said'recesses in faxial valinernent wlhile :permitting relative .oscillation thereof :about ythe pipe iaxis, pipe .gripping mea'nscarried'byieachsectiom endian actuating :mechanism carried. by said vassemlily .and

connected kto Aouter iporti'ons of .said levers .radially beyond .said .connection and ,operable yto effect said relative `oscillation of ythersections.

v3.1.55 iunitary .pipe tong assembly comprising upper and lower 'body 'sections lhaving alined recesses :to .receive :a ,pipe, :means on fthe .sections providing Vlateral :openings through 'which the pipe may -enter isaid .recesses upon bodily movement of the tongstransverse'ly of the lpipe, each tof said sections :including a lever 'extending outwardly from the recess, la connection between :the sections maintaining isaidrecesses lin ,axial alinement and supporting :one .section bythe 'otherfsection While permitting'relative :oscillation .thereof about the ipipe axis, pipe :gripping l.means carried fby each section, and fluid '.pressureiactuated means carried by said assembly and fconn'ected .toiouter portions of .said :levers radially beyond .said icon'- nection to ypositively produce relative swinging oftthellevers,infoppositedirections.

y4. A :unitary pipe tongs assembly comprising upper and lower tbody Asections having .recesses 'to receive a Lpipe, .'means on the sections providing lateral openings Vvthrough @which the .pipe may enter l.said irecesses .upon bodily movement of the tongs transversely of the pipe, each .of isaidsections 'including `a lever extending 'outwardlytrom the recess, .a :connection between :said sections maintaining said recesses in `axial alinement and supporting one 'section `by the other :section while permitting vrelative oscillation thereof fabout v'the pipe axis, .said vsections :presentingia pair -o'f pipe engaging surfaces -alined longitudinally of the pipe at .said recesses, pipe Igripping means carried by each section, power units carried by `each section and operable to actuate said gripping means -to ypress the pipe against -said'alin'ed surfaces, and 'luid pressure actuated means carried by ksaid lasserrbly and connected -to Iouter portions -of .the levers radially 'beyond said `connection and voperable to ypositively produce relative swinging 4of the levers in opposite directions.

'-5. A unitary pipe tongs assembly ycomprising upper fand'flower body sections having alined 3recesses to receive a pipe, means on the sections providing lateral openings through `which the pipe may enter said recesses upon bodily movement of the tongs transversely of the pipe, each of said sections including a lever extending outwardly from the recess, interlocking elements on the respective sections maintaining said recess in axial alinernent and supporting one section by the other section while permitting relative oscillation thereof about the pipe axis, said connection also maintaining the recessed portions of the sections in substantial parallelism during their oscillation, pipe gripping means carried by each section, uid pressure actuated power sources carried by said sections for operating said gripping means, fluid pressure actuated means carried by outer portions of said levers radially beyond said elements and operable to eilect said relative oscillation of the sections, and valve means operable to selectively control the delivery of pressure uid to said power sources and uid pressure actuated means.

6. A unitary pipe tongs assembly comprising upper and lower body sections having alined recesses to receive a pipe, means on the sections providing lateral openings through which the pipe may enter said recesses upon bodily movement of the tongs transversely of the pipe, each of said sections including a lever extending outwardly from the recess, interlocking elements on the respective sections maintaining said recesses in axial alinement and supporting one section by the other section while permitting relative oscillation thereof about the pipe axis, pipe gripping means carried by each section, fluid pressure actuated power sources carried by said sections for operating said gripping means, fluid pressure actuated means carried by said assembly and connected to outer portions of said levers to effect said relative oscillation of the sections, a iluid control valve assembly carried by one of said sections, -fluid conduits connecting said valve assembly with said fluid pressure actuated means and the power source carried by the last mentioned section, and a flexible iluid conduit connecting said valve assembly with the power source carried by the other section.

7. .A unitary pipe tongs assembly comprising upper and lower body sections having alined recesses to receive a pipe, means on the sections providing lateral openings through which the pipe may enter said recesses upon bodily movement of the tongs transversely of the pipe, each of said sections including a lever extending outwardly from the recess, a connection between the sections maintaining said recesses in axial alinement and supporting one section by the other section while permitting relative oscillation thereof about the pipe axis, pipe gripping means carried by each section, fluid pressure actuated means carried by said assembly and connected to outer portions of said levers to eect said relativey oscillation of the sections, ,and means connected to said upper section for suspending the tongs so that said lower section is suspended from the upper section and is movable relative to said suspension means.

8. A unitary pipe tongs assembly comprising upper and lower body sections having alined recesses providing openings through which the pipe may enter said recesses upon bodily movement of the tongs transversely of the pipe, each of said sections including a lever extending outwardly from the recess, interlocking elements on the respective sections maintaining said resaid power sources and uid pressure actuatedmeans, said valve assembly being operable to selectively actuate said power sources and iiuid pressure actuated means.

9. A unitary pipe tongs assembly comprising upper and lower body sections having alinedy recesses providing openings through which the` pipe may enter said recesses upon bodily Amovement of the tongs transversely of the pipe, each of said sections including a lever extendingout- Wardly from the recess, interlocking elements on the respective sections maintaining said recesses in axial alinement for reception of the pipe and supporting one section by the other section while permitting lrelative oscillation of the sections about the pipe axis, pipe gripping means carried by each section, fluid pressure actuated vpower sources carried by said sections for operating said gripping means, fluid pressure actuated means carried by said assembly and connected to outer portions of said levers to effect said relative oscillation of the sections, a rotatable element carried by the tongs and engageable with the pipe t0 rotate same, a iluid motor for rotating said element, a fluid control valve assembly, and iiuid.'

conduits connecting said valve assembly with said power sources, iiuid pressure actuated means and uid motor, said valve assembly beingl operable to selectively actuate said power sources, fluidy pressure actuated means and iiuid motor.

DONOVAN B. GRABLE. JOHN M. JACKSON.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of le of this patent:

UNTTED STATES PATENTS OTHER REFERENCES Aviation Magazine, November 1944,'pages 156 and 157.

record in the Certicate of Correction Patent No. 2,453,369. November 9, 1948.

DONOVAN B. GRABLE ET AL.

It is hereby certified that errors appear in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows:

Column 6, line 23, claim 3, for tong read tongs; line 25, same claim; lines 41 and 42, claim 4; line 64, claim 5; column 7, line 18, claim 6; line 38, claim 7, strike out the words to receive a pipe, means on the sections; column 6, line 26, claim 3; line 43, claim 4; line 65, claim 5; column 7, line 14, claim 6; line 39, claim 7, strike out lateral column 6, line 70, claim 5, for recess read recesses;

and that the said Letters Patent should be read with these corrections therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent OHce.

Signed and sealed this 15th day of March, A. D. 1949.

[SEAL] THOMAS F. MURPHY,

Assistant Commissioner of Patents.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification81/57.34, 81/54
International ClassificationE21B19/00, E21B19/16
Cooperative ClassificationE21B19/164
European ClassificationE21B19/16B4