|Publication number||US2455644 A|
|Publication date||Dec 7, 1948|
|Filing date||May 7, 1946|
|Priority date||Jun 13, 1944|
|Publication number||US 2455644 A, US 2455644A, US-A-2455644, US2455644 A, US2455644A|
|Inventors||Barnes Charles H|
|Original Assignee||Remington Arms Co Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (10), Referenced by (40), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Dec. 7, 1948. c. H. BARNES- 2,455,644
FIREARM RECEIVER Original Filed June 13, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR CHAR LES H BARNES I ATTORNEY Dec. 7, 1948. c. H.BARNES FIREARM RECEIVE-R Original Filed June 15, 19544 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 I INVENTOR 0404 R1. 5.9 H BA RNES ATTORNEY Patented Dec. 7, 1948 v UNITED. STATE S PATENT OFFICE FIREARM RECEIVER Original. application June 1 3, 1944, Serial No. 540,015, Divided and this application May 7,
The present invention relates, in general, to firearms and, in particular, to an improved re-, ceiver for small caliber rifles. This invention is a division of a copending application, SerialNo. 540,015, filed June 13, 12 4 am issued as Patent No. 2,425,412, August 12, 1947.
The usualpractice in the constructionof firearms is to shape the .majority 'oi the parts from bar stock orrough forgings by a series of machining operations. This is an expensive and time-consuming process requiring the use of highly skilled machineoperators. The process is further wasteful of tools and cutter bits and results in converting the major part of the raw material used as a starting point into chips and other waste products. The limitations of this method have resulted inthe design of firearms which were :either ridiculously. difficult to "assemble or had major elements of their mechanism forming sub-assemblies secured almost as afterthoughts to the receiver or adjacent members.
An object improved firearm construction which is inherently inexpensive to produce, simple to assemble, and ofimproved appearance. I Itis contemplated that this object may be attained by the provision ofa firearm having a composite receiver embodying a frame element and a cover element. 'Both of these members may be conveniently formed from sheet metal in the form of roughly u-shaped channels which, when telescoped together, form an enclosure for the working mechanismas well as providing for attachment of barrel and stock.
'Bythe use of an open -topped channel for the main frame, the operations of assembly become very simple because of the accessibility of all portions of the frame. Itisfurther unnecessary to use blind screws and similar expedients since the telescoping cover both hides fastening means from viewand serves asa retainer for simple pivot pins pushed through aligned holes. These are a few of the advantages possessed by this construction over and above that of cost reduction in material and labor due to the elimination of dependence on milling machines, shapers. broaches, and the like for carving a firearm component out of solidbar stock, H 1 The exact nature of the invention aswell as other objects and advantages thereof will be described in more detail in the specification disclosing, for purposes of illustration, a small caliber autoloading rifle illustrated in the accompanying drawingsin which; r i
,Fig. 1 shows a sideelevationpartly in section of an autoloadi-ng rifle), embodying the improved features of i this invention,
.. 2- 5.? side filtrat -pa t y in sctidn of of this invention is to provide an 1946, Serial No; 667,929 7 BClaims. (01.42-75) the assembled sheet metal cover and frame which comprise the receiver of the firearm, most of the working parts normally housed therein being omitted. v
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary plan view of the rear end of the frame showing its laminated structure and including the butt stock fastening means.'
' Fig. 4 is a cross-section of the receiver in the direction of arrows 44 of Figs. 1 and 6.
Fig. 5 isa cross-section in the direction of arrows 5-5 of Figs. 1 and 6.
V Fig. 6 is a partial side elevation of the assembled firearm in section at the ends of the receiver on line 6-6 of Fig. 4.
Fig. 7 is an exploded perspective view of the sheet" metal cover and sheet metal frame which, together, comprise the receiver.
Referring to the drawings, Fig. 1 shows an autoloading rifle comprising, in general, a butt stock I0, forestock H, receiver I2 and barrel I3, cartridges being automatically fed into the chamber of the barrel from a tubular magazine, indicated by the dotted lines I4, which is mounted in an aperture in the' stock 10 and supplied with cartridges through a suitable aperture l5 in the stock. The magazine including the cartridge follower and bayonet fastening means for securingthe magazinein the stock are of well-known construction and are illustrated in greater detail in the patent to Browning, No. 1,083,384, January 6, 1914.
The action for the firearm including the breech bolt, fire control mechanism, and cartridge feed do not form a part of the present invention and are shown in part and referred to herein only for thepurpose of clarifying the description of the improved receiver, a more detailed showing and description of the action being embodied in the above-identified Patent No. 2,425,412, of which'this application is a division. The receiver of the firearm comprises a frame is and acoverw plate 11 as shown in Figs. 2, 4, 5, and-7. Both the frame and cover are constructed from sheet'metal stockby suitable bendingand shaping operations. The, frame I 6 is a channel generally U-shaped in cross-section having substantially vertical sides 18 struck up from a substantially flat sheet of metal. The upper edge Igjof each side 18 comprises a guide rail for slidingly supporting the breech bolt, indicated generally at 19 in Fig. 4, and is provided with a ll-shaped slot 20 for sup orting the trunnions ofla cartridge carrier (not shown).
Therear end of the frame l6 comprises a laminated-wall 22 formed by folding the rearwardly extending end portion of each side wall 18 inwardly in overlapping relationship as shown in Figs. 3 and '7 and welding or otherwise securing the overlapped portions together, The rear wall 22 also embodies a third member comprising a substantially rectangular sheet metal plate 23 firmly secured as by welding to the inner or forward face of the overlapped end portions I80. The upper end of the plate23 is provided'with a pair of forwardly extending spaced substantially parallel bracket 1nembers"24 provided with transverse axially aligned apertures 25 forpivotally supporting the sear (not shown) of the fire control mechanism. The aforementioned brackets 24 may be formed separately and fastened to the front of the plate 23 or, preferably, and as shown in the drawings, may be formed integrally therewith by making a transverse cut in opposite edgesof the plate 23 below the upper edge there- 'ofand bending the'cut portions inwardly and forwardly at substantially right angles to the body of the plate.
The laminated rear wall 22 of the frame is provided with two apertures 28 and 21, onearranged above the other, as showninFigs, 2, 6, and '7, the upper aperture 26 being adapted to receive a butt stock stud 28 and the lower aperture 21 to receive and support the magazine tube [4.
The tubular butt stock stud 28 comprises a substantially cylindrical sleeve reduced at its forward end '28I and provided with a counterbore 29, The stud 28-is fixedly secured'in the laminated rear wall 22 of the frame by inserting the reduced end of the stud into the upper aperture 26, an then swaging over the end of the counterbored portion 29. The-stock l0 issecured to the rear wall'22 of the receiver by means of the stock bolt 30 which is carried in the stud 28 and threadedly secured at its rear end in a tapped hole O 1-:
a bushing .32 which, in turn, is threadedly or otherwise secured in a recess in'the front end of the stock. The forward end of the stock is of reduced cross-section to provide a shouldered tenon '33 adapted to fit snugly into the substantially rectangular recess formedat the rearend of the receiver by therearwardly extending sides of the cover plate I7 and the top and bottom wall portions of the coverplate and frame respectively.
The tubular'magazine l4 extends through the lower aperture 21 in the rear wall 22 of the frame and is securely held in position therein .by means of a self-locating bushing 34 which is mounted on the magazine 14 and has an arcuate flange 35 adapted topartially .circumscribe the underside of the stud 28. V A screw .36 is provided for securing the bushin 34 in self-adjusted position to the rear wall of the receiver.
Attherear end of each side l.8.of the frame and adjacent the lower edge thereof is a substantially rectangulartransversely disposed projection 31, the'forward' end of each being bevelled to blend into the side wall I8. These projections constitute fastening means adapted to cooperate with recesses in the cover plate as hereinafter described" to lock the cover H to the frame in a unitary assembly, 7
The bottom of the channel-shaped frame is substantially flat and is provided with a relatively short rectangular aperture 38 to accommodate the trigger 39 of the fire control mechanism. 'The trigger is pivotally supported on a pin mounted in apertures 39' in the sides of the frame. It will be noted (Fig. 2) that when the cover plate is assembled on the frame, the sides of the cover plate overlie the ends of the trigger pivot pin so as to positively secure'the pin inplace. A relatively narrow'slot'40 extends forwardly" from the front edge of the trigger slot'ilB and constitutes a guide slot for the trigger lock and safety, indicated generally at 42 in'Fig. 2. Arelatively wide and substantially'rectangular aperture 43 is formed in 1 the bottom wall of the frame forwardly of the slot 38 to accommodate a depending finger piece 43 which is provided for manually operating the action. A portion of the metal struck up from the aperture 43 is bent upwardly at substantially right angles to the bottom of the frame to provide a substantially vertical web 44 at the rear end of the aperture-43. The upper edge of the web 1 44 is made arcuate to support the forward end of the tubular magazine l4 and an aperture 45 is provided in the web adjacent the bottom edge thereof to receive the forward hooked end 46' of r the trigger guard 46. The rear end of the guard 46 is shown secured to a tang 41 extending rearwardly from the bottom of the frame.
The forward end of the frame It is provided with a barrel lug-insert 49 which comprises a relatively solid substantially rectangular metal block having a smooth barrelreceiving aperture 50; and-a stem portion 52 extending downwardly at substantially right angles to the longitudinal axis of the aperture 50, the stem being provided with a counterbored nipple '53. The latter is adaptedto seat in an aperture 54 in the bottom wall of the frame adjacent the forward end thereof and to be secured therein by a swaging operation. In Fig. 2 the barrel lug stem 52' is shown in position in the aperture '54 prior to the performance of the swaging operation which secures it therein. Fig. 6 shows the cross-section through this same area after theswaging operation has been completed.
As shown in Fig. '7, the lower end of the stem portion 52 of the lug is narrower in a transverse direction than the upper portion of the lug by an amount equalto twice the thickness of the side walls It of the frame so as to form shoulders 55 adapted to fit over the upper edge l8 of the sides of the frame. The joints between these shoulders 55 and the upper edges of the sides of the trigger plate or frame 16 are brazed or welded so as to securely fasten the lug in the forward end of theframe. Referring to Fig. 2, a substantially horizontal ledge 56 is formed integrally on the back of the lug .52 below the barrel aperture to serve as a stop for a cartridge carrier shown in the-copending application, now Patent No. 2,425,412. The front face of the lug embodies a bevelled or downwardly sloping surface 51 to cooperate with the forestock II. The stem 52 is apertured and threaded, as shown at 58, for securing a barrel fastening bolt 59 therein.
The barrel I3 is adapted to be secured in the barrel lug 49 by the'bolt 5.9 and to this end the breech end of the barrel is reduced to provide a smooth wrist portionto adapted to make a nice fit in th apertureSO of the lug 49. A tapered recess-62 is'formed in the bottom of the wrist portion 60 of the barr'el and is adapted to be engaged by the frusto-conical end of the bolt 59. By turning up the bolt59, the resulting cammlng action between the mutually engaging surfaces of the tapered-recess and the frusto-conical end of the bolt serves to bring'the barrel shoulder 13' tightly against'the 'front face of the lug. When the barrel is thus secured to the front end of the frame, corresponding surfaces'of the rear'end of the forestock ll willbe'brought into engagingrelationship with thebevelled surface 51 of the barrel'lug andwlththe front edge of the frame respectively, thus affording a rigid support for the rear end of the' forestock.
The cover ll'isalso a channel member formed from sheet metal and comprises the depending substantially parallel sides 63'and a curved top wall 64. The latter is provided with a tapered profile at its rear end to form a smooth unbroken curve with the pistol grip or the butt stock; and a bevelled front edge. Welded or otherwise fastened to the underside of the top wall 64 adjacent the forward end thereof is a receiver insert 65 comprising a substantially rectangular metal plate curved transverselytofit the contour of the top, wall and having substantially square shoulders at its opposite ends. When the cover I! is assembled on the frame IS, the forward shoulder of the insert abuts the rear face of the barrel lug insert. The rear shoulder of the insert is adapted to form a stop to limit the initial forward movement of the firing pin as described more fully in the aforementioned Patent No. 2,425,412. A cartridge ejecting aperture is shown in one side of the cover plate.
The cover plate i7 is assembled on the frame I6 to form the unitary receiver structure by slipping the sides 63 of the cover down over the sides I 8 of the frame in a downward and rearward direction. Suitable means are provided for locking the cover to the frame and comprise rectangular recesses 66 formed on the inside wall of the sides 63 of the cover, the rear ends of the recesses intersecting the rear edges of the sides of the cover. By pushing the cover downwardly and rearwardly over the frame, these recesses 66 will engage over the substantially rectangular projections 31 on corresponding sides of the frame so as to effectively lock the rear end of the cover thereto. The forward end of the cover is securely fastened to the frame by a pin 61 which is adapted to pass through apertures'68 in the sides of the cover and an axially aligned aperture 68 in the frame and barrel lug insert, which aperture, as shown in Fig. 2, breaks slightly into the wall of the bolt aperture 58 of the barrel lug stem. Normally, the receiver is assembled by securing the cover to the trigger .plate as described above and then the 'barrel is mounted in the forward end of the receiver and secured therein .by the bolt 59. The shank of the latter is adapted, as shown, to engage in a recess milled or otherwise formed in the side of the transverse pin 6! between opposite ends thereof, thereby effectively locking the pin 6! in the receiver.
It will be understood that the invention is not limited to the exact embodiment shown but is applicable to firearms of other calibers and includes any and all modifications coming within the scope of the claims appended hereto.
What is claimed is:
1. In a firearm, a receiver comprising in combination a sheet metal frame channel substantially U-shaped in cross-section; a laminar rear wall for said frame includin overlappin portions of the side walls of said channel; a barrel receivin lug secured between the side walls of said channel frame at the forward end thereof; a sheet metal cover having dependin side walls telescoping over the side walls of said frame; and interlocking means for securing said cover in assembled relation to said frame.
2. In a firearm, a receiver comprising in combination a sheet metal frame channel having a bottom wall and spaced apart upwardly extending side walls; a. laminar rear wall for said frame including inturned overlapping portions of said side walls; a barrel receiving lug received between I the side walls of said frame overlying the upper edges thereof and rigidly secured to said side walls and to said bottom Wall; a sheet metal cover having spaced depending side walls telescoping over the side walls of said frame; and interlocking means comprising projections of said frame arranged to be received in grooves in said cover for securing said cover in assembled relation to said frame.
3. In a firearm, a receiver comprising in combination a sheet metal frame channel havin a bottom wall and spaced apart upwardly extending side walls; a laminar rear wall for said frame including inturned overlapping portions of said side walls; barrel receiving means secured to the front end of said frame; stock retaining means secured to said laminar rear wall; a rearward extension on said bottom wall constructed and arranged to engage a downwardly facing surface of a stock secured by the retaining means; and a cover having a closed top and spaced depending side Walls telescoping over the side walls of said frame and releasably secured thereon, said cover extending rearwardly behind said frame and being constructed and arranged to partially enclose the top and side portions of a stock secured by the retaining means.
4. A firearm frame comprising an integral boxlike construction of sheet metal having a bottom wall; spaced apart, upwardly extending substantially parallel side walls disposed at substantially a right angle to said bottom wall; a rear end wall disposed at an angle to the bottom wall and at substantially a right angle to each of said side walls, said end wall including the extensions of the rearward end of each of said side walls, each extension being substantially coextensive in area with said end wall, said extensions being turned inwardly and secured to each other in laminar relationship; and a barrel receiving insert received between and secured to each of said side walls and to said bottom wall at the ends thereof opposite said end wall.
5. A firearm receiver comprising the frame described in claim 10 and a sheet metal cover having a closed top wall with spaced parallel side walls depending therefrom, said cover being constructed and arranged to telescope over and interlock with said frame to substantially completely enclose the top and sides thereof.
6. A firearm receiver as described in claim 11, said cover interlocking with said frame by means of tongues formed on the frame which are received in grooves in said cover and a transversely extending pin passing through both said cover and said frame.
CHARLES H. BARNES.
REFERENCES CITED I The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 564,043 Benet and Mercie July 14, 1896 817,198 Smith Apr. 10, 1906 954,654 Smith Apr. 12, 1910 1,089,621 Barnes Mar. 10, 1914 1,441,807 Horan Jan. 9, 1923 1,996,124 Rowley Apr. 2, 1935 2,050,038 Browning Aug. 4, 1936 2,108,648 Browning Feb. 15, 1938 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 338,789 Germany Oct. 10, 1919 428,784 Germany Aug. 9, 1924 Certificate of Correction Patent No. 2,455,644. December 7, 1948.
CHARLES H. BARNES It is hereby certified that errors appear in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows:
Column 6, line 43, for the claim reference numeral 10 read 4; line 49, for the claim reference numeral 11 read 5;
and that the said Letters Patent should be read with these corrections therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Oflice.
Signed and sealed this 22nd day of March, A. D. 1949.
THOMAS F. MURPHY,
Assistant Commissioner of Patents.
Certificate of Correction Patent No. 2,455,644. December 7, 1948.
CHARLES H. BARNES It is hereby certified that errors appear in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows:
Column 6, line 43, for the claim reference numeral 10 read 4; line 49, for the claim reference numeral 11 read 5 and that the said Letters Patent should be read with these corrections therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office.
Signed and sealed this 22nd day of March, A. D. 1949.
THOMAS F. MURPHY,
Assistant Commissioner of Patents.
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|U.S. Classification||42/75.3, 89/199, 42/2|
|International Classification||F41A3/66, F41A3/00|