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Publication numberUS2454598 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 23, 1948
Filing dateJun 26, 1946
Priority dateJun 26, 1946
Publication numberUS 2454598 A, US 2454598A, US-A-2454598, US2454598 A, US2454598A
InventorsDoyle Irvin H
Original AssigneeDoyle Irvin H
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Stabilizing control mechanism for model airplanes
US 2454598 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

STABILIZING CONTROL MECBANISMS F OR #ODEL AIRPLANES Filed June 26,. 1946 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 FIG. 1,

INVENTOR. '11" v'u-L H.']:\I:1Y1E

- ATTORNEYS Nov. 23, 1948. YL O 2,454,598

STABILIZING CONTROL MECHANISMS FOR MODEL AIRPLANES 7 Filed June 26, 1946 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG. 3.

I I6 64 I5 64 INVENTOR.

Irvin H. DDYIE ATTORNEYS.

Patented Nov. 23, 1948 STABILIZING. CON TROD MECHANISM FOR MODEL AIRPLANES Irvin H; Doyle, Phoenix, Ariz.

AApplicationJune 26, 1946,=Serial No. 679,326

.10 Claims.

l1 This invention relates to automatic stabilizing control ,for vehicles such as toy and model aeroplanes.

An important object of the invention is to provide a dependable pendulum-typestabilizingcontrol embodying, in one unit, both lateral. and longitudinal control for small aeroplanes, such as flying-modelaeroplanes, adapted for free flight.

.Another important object :is to provide a mechanism as described which mechanism is adjustable in orderzto meet varying conditions such as size of model, including lengthof fuselage from wings to elevators, wing spread and aileron length, asvwell as conditions whereit is desirable orinotdesirable toinclude operation of theelevatorsof amodel aeroplane.

Stillanother important object is to provide 'a novel. stabilizing control for P model aeroplanes which ,is light 1 in weight, but sturdy, and entails no complicated manipulations for installing it in amodel aeroplane.

Another important object is to-provide a stabilizing control for model aeroplanes which is relatively compact, sothat much of the mechanism is confined to a small space inthe body of the aeroplane, with branches to and through the wings, for lateral; controlrof the-model, and through the bodies to Ifthe elevators, for longitudinal control thereof.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent during the following detailed. description of .the invention, taken connection with the accompanying drawings, forming a part ofthis:specificati-onpand in which drawings:

. Fig. 1 .is' a perspective 'viewof. a: modelaeroplane with the novel control installed therein, parts of the wings and fuselage being broken awayto'reveal portions of the control mechanism.

Fig. 2 is a view of a model aeroplane mostly in vertical outline but with several portions (struts and braces) in vertical section, and the novel control mechanism in side elevation; disposed therein so as to show the relative location of parts thereof.

Fig. 3 is-a perspective view of the major portion of the novel control mechanism.

Fig. 4 is a top plan of one wing ofa model aeroplane, With parts brokenaway toshow portions of the stabilizing controlmechanism.

In thedrawings wherein for the'purpose of illustratio-n is shown a preferredembodiment of the invention andwherein similar reference characters designate correspondingparts throughout the several views, the letter-Adesignates a vehicle in which is installed the novel control mechanismB.

ThevehiclecA is shown,:by way of example, as a model aeroplane. provided with a fuselage I0, havingouter Walls or covering l l defining a compartment l2 across which extend, transversely andsubstantially horizontally, struts or braces l3 and I4. Suitably connected with and extending from eachrside ofthe fuselage I flare-wings l4 each'having a control surface, represented by an aileron-l5 and being;provided with spaced-apart ribs 16, as for example, shown inFig. 4, supporting the wing-covering I] and a short spar or brace l8,=.withits center on substantially the longitudinal medial line of thefuselage l0. At the rearward-:endcfthe fuselage l0 area conventional rudder l9- and additional control surfaces represented by a pair of conventional elevators 20 con-- nected together-at. their inner ends 'asby arsubstantially horizontally-disposed bridge 2| which may be asshort rod suitably pivoted to the fuselage, soithattheslevators may oscillate. For- Wardly; is a conventional propeller 22. It-should be noted:that,=:diiferingfr0m many model aeroplanes, the-wings; M" are not disposed excessively high nor is thereanyappreciable dihedral. However,;it is". of COllISQQDOSSibIBtO employ the novel control mechanism B, IleXttOfbE described, with a model aeroplane having wings disposed at various heights, and dihedral does not enter into the employment of the control mechanism B. The struts or braces 13 and i4 and spar or brace l8 provide supports for portions of the mechanism to be subsequently described.

As for the novel controlmechanism B, the same includes a pair -of spaced-apart bearings '25 (which maybe conventional screw eyes) extending downwardly from the strut l3, rotatably carryingtaqpendulum and bracket support means 26, whichmeans preferably comprises a rod or bar-.llhaving itsends 28 reduced in diameter forming shoulders,.with these ends extending into thebearings .25 and the shoulders abutting the bearings, so that there is no appreciablelongitudinalshiftingof the bar 21. Extending downwardfrom. substantiallythecenter ofthe bar 21 may be an eye' 29, oscillatingly supporting a pendulummeans 30.

Thependulum means-30 in'cludes an arm 3|, which may be a rigid strip of metal, twisted intermediate its ends so that there are two upper faces .32, with the vertical planes thereof forming substantially right angles with the vertical.

planes of twolower faces 33. This means 30 also includes an eyedportion 34 at the upper end of the arm 3| and a weight portion '35 at the lower end of "the arm 3|. As may be seen inFig. 3,

3 the axis of the eyed portion substantially parallels a horizontal line which may extend from one upper face 32 to the other upper face 32 of the arm 3| and this axis is substantially normal to a horizontal line extending from one lower face 33 to the other lower face 33. Extending from one face 32 to the other face 32 is a longitudinallyextending yoke-supporting extension slot 36 in the arm 3| and extending from one face 33 to the other face 33 is a longitudinally extending, lateral control lever-receiving slot 31.

Rigidly supported by the means 26 is a bracket 38, including a pair of downwardly-extending arms 39 carrying an elongated yoke-supporting extension or member 40, extending substantially normal thereto, with this extension substantially paralelling the rod 21 and extending through the slot 36. The bracket 38 may be of rigid wire.

A yoke 4| rigidly supported by the extension 40 of the bracket 38, extends forwardly therefrom and supports, in part, an elevator control-adjusting means 42 to be next described. The yoke 4| is preferably of strip metal, bent to shape.

The elevator control adjusting means 42 preferably comprises a strip of metal initially bent to form an inverted U, but the arms 43 and bight 44 of which may be manually adjusted or manipulated so that the free ends of the arms 43 extends nearer together or farther apart and will remain in such adjusted positions, until manually re-adjusted. One arm 43 is rigidly secured to the yoke 4|, as in Fig. 3 and the other arm 43 is secured to one end of a substantially horizontallyextending rod 45 which extends toward the elevators 20, for adjustable connection with a normally vertically-disposed fraction bar 46 (shown in Fig. 2) pivotally supported intermediate its length by an extension 41 carried by the strut M as in Fig. 2. The fraction bar 46 may be provided with a row of perforations 48, with their axes extending transversely of the fuselage l0, through one of which perforations 48 extends the extension 41 and through any one of which extends the rear end of the rod 45, which end may be bent to form a right angle with the remainder of the rod 45.

Through another of the perforations 48 extends the forward end of a second rod 49 (with this end disposed as is the rear end of the rod 45). The rod 49 extends toward the elevators 23 and is provided at its rear end with a bearing I 5|] for the pivot of an upwardly-extending, short rod 5| provided with means 52 at its free end for rigid attachment to the central portion of the bridge 2| connecting the elevators 20. Such means may be provided by bending or otherwise forming the free end portion of the short rod 5| to extend about this central portion, and pointing the extremity of this portion to be embedded in the bridge, whereby movements of the short rod 5| will be imparted to the bridge 2| and, consequently, to the elevators 20.

Referring now to the means for operating the ailerons, in cooperation with the pendulum means 3|], the same includes a bracket 53 which may be of bent wire, with sharpened ends, imbedded in the strut I8 so that the bracket faces rearwardly. This bracket 53 preferably includes two substantially horizontal, spaced apart portions 54 and 55 and from the central section of each extends a pivot-carrying arm 56 for a vertically-disposed pivot 51. Rigidly secured to the pivot 51, intermediate its ends, is an elongate horizontal rod 58, with half disposed to either side of this pivot and preferably at the ends of this rod 56 are bearings for pivotal connection thereto of a pair of connecting rods 59, which extend rearwardly of the fuselage and may be downturned, as at 60, at their rear end portions. The ends of these portions are provided with bearings 6| to pivotally support torque thrust rods 62.

Each of these torque thrust rods 62 is crankshaped, with one end portion engaged by its bearing 6|, the rod then extends upwardly and then, substantially paralleling the end portion mentioned, the rod 62 extends through the ribs l6 of one wing l4 and the aileron I5 associated therewith, as shown in Fig. 4, thus providing pivots for the ailerons as well as means, cooperating with the structure previously mentioned, for oscillating the ailerons.

In order to both steady the rods 62 and secure the ailerons l5 thereto, there are provided attaching means 63 and 64. The means 63 may be short rods each having one eyed end, embracing its rod 62 and a pointed and inturned opposite end for imbedding in the ribs I6, as shown in Fig. 4. The means 64 also may be short rods, each having one eyed end, embracing its rod 62 and, extending therefrom, a rightangled portion, terminating in an inturned point. This right angled portion extends about portions of the side and rear edges of the aileron l5, as in Fig. 4 with the inturned point imbedded in the aileron body, at its rear edge. Preferably the means 63 and 64 are slidable along the respective rods 62. A

An important portion of the means for operating the ailerons is an elongated, lateral control lever or member 65 extending from the lower end of the vertically disposed pivot 51. In fact, the pivot 51 and lever 65 may be integral. This lever is, preferably, a suitable length of rod, bowed or arcuate, and extends through the lower slot 31 in the pendulum arm 3| being slidable longitudinally of the slot and also constructed and arranged to slide freely through the slot.

While the term rod has been employed herein, it should be pointed out that the same may be of various gauges of wire.

The construction of the control mechanism B is such that it may be readily adjusted, by bending the wire portions thereof, as required, by bending the metallic strip constituing the elevator control adjusting means 42, and by making adjustments by the well-known use of the fraction bar 46. The construction is such that it may be readily installed in a vehicle A such as a model aeroplane, employing conventional supporting m e a n s therein, as the struts I3 and I4, spar or brace I8 and ribs H5, or installing necessary supporting means.

The operation of the novel control mechanism B is as follows: Obviously, when flying on a level course the pendulum arm 3| will have its longitudinal axis normal to and substantially intersecting the longitudinal axis of the model aeroplane A and the elevators and ailerons will be in their normal positions. When the aeroplane becomes displaced and noses downwardly, the longitudinal axis of the pendulum arm 3| will still substantially intersect the longitudinal axis of the aeroplane but, this latter axis will be oblique to the longitudinal axis of the arm 3 I. The struts l3 and M will have moved from their former positions with respect to the pendulum means 30 and their changed positions as is now obvious, will cause the rod 45 to reciprocate forwardly, rocking the fraction bar 46, causing the rod 49 to reciprocate rearwardly and, through the connection 5|,

455 elevate :the elevatorsi 2 on1 their pivots, with: the WBII-RHOWII IBSUIU'thaV thBtZGFODIaHG will right. Nosing upwardly: the reverse movement-of 1 the parts mentioned"Will take place i andagain right the: aeroplane.

-"Since there is the-sliding connection of pendulum' :arm 3 I with-the lateral control lever 65, during nosingand-righting; the lever 65 will not be affected but-rWill simply-imove up: or down the slot l3l andithere will be; consequently, nooperation of I the. ailerons l5. 1 However; in the event the-aeroplane.becomes displaced with one wingtoo low, the :.longitudinal axis oftheiaeroplane and that'of-the .zpendulum' arm=.3l will no-longer intersect and thellongitudinal axis of the brace I8, which was horizontal, ..isnow inclined therefrom, .and' has changed its position with respectto the pendulum i-weightr35nasvhas :alsothestrut i3. Y As a result the lateral controllever. 65willbear against one nonthe other longitudinalwalls of the slot 31 and be oscillated therebyuvhichwill' result in a pivotal movement ofsthe pivotl.-'l. and consequent obvirouscmovements:ottherodsiB, 59 and lil and of LthEzfillEI'OIl-S I5, (As may be seen, since the rod '58;;in itsimovemenmtraces, in opposite directions, i ;arcs: :ofaa; circle, when one aileron I5 is tipped lupwardly the other aileron is tipped downwardly, resulting :in the well-known effect of laterally righting theeaeroplane. vRestoration of the'aeroplane. to level flight'will of course,.cause righting roof the brace l8.

vslIn the eventltisdesiredto dispense with longi- .tudinalcontrol :ofrthe aeroplane; the rod 49 may -bezuncoupled' fromzthe fraction bar 46.

Bymanipulatingthe means v4i so that the strip is-;-bent;.to drawithearmsfl closer together, the distance from theyoke vfl to the elevators 28 or to .thex-fraction .bar 2- 46 ::may be shortened, for obvious reasons.

Various changesumaybe made to the form of the 'invention' herein shown and described without departing, from' the 1 spirit of the invention or :scope of theclaims.

What is; claimed is:

- 1., Inoombination'witha model aeroplane having a:-fuselage defining a compartment, wings. two :normally .horizontallyedisposed, 1 spacedapart supports,onevextending transversely across said compartment and the other carried by saidwings, -and.'ailerons for:said=wings; a stabilizing control mechanism for said aeroplaneincluding a pendu v.l-urn means having a weight-suportingsarm proslot,-including awsubstantially verticallyi'disposed vided with a:longitudinallyeextending slot, means suspending-said arm from" one of said supports for oscillation .oftherarm, an elongated control lever-withone end portion thereof-disposed. within :said slot, means supporting said lever at the'other end portion thereof for swinging movement trans- :versely of said" compartment, while within said slot,-. including a substantially vertically-disposed pivot, operativelycarried by the other of said supports, and. means operatively connecting said pivot and ailerons,-operative1y connected "with :-said;lever andarm, for operation of said ailerons wuponitiltingof' said supports out of their horizontal positions.

2.--In combination with a' model aeroplane ha ring a fuselage v.-dei-lning a compartment, wings, two normallyhorizontally-disposed, spaced-apart supports, one extending transversely, across said .lcompartment and the othercarried by'said wings, and-ailerons for saidv wings ;,.a stabilizing control "mechanism for saidaeroplane including a pendurlumrmeans havinga weight-supporting arm 1.pro- ,vided with; a longituldinallyaextending slotymeans :pivot, operatively 2-:carried .by 'L the; other .ofxrsaid supportspand;meansioperatively connecting said .pivot sand ailerons, operatively; connected c;.with

:sa-id leverand armaior operation .of said ailerons .iuponi tilting of-zsaid e'supports; out of: their-whorh 'zontalpositlons.

13. In r combinationrwith a' model aeroplane hav- .ingi .a"liuselages defining. a compartment,-wings, two normally horizontallye: disposed; spaced-apart supports, one :extendingrtransversely acrossnsaid and ailerons 1forssaid-wingsy a stabilizingucontrol mechanism for said-aeroplane including appenda- "lum means;r-havinglaweight-supportingaarm; pr0 .vided :with a.longitudinally-extending jslot, :means suspendingzsaid arm from one of saidcsuppmtts for oscillationiof thearm;anrelongatediarcuate controlwlever :with ,one "end portion thereof disposed within saidslot;and being constructed and arranged .tozslide longitudinally ofirandzlthrough saidslotwmeans supportingrsaid leverat the; other :end portion thereof for swinging movementtrans- ".versely of.said.,,compartmentyrwhile within: said :slotgincluding: a substantially verticallysdisposed pivot, :operatively. carriedzibyi the other ;:of .said supports,-: and-means mperatively: connecting said "pivot and ailerons, .operativelyzconnected 'with said lever-and arm, foroperation of; said; ailerons ."uponi: tilting "of: said supports out of their horizontalpositions.

. In. combination with a-model: aeroplanehavring a fuselage; definingaarcompartmenh-z wings, two :mormally horizontallyedisposed, spacedapart supports, :one 'extendingatransversely; across said: compartment, zand ano'therd carried 'sby: said rwings i and r ailerons: for; said awings :1: a: stabilizing rcontrol: mechanism, for said aeroplane including aszpendulum means, having a weight-supporting -arm provided with 11a 1 longitudinally-extending slot, means: suspending said-arm from one of said supports for oscillation of the armnan elongated control -lever withwone end: portion: thereofitdis- .iposed within said slot, rmeans supportingsaid :lever at the: othenend portion :thereof for swingi sing movement transversely of said 1 compartment, L'IWhilB within said. slot, including a substantially :verticallyedisposed. pivot, operatively carried" by athe other 1 of saidisupports tand means operatively; connecting :said pivot; and ailerons, opera- 1tively connectedewith said lever and arm;xfon operation of said ailerons upon tiltingof said sup- -ports out: of-.:their;:-horizonta1, positions, including .a normally horizontally-disposed rod rigidly consnectedrintermediate its ends to the intermediate portion; of said: lever. and extending. transversely :ofzsaid a: aeroplane, l8, torque :thrust 'rod .ioperatively connectedswith each end of saidhorizonstallyedisposed' rod, havingv pivotal portions extending: throughsaid swings and ailerons,

M 5. In combinationzwithia model aeroplane having: a fuselage defining i a compartment, wings, two *normally 'horizontallyedisposed, 'spacedapart supports,- oneexten'ding transversely across said compartment and the other carried" by said swings: and a ailerons for saidrwings; a stabilizing controlimechanlsm for sa'id aeroplane-including a.

compartment and the other carried by saidqwings,

two normally horizontally-disposed,

7 pendulum means, having a. weight-supporting arm provided with a longitudinally-extending slot, means suspending said arm from one of said supports for oscillation of the arm, an elongated control lever with one end portion thereof disposed within said slot, means supporting said lever at the other end portion thereof for swinging movement transversely of said compartment, while within said slot, including a substantially vertically-disposed pivot, operatively carried by the other of said supports, and means operatively connecting said pivot and ailerons, connected with said lever and arm, for operation of said ailerons upon tilting of said supports out of their horizontal positions, including a normally horizontally-disposed rod rigidly connected intermediate its ends to the intermediate portion of said lever and extending transversely of said aeroplane, and a torque thrust rod operatively connected with each end of said horizontallydisposed rod, having pivotal portions extending through said wings and ailerons and being provided with arms, each having'an eyed portion at one end disposed about said torque thrust rod, and a point at its other end, constructed and arranged for imbedding into said ailerons.

6. In combination with a model aeroplane having a fuselage defining a compartment, wings,

spacedapart supports, one extending transversely across said compartment and the other carried by said wing-s, and ailerons and spaced apart ribs for said wings; a stabilizing control mechanism for said aeroplane including a pendulum means, having a weight-supporting arm provided with a longitudinally-extending slot, means suspending said arm from one of said supports for oscillation of the arm, an elongated control lever with one end portion thereof disposed within said lot, means supporting said lever at the other end portion thereof for swinging movement transversely --of said compartment, while within said slot, in-

cluding a substantially vertically-disposed pivot, operatively carried by the other of said supports, and mean-s operatively connecting said pivot and ailerons, connected with said lever and arm, for

operation of said ailerons upon tilting of said supports out of their horizontal positions,-including a normally horizontally-disposed rod rigidly connected intermediate its ends to the intermediate portion of said lever and extending trans- 'versely of said aeroplane, and a torque thrust rod operatively connected with each end of said horizontally-disposed rod, having pivotal portions extending through said wings and ailerons and being provided with arms each having an eyed portion at one end disposed about said torque thrust rod, and a point at its other end, constructed andarranged for selective imbedding into said ailerons and'ribs.

7. In combination with a model aeroplane having a fuselage defining a compartment, wings, two normally horizontally-disposed spaced-apart supports extending transversely across said com- I partment, and elevators adjacent the rear end of saidfuselage; a stabilizing control mechanism .for said aeroplane including a pendulum means having a weight-supporting arm provided with a longitudinally extending slot, means suspending said arm from one of said supports for oscillation of the arm, including a rotatable bar, a

bracket rigidly secured to and depending from said bar, having a normally substantially horizontally-disposed extension, extending through said slot, a first rod, operatively connected with said extension, at the front end of said first rod, a'normally vertically-disposed fraction bar, with the other end of said first rod pivotally coupled thereto, a second rod operatively connected with said elevators at its rear end and pivotally connected with said fraction bar at its front end, and a pivot for said fraction bar, said pivot being carried by the other of said supports.

8. In combination with a model aeroplane having a fuselage defining a compartment, wings, two normally horizontally-disposed spaced-apart supports extending transversely across said compartment, and elevators adjacent the aft end of said fuselage; a stabilizing control mechanism for said aeroplane including a pendulum means having a weight-supporting arm provided with a longitudinally extending slot, means suspending said arm from one of said supports for oscillation of the arm, including a rotatable bar, a bracket rigidly secured to and depending from said bar, having a normally substantially horizontally-disposed extension, extending through said slot, a normally substantially horizontally-disposed yoke carried by said extension and extending rearwardly about and spaced from said arm, a first rod carried by the rear end of said yoke at the front end of said first rod, a normally vertically-disposed fraction bar, with the other end of said first rod pivotally coupled thereto, a second rod operatively connected with said elevators at its rear end and pivotally connected with said fraction bar at its front end, and a pivot for said fraction bar, said pivot being carried by the other of said supports.

9. In combination with a model aeroplane having a fuselage defining a compartment, wings, normally horizontally-disposed spaced-apart supports extending transversely across said compartment, and elevators adjacent the rear end of said fuselage; a stabilizing control mechanism for said aeroplane including 'a pendulum means having a weight-supporting arm provided with a longitudinally extending slot, means suspending said arm from one of said supports for oscillation of the arm, including a rotatable bar, a bracket rigidly secured to and depending from said bar, having a normally substantially horizontally-disposed extension, extending through said slot, an elongated, reciprocating rod, an operative connection between the forward end of said rod and said extension and an operative connection between the rear end of said elongated rod and said elevators.

10. In combination with a model aeroplane having a fuselage defining a compartment, wings, three normally horizontally-disposed supports, the first and third being wit in said compartment, extending transversely thereof and fixedly secured to the Walls of said compartment, ailerons for said wings and elevators; a stabilizing control mechanism for said aeroplane including a pendulum means, having a depending, weight-supporting arm provided with a pair of spaced-apart, longitudinally-extending slots, thefirst slot opening forwardly and rearwardly of the aeroplane and the second slot opening in a direction normal to that of the first slot, means suspending said arm from one of said supports for oscillation of the arm including a rotatable bar and an eyed member depending from said bar with the upper end of the arm swingably supported thereby, an elongated control lever with one end portion thereof disposed within the first slot for movement through said first slot and longitudinally thereof, means supporting said lever at the other end portion thereof for swinging movement transversely of said compartment while withinsaid slot,

including a substantially vertically-disposed pivot, operatively carried by the second of said supports and being disposed forwardly of said arm, means operatively connecting said pivot and ailerons, operatively connected with said lever and arm for operation of said ailerons upon lateral tilting of said compartment and tilting of said supports out of their horizontal positions, and means operatively connecting said arm and elevators for operation of said elevators upon longitudinal tipping of said compartment and tilting of said supports, including a bracket rigidly secured to and depending from said bar, having a normally substantially horizontally-disposed extension, extending through the second of said slots, a first rod, operatively connected with said extension at the front end of said first rod, a normally vertically-disposed fraction bar, with the other end REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,000,273 Lobnitz Aug. 8, 1911 1,068,437 MacManus July 29, 1913 1,077,750 Pressey Nov. 4, 1913

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US1068437 *Sep 17, 1909Jul 29, 1913Augustus F W MacmanusAeroplane.
US1077750 *Oct 17, 1908Nov 4, 1913Burt J PresseyAeroplane.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2595650 *Mar 10, 1950May 6, 1952Eppler Warren GModel airplane flight control
US2611213 *Nov 12, 1949Sep 23, 1952Henry Engineering CompanyU control toy airplane
US2616214 *Mar 7, 1947Nov 4, 1952Hydrick Dempsey JToy ground-controlled landing gear
US2658305 *May 2, 1950Nov 10, 1953Luther HayesTethered toy airplane control
US2784527 *Jun 11, 1954Mar 12, 1957Sarff Warren MSelf-steering toy auto
US3032296 *Jan 26, 1959May 1, 1962Streubel TheodoreGravity actuated airplane control
US3068612 *Oct 23, 1961Dec 18, 1962Simpson Roba RSelf-controlled toy airplane
US3429528 *May 25, 1967Feb 25, 1969Skycar IncFlight control for vertical take-off aircraft
US3955310 *Dec 23, 1974May 11, 1976L. M. Cox Manufacturing Co., Inc.Automatic control device for tethered model airplane
US3995393 *Nov 10, 1975Dec 7, 1976Douglas Edward PattersonModel glider and method of flying
US4282675 *Jul 16, 1979Aug 11, 1981Stripling Jr Sheldon AAutomatic elevator control for model glider
US5213539 *Nov 27, 1991May 25, 1993Adler Alan JohnReturning flying ring toy
US5324222 *Apr 29, 1992Jun 28, 1994Applied Elastomerics, Inc.Ultra-soft, ultra-elastic airfoils
US5655947 *May 21, 1991Aug 12, 1997Applied Elastomerics, Inc.Ultra-soft, ultra-elastic gel airfoils
Classifications
U.S. Classification446/66
International ClassificationB64C17/00, B64C17/04
Cooperative ClassificationA63H27/02, B64C2700/6212, B64C17/00
European ClassificationB64C17/00, A63H27/02