US 2456275 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 14, 1948. LE. HARRIS I 2,456,275
BATH 'rus Filed Feb. 6, 1946 Patented Dec. 14., 1948 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE- Louise E. Harris, Macon, Ga.
Application February 6, 1946, Serial No. 645,900
This invention relates to improvements in bathtubs and particularly a modern improved double walled bathtub disposed entirely above the level of the floor upon which it is supported.
For a considerable period after bathtubs came into general use they were of a single wall construction with high sides and were supported on legs above the level of the floor. This placed the top rim of the bathtub at a height above the floor that involved considerable difficulty in entering and leaving the tub, even for a normally active adult person. For children or incapacitated persons to attempt to enter and leave such a tub involved not only material inconvenience but considerable danger of personal injury.
Since that time bathtubs have been materially improved and these improvements have consisted mainly in providing a double wall construction with the outer wall sealed tothe floor and wall of the room in which the tub is located and in materially lowering the overall height of the tub. While the bottom of the tub has been brought to a location quite near the floor level, even modern double walled tubs have their upper edge or rim at a distance above the floor level which renders it inconvenient and dangerous for people with a material degree of physical incapacity to enter and leave the tub.
While it is always possible, of course, to assist such people into and out of a bathtub, this is not always convenient or desirable- In many cases, such as in institutions for the care of patients who, while suffering considerable physical incapacity, are still able to take care of themselves in most respects, the necessary attendants are not always available. Furthermore, in certain types of institutions, particularly for convalescent patients, it is highly desirable for psychological reasons that the patient be able to perform the normal personal services without assistance. For the above reasons and others which will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art, the idea has been conceived of providing a bathtub with an exit and entrance opening in the side thereof so that a person may enter and leave such a tub without having to surmount any obstacle materially above the level of the bottom of the tub or above the level of the floor on which the tub is mounted.
A single wall tub with such an entrance and exit opening has been previously-proposed but has not, so far as I am aware, met with any degree of commercial success by reason of the inability to completely stop leakage through the opening and avoid the danger of accidentally 12 Claims.
, I 2 spilling large quantities of water from the tub onto the floor. I
The present invention therefore has for an object the provision of an improved bathtub which does not require unusual agility for entering and leaving the same, and actually requires less than the amount of agility ordinarily necessary to enter and leave the conventional bathtub.
An object also resides in the provision of an improved bathtub having an entrance and exit opening in one side thereof provided with closures fully effective to prevent leakage from the tub and also to avoid the possibility of spilling any'la'rge quantity of water from the tub onto the floor on which the tub is mounted.
A further object resides in the provision of an improved bathtub having a double wall construction provided with an entrance and exit opening through both walls of one side thereof and provided with cooperating doors or closure members for the opening, the inner one of which when closed efiectively seals the opening against leakage and the outer one of which functions as a dam or closure to prevent spillage of water from the tub in the event the inner door should be accidentally opened before the water is below the level of the opening.
A still further object resides in the provision of an improved bathtub of doubled wall construction having an entrance and exit opening through one side thereof and having a closure member for the opening associated with each wall with a drain disposed between the two closure members. I
Another object resides in the provision of an improved bathtub, the entrance to and exit from which is facilitated by the provision of a suitable opening in one side thereof and convenient handles by means of which an incapacitated person may assist himself throughthe opening and in which leakage and spillage of water through the opening are prevented by suitable closure members associated with the tub walls. a
Other objects and advantages will be apparent from the following description when considered with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig; 1 is a side elevational view of an improved.
bathtub constructed according to the invention; Fig. 2 is a transverse cross sectional view on the line 22 of Fig. 1; and Fig. 3 is a fragmentary horizontal cross sec tion-al view on the line 3-3 of Fig. 2. With continued reference to the drawings, the pedestal type bathtub illustrated is of acontinuous drawn sheet material construction covered with 3 a vitreous enamel coating in a manner well known to the art and comprises an outer wall I and an inner wall l2 spaced from the outer wall and substantially parallel thereto, the two walls being integrally united at their upper edges by a wall portion constituting transverse ledge or rim I l.
The bottom edge of the outer wall rests upon the floor of the room in which the tub is located and conventionally extends somewhat below the upper surface or the floor so that a water proof seal may be obtained between the bottom of the tub and the material, such as tile, constituting the floor surface.
height of the tub may be reduced as much as DOS.-
The bottom l6 of the tub is disposed near the floor level in order that the over-all v sible while still providing a sufiicien t tubdepth for convenient and satisfactory bathing. At one end the tub may be provided with a suitable inlet and overflow spout IB and with suitable valve wheels 29 and 22 for controlling the flow of hot and cold waterinto the tubl" A drain opening 24 is provided in the bottom of the tub at the lowest point thereof and, is connected to a suitable drain pipe 26. The flow of water throughthe drain opening and drain pipe is controlled by a suitable stopper or valve in a manner well known to the As is particularly shown in Figs. 2' and 3, one side of the tub is provided with a suitable opening extending through both walls of the double walled construction. Surrounding the opening the two tub wallsare connected by integral trans verse portions andxwith the, side portions being indicated at :28 and :30 in Fig-43 and the bottom portion at 32in Fig. 2'.
Adjacent the outer wall I 0 the opening is beveled or chamfered as indicated-at 34 and. a double walled outer closure member-or door, generally indicated at 36, fitsinto this chamfer to tightly close the outer side of the opening. The door 36 may conveniently comprise the spaced parallel walls, as indicated at'38 and-.48, joined together around their edges by a sidewall 42, the outer'surface of which is chamfered or beveled to cooperate with the bevel 34. This door is hinged to the outer wall of the tub at one side of the opening, as indicated at and at the other side is provided with a latch ECW111011 engages with atkeeper 48' secured to the outer tub wallat the opposite side of the opening from the hinges 44. Preferably, the outer wall of the closure extends outwardly beyond the side wall 34 to provide afiange along the sides and bottom of the opening and a suitable gasket member 50 of resilient material, such asrubber, is disposed between this flange and the adjacent portion ofthe outer .tub wall In to assist in providing a water tight seal betweenthe outer door and the tub, surrounding the .opening.-- Attheupper end of thedoor 38 the two walls 38 and 40 thereof are brought together and extend first upwardly andthen horizontally to provide acontinuatlon 42Kof 'tlieupperrim or ledge M of the tub, said continu'ation extended entirely across the opening provided in the side of thetub. The side portion 2d of the Connecting wall surrounding the opening is provided with a recess 5'4 and the opposite side 30 o'f' 'the connecting wall is provided with an opening or slot '56 which opens into a guide way 58 extending away from the opening alongthe inner wall' l2 ofthe tub. This guide way is terminated by a suitable stop 60' at the end thereof remote from the opening. V j
inner closure or door, generally indicated at '92; mounted inthe guide way 58 and extends through the slot or opening 56 so that it may be moved horizontally with a sliding motion between the position, as illustrated in Fig. 3, in which it extends across the opening to a position in which it rests in the guide way entirely at one side of the opening. This inner door or closure 62 is preferably made of a smooth sheet of material such as synthetic resin or glass and is preferably provided in the inner surface thereof with a recess 6!- providing a handgrip by means of which the door may be moved. The guide way 58 extends as a groove across the bottom connecting wall 32 of the opening and a suitable seal is provided entirely surrounding the inner side of the opening. This seal preferably comprises a pair of resilient packing members 66 and 68 mounted in respective grooves in the side walls of recess 54' and in similar grooves in the side walls of slot or opening 56 and in connecting grooves provided in the guide way groove extending across the bottom of the opening. The end of the door 62. which enters the recess 54 is preferably provided with rounded or beveled edges as indicated at 1B in order that it may pass between the: packing members 66 and 68 without tending to dislocate them from the grooves in which they are mounted. v
The bottom portion 32 of the connecting wall surrounding the opening is provided with an elongated aperture 72 filled in by a suitable grid l6: immediately below which is a drainage pan 1% to the bottom of which is connected'one end of a drainage pipe 80, the other end of which is led into the main drain pipe 26 so that if' any water should leak or be spilled into the space between the doors 62 and 36 it will immediately escape through the drain and hence will not pass the outer door and leak or be spilled upon the floor of the room.
As an additional safeguard to prevent spillage of water through the entrance and exit opening,
- a water level line 82 may be provided around the inside of the tub at substantially the level of the bottom'df the opening. This line may convenientiy be provided as a stripe of enamel of a different color'from that covering the remainder of the tub, at the time the tub is manufactured.
order to further facilitate entrance to and exit from the tub, convenient handles are provided for the assistance of the person entering and leaving the tub. Preferably a pair of handles; as indicated at 84 and 8B, are provided extending upwardly fromthe ledge or rim of the wall of the tub in which the opening is provided and disposed one at each side of the opening. A similar pair of handles, one of which is indicated at 88 in Fig. 2, is provided on the ledge portion of the tubwall opposite that in which the opening is provided in order that a person using the tub may have the benefit of handles at each side in entering and leaving the tub and also in changing his position in the tub.
'With the above described construction, movenient of a person, and particularly a physically in-' capacitated person, into and out of the tub is greatly facilitated and in many cases rendered possible where it would not be possible with a conventional tub having a continuous side wall, and at the same time leakage or spillage of water from the tub is positively avoidable.
7 It will be obvious to those skilled in the art that various changes may be made in the inventime without departing from the spirit and scope thereof and therefore the invention is not limited by that which is shown in the drawings and described in the specification but only as indicated in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A bathtub comprising a bottom wall and spaced inner and outer upright walls having their upper-ends joined by a transverse connecting wall, a door opening forming a passageway through said inner and outer upright walls, a door for said passageway slidable to a concealed position between said upright walls, a transverse wall connecting said inner and outer upright walls about said passageway, a door receiving recess in said transverse wall, opposed gaskets in said door receiving recess for engaging opposite sides of the door when the door is in closed position, the upright portion of the transverse wall about the door opening having a slot through which said door may he slid into the space between said inner and outer upright walls, said bottom transverse wall having a drainage opening therein, and a closure member adapted to fit in the door opening along the said outer wall, said closure member having a lateral extension at its top conforming to the transverse connection between the inner and outer upright walls to give the top of the tub a continuous appearance.
2. In a bathtub having a double wall construction and an entrance and exit opening in one side thereof; a pair of movable closure members for the opening associated one with each wall of the double wall construction.
3. In a bathtub having a double walled construction and an entrance and exit opening through one side thereof; a pair of movable closure members for said opening disposed one at the inner and one at the outer side of said opening; and a drain at the bottom of said opening between said closure members.
4. A bathtub as defined in claim 3 wherein the closure member disposed at said outer side of said opening comprises a door member hinged at one side to said tub adjacent said opening and provided at the other side with means releasably retaining it in closed position.
5. A bathtub as defined in claim 3 wherein the closure at said inner side of said opening comprises a flat member slidable through an aperture at one side of said opening and engageable in a recess at the opposite side of said opening.
6. A bathtub having a double wall construction and an entrance and exit opening through one side thereof; a wall portion connecting the inner and outer walls of said double wall construction around the top of said tub, wall portions connecting the inner and outer walls of said double wall construction at the sides and bottom of said opening; an aperture in the wall portion at one side of said opening and a guide way along the bottom of said opening extending through said aperture into the space between said inner and outer wall portions; a recess in the wall portion at the opposite side of said opening; and a fiat door member slidable in said guideway through said aperture between a position in which it is disposed at one side of said opening and a position in which it extends across said opening and engages in said recess.
7. A bathtub as defined in claim 6 wherein a pair of packing members are provided disposed one at each side of said slidable door member and engaged in respective grooves formed in the 6 side walls of said aperture," said recess and said guide way.
8. A bathtub as defined in claim 6 wherein said slidable inner door member comprises a fiat sheet of material such as glass or synthetic resin-and has 'a recess therein providing a hand grip for sliding said member across'said opening:
9. A bathtub having a double wall construction and an entrance and exit opening through one side thereof, a closure member for the outer side ;of ,saidopening comprising a door having two spaced parallel walls, the;outer one of which extends beyond said opening to provide a sealing flange along the bottom and sides of said opening and a ledge extending across the top of said opening, and a sealing gasket carried by said flange; hinge means operatively connecting the door to the tub at one side of the opening and latch means operatively associated with said door and said tub at the opposite side of said opening for releasably retaining said door in closed position.
10. ha bathtub having a double wall construction and an entrance and exit opening through one side thereof; a pair of movable closure members for said opening disposed one at the inner and one at the outer side of said opening; a drain in the bottom wall of said opening between said closure members for removing any water leaking from said tub past the inner of said closure members; and a stripe of a diiferent color from the remainder of the interior of said tub disposed around the interior of said tub substantially at the level of the bottom of said opening to indicate the safe water level in said tub to preclude leakage of Water through said opening.
11. A bathtub designed for use with minimum effort and agility, and comprising a relatively shallow pedestal-type tub body having spaced inner and outer walls, and an upper connecting wall provided at one side of the tub with a door opening affording passage into and from the tub, said door opening being defined by a transverse wall joining the inner and outer walls of the tub about the door opening, the bottom of said opening being spaced slightly above the inner bottom surface of the tub, said tub having on its interior a waterline designation at substantially the lowermost portion of the door opening, closure means for said door opening constructed to provide a corresponding continuation of the wall of the tub across the top of said door opening, the lowermost of said transverse walls and the inner tub wall being provided with drains, said closure means including a slidable inner door, a hinged outer door, said tub having a handle at each side of the door opening on both sides of the tub for use in getting into, around in, and from the tub, and sealing means for excluding leakage around said doors.
12. A bathtub designed for use with the minimum efiort and agility, and comprising a relatively shallow pedestal-type tub body having spaced inner and outer walls, and an upper connecting wall provided at one side of the tub with a door opening affording passage into and from the tub, said door opening being defined by a transverse wall joining the inner and outer walls of the tub about the door opening, the bottom of said opening being spaced slightly above the inner bottom surface of the tub, closure means for said door opening constructed to provide a REFERENCES CITED 'The following references are of reaord in the file of -this patent:
Number LED S'I' A'I'E S JPATENTS Name Date Schmidt Dec. 8, 1903 Belair -Feb. 21, 1905 Kirkwood 'Jan. 19, 1935 Friedlander Apr. 6,193"! Robinson May 11, 1937