US 2453918 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
16, 3948. J. P. JANSEN 2,453,918 `JOINT FOR COMPOSITE STRUCTURAL ELEMENT Filed MaICh l5, 1945 9 @"W ffl/lill!! /4 A TTM/v5 ns.
Patented Nov. 16,1948
JOINT FOR COMPOSITE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS Joseph P. Jansen, Milwaukee, Wis. Application March 15, 1945, Serial No. 582,923
(Cl. 2li- 92) 2 Claims.
This invention relates in general to improvements in the art of building, and relates more specifically to improvements in the construction and manufacture of composite elongated structural elements such as beams, studs, joists or the like adapted for diverse building purposes.
The primary object of my present invention is to provide an improved composite elongated structural element formed of simple sections which may be readily assembled or dismantled, and which are also rmly and effectively united when assembled without necessitating the use of additional fasteners.
Many different types of so-called ready built houses and building structures, wherein the major portions are pre-fabricated at the manufacturing source and are adapted to be conveniently assembled in the field or at the place of ultimate utilization, have heretofore been proposed and used with moderate success. It is very desirable in the manufacture of such pre-fabricated structures. to provide iioor, wall, and roof sections of relatively extensive areas and of standard sizes, which may be quickly and conveniently assembled and rmly united in perfect alinement without the use of nails, bolts, or other fasteners, and which may also be just as easily dismantled if so desired. It is also necessary that the pre-fabricated elements and sections be of simple, strong, and rigid formation in order to produce a sturdy and durable final structure; and it should furthermore be possible to economically manufacture the composite parts of the pre-fabricated buildings in quantity and at costs suiiiciently moderate to attract the purchasing public. All of the prior pre-fabricated building structures have failed to adequately meet or incorporate one or more of these requirements and desirable features, and they have therefore failed to become very popular with the trade.
It is therefore a more specific object of the present invention to provide an improved structural element which is especially adapted for use in the manufacture of pre-fabricated building sections of diverse sizes and shapes, in order to effect rapid and firm uniting and perfect alinement of the adjacent sections.
Another specific object of the invention is to provide a new and useful sectional elongated member having interlockable parts, which may be manufactured at moderate cost with simple wood-working equipment, to produce interchangeably similar parts; and which may also be united to provide a sealed joint without the aid of battens or the like.
A further specific object of my invention is to provide an improved composite timber or the like, the cooperating sections of which are of simple and durable construction, and are adaptedto be rigidly united or assembled without the use of additional fastening elements, thus also making them readily separable.
Still another specific object of this invention is to provide an elongated stud or joist formed of interlocking sections, which may be firmly interconnected or disconnected, by merely moving the coacting sections laterally of each other and Without necessitating relative longitudinal displacement thereof.
An additional specific object of my present invention is to provide a sectional beam which may be quickly and conveniently assembled or dismantled, and in which the cooperating sections are perfectly alined and rigidly joined when the parts are assembled.
These and other specic objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following detailed description.
A clear conception of the features constituting my present improvement, and of the mode of constructing and of utilizing the improved structural members, may be had by referring to the drawing accompanying and forming a part of this specification wherein like reference characters designate the same or similar parts in the various views.
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary vertical section through the wall of a building embodying adjoining sections provided with and top and bottom with my invention;
Fig. 2 is a transverse horizontal section through one of the interlocking composite studs of Fig. 1 in assembled condition, the section having been taken along the line 2 2, but the wall plates and stud having been swung into horizontal position; and
Fig. 3 is a view similar to that of Fig. 2, but showing the cooperating stud sections in the act of being assembled, though not fully united.
While the invention has been shown and described herein as having been specifically em. bodied in a wooden elongated stud especially useful for uniting adjoining sections and parts of pre-fabricated buildings, it is not my desire or intent to thereby unnecessarily restrict the scope or utility of the improvement which is obviously more generally applicable to composite elongated structural members of various dimensions, and formed of diierent materials.
Referring -to the drawing, the pre-fabricated building shown therein comprises primarily, a series of side walls composed of adjoining rece tangular sections or units 5 each consisting of an upright longitudinally recessed stud section 6 at vone end and an upright complementary stud section 'l at its opposite end; parallel horizontal top and bottom plates 8, 9 respectively, spanning vthe space between the upper and lower .extremis plates made in accordance improved composite studs l formed of longitudinally recessed stock which is identical in cross-section with that' used inthey stud sections 6, and lthese plates 8, 9 and ithe closure sheets It), II may be glued nailed, or otherwise permanently united to' produce rigid* standard wall units dimensions. If the wall units 5 are of considerable size, the interiors thereof may be re-enforcedor braced by additional one-piece internal strengthening studs, in an. obviousmanner; and Ithese internal re-enforcements may lbe. ordinary strips of wood or the like. r
As `clearly illustratedin Figs. 2 andn; theend stud' section S of each wallV unitl 5, is provided with parallel recesses I2; I.3 extendingV throughout the entire length thereof, .therecess I2 having one -side undercut or inclinedv and its^ opposite side disposed perpendicular to the adjacent face of the section 6, while the other recess I3 has inwardly converging oppositebounding surfaces. The opposite end stud section 'l of each Wall.' unit 5', is provided with parallel projections I4, I5 also extending throughout the entire length thereof', the projection. IIA being of. approximately the same cross-sectional shape as the recess I2v except that the outer corners thereof are rounded or blunted, while thek other projection I5. is tapered and of substantially the. same cross-sectional shape as the recess 1'3. The projection I4 of each stud section lIis adapted to'snugly engage and to interlock with the recess I2 of the'stud' section 6 of an adjoining wall unit 5', and thewedge shaped projection I5 is adapted'to simultaneously snugly engage the corresponding taperedr recess. |33' of the same section 6, so as -to positively aline' the cooperating sections 6, I and the wall. sheets I; II secured thereto.
Due to the improved iorrnati'oncf` the recesses I2, I3 and of the projectionsV I4, I5', all: of which may be readily produced with' ordinary. and well known wood-working machinery, the.. complementary sections 6, 1' of each'studzmay be readily joined and interlocked in the manner depicted in Fig. 3, by merely inserting the projection I4within the interlocking recess I2l and by thereaiter swinging the sections 6, 'I laterally toward each other so as lto cause the other lzirojectionI |15 -to enterf the recess I3 as inFig. 2',.whereuponz the coacting sections 6, l will4 be perfectly alined and .positively locked againstf-separation'due to straight pulls exerted perpendicular to the coacting. end surfaces of the stud sections. Thisinterlocking and uniting ofthe sections 6; 'Iris accomplished without the use of additionalY fasteners suchv as nails, bolts, or the like, and Itheitwosections of each composite stud may be just as-readily dismantled or disconnectedV by merely'reversing the-assembly operations; Incases wher-ethe wall sheets I0, II areformed off ply-woodrorxthe like, the extreme outer'meetingedges of;y these sheetsmay be chamfered as shown, inl order.: to prevent'marring thereof whenthe adjoiningsectionsV are. swung apart.
As.- previously indica-ted, the top:` and'. bottom plates89of each wall unit 5, andwhich. are. confined between the-upper andlower extremitiesr of the. adjacent stud sections4 6; 1f and wall. sheets In, I|'I,.mayf be formed of." the samestandard recessedxstock. as that. used inthe: construction; of
of any ,desiredY size or :V
the stud sections 6, in order to facilitate attachment of super-structure such as a roof, and foundation structure. As shown in Fig. 1, the top platesa8 'of the unit's 5 mayreadil'y be utilized forrm attachment of root stringers IB having longitudinal tongues or interlocking .projections M formed for locking cooperation with the undercut recessIZ-4 thereof, and the roof deck I1 may be secured to the stringers IB in any suitable manner. The bottom plates 9 of the units 5 may be caused'to' rest upon and may be rmly secured to outer floor or foundation joists I8 to which a floor I9 may also be attached, and the undercutrecesses I2 of these lower plates 9 may also be utilized for the attachment of apron boards 2D, as shown. TheseA apron' boards 20r'may. be rigidly attached'.tot'h'e-joistsI I8 in any desirable manner, and thisassemblage of elements. obviously provides simple: means for firmly holding thev wall. units 5 in assembled. condition and for preventing inward or outward displacement thereof.
While the invention has been shown in the drawing asihaving; been applied'to. the end studs of adjoining wall: units 5I of a pre-fabricated building, it. must be apparent that the improve'- rnentis just as readily applicable to the'end joists of floor sections or units of anyv desired size, as welliasto roofl sections or units, or the like. When thus applied, the adjacent; ends. ofthe; successive units will cooperate andiwill. be connectiblev and disconnect-'me in. precisely the samev manner as depicted in Figs. 2 and 3' of the drawing, but in each case, the sections', 1: of the elongatedinter'- locking members will be provided. with longitudinal` parallel; recesses I2; I3 and with longitudinall parallel projections Ill, t5 adapted to coact with these recesses. In everyV case, therecesses i2', Il'A and' projections 41, |53 may be readily formed with'v ordinaryk wood-working machinery such as commonly used in producing matched lumber and mill-Work, so` as to insureperfect iitting and alinement of the'complementary sectio-ns 6, 'l'.
From the foregoing detailed description it will b e apparent that my present invention provides an improved composite elongated structural element adapted` for diverse uses,. and which is formed. of simple sections whichv may4 be readily assembled or dismantled. The improved sectional member'. is obviously adapted to. firmly and eiectivelyl unite the parts associated withthe sections thereof., without. the use of additional fastenerarand the separable sectionsmay be conveniently interlocked by merely moving. the two seciionsflaterallyjo each. other. The sections of the structuredv element mayY also bereadily manu.- factured with standard equipment' and. at modieratecostand when the two sections off` amember are interlockedtheynot only serve toprevent separation. of the sections,- but also.-maintain the same in perfect alinernent with eachfother. While theimproved, interlock-able; member has: special utlityfwhenapplied to pre-fabricated housesand buildings; it ,may obviously beutilized for diverse other purposes and constructedi of` diierent maeterials, soithat theirnprovement. infact hasconsiderable utility.r asgapplied. to.- diverse structures. By.- utilizing thersarne stoclciin. the formation of the top and bottom plates. of wall units,.as shown in the: drawing,.the associated.- roof andr foundation: may. be;I iirmly' and detachably connected to tl'iewall. sectionsfsc.:asftosmaintainlthese in.` proper position' at; all times, and the: units embodying the invention may obviously be manufactured in various sizes and shapes.
By forming the recess l2 under-cut and the complementary projection I4 hook-shaped, rm interlocking results; and by forming the recess I 3 convergingly tapered and the projection i5 wedge-shaped, perfect alinement of the sections E, l is assured. As illustrated in Fig. 2, the inclined surface of the wedge projection l5 which is farthest from the hook projection lll, cooperates with the latter and with the diverging recess 13 to force the locking projection i4 into intimate Contact with the under-cut surface of the recess il when the sections E, I have been properly assembled, thereby providing a liquid and air tight seal without the aid of battens or other external sealing strips. This is an important feature of my invention as it eliminates labor and material, and avoids unsightly external strips at the joints between the wall, floor, and ceiling units.
It should be understood that it is not desired to limit this invention to the exact details of construction or to the precise mode of use, herein shown and described, for various modifications within the scope of the appended claims may occur to persons skilled in the art.
l. A joint for uniting complementary elongated sections of a structural element, said joint comprising, two parallel projections formed integral with and extending outwardly away from a plane side face of one section of said element and snugly coacting with parallel recesses extending inwardly away from an adjacent plane side face of the complementary section of the element, said coacting projections and recesses being disposed entirely within and spaced inwardly away from the longitudinal bounding edges of said side faces and one set of said coacting projections and recesses having uniform approximately half-dovetailed transverse cross-section converging away from the plane of said faces while the other set of said coacting projections and recesses has uniform wedge-shaped transverse cross-section diverging away from said plane, and said element sections being laterally unitable only by swinging the complementary side faces thereof toward each other about their longitudinal bounding edges nearest said half-dovetailed set to cause the half-dovetailed projection to swing into its receiving recess before the wedge-shaped projection is brought into engagement with its receiving recess.
2. A joint for uniting complementary elongated sections of a structural element, said joint comprising, two parallel projections formed integral with and extending outwardly away from a plane side face of one section of said element and snugly coacting with parallel recesses eX- tending inwardly away from an adjacent plane side face of the complementary section of the element, said coacting projections and recesses being disposed entirely within and spaced inwardly away from the longitudinal bounding edges of said side faces and one set of said coacting projections and recesses having uniform approximately half-dovetailed Jtransverse cross-section converging away from the plane of said faces while the other set of said coacting projections and recesses has uniform wedge-shaped transverse cross-section diverging away from said plane, and said element sections being laterally separable only by swinging the complementary side faces thereof away from each other about their longitudinal bounding edges nearest said half-dovetailed set to cause the wedge-shaped projection to be withdrawn from its confining recess before the half-dovetailed projection is swung out of its conning recess.
JOSEPH P. JANSEN.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the le of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 333,903 Totman Jan. 5, 1886 517,348 Linderman Mar. 27, 1894 623,272 Brooks Apr. 18, 1899 730,150 Pfahl June 2, 1903 1,126,351 Beabes Jan. 26, 1915 1,504,454 Tyson Aug. 12, 1924 1,534,468 Shea, Jr., Apr. 21, 1925 1,871,618 Klopp Aug. 16, 1932 2,174,180 Rand Sept. 26, 1939