US 2457982 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 4, 1949. o. A. DEICHMANN METHOD OF PRODUCING BUILDING PANEL Filed Dec. 9, 1942 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTQR 07' 7'0 14. DE/cHMA NN Jan. 4, 1949-. o. A. DEICHMANN METHOD OF PRODUCING "BUILDING PANELS 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Dec. 9, 1942 OTTO D INVENTOR E/CHMANN Patented Jan. 4, 1949 UN [TED STATES PATENT OFFICE METHOD on raonoonvo BUILDING raNELs Otto A. Deichmann, SanFranciscmCalifa Application December 9, 1942'. Serial No. 468,441
This invention relates to improvements: in prefabricated houses and more particularly to building walls composed of interlocking panels com bining the framing. interior and exterior finishes and intermediate thermal insulation.
Among the objects of the invention is the provision of means enabling the use of cheap eflicient and easily handled materials that may be combined with minimal effort and equipment.
Another object is the provision of a simplified progressive method of production adaptable to the .use of present cementitious. and plaster materials; whereby the: assembling may be continued during the first setting periods of the plaster contents- A further object is the provision of panels forprefabricated walls that may be adapted to various climatic conditions and architectural designs.
Other objects and advantages will appear as the description progresses.
In this specification and the accompanying drawings the invention is disclosed in its present preferred form. But it is to be understood that it is not limited to this form, because it may be; embodied in modifications within the spirit of the invention as defined. in the claim following. the description.
In the two sheets of drawings:
Fig. i is a fragmentary detail in perspective of the interior corner of a. room constructed in. accordance with this invention.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged detail. of the wall in horizontal section taken on the line II-II, Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a View of the upper portion of thewall...
in vertical section, on the line III-III, Fig. 1;.
Fig. 4 is a imilar view of. the lower portion of the wall, to be read. in connection with Fig. 3. The section line is: takenorr the line IV-IV, Fig. 1.
Fig. 5 is a. horizontal section. of the corner of the connecting walls taken on the: line V-V, Fig. 1.
Fig. 6 is a vertical section of the prefabricating form showing the manner of confining and shaping the lateral edges of the plaster coatings.
Fig. 7 is a similar view of the same showing the manner of confining. and shaping the upper and lower edges. of the plaster coatings.
Figs. 8, 9, read in conjunction, illustrate in horizontal section similar to Fig. 2 a modified form of panel? and: intermediate and. corner joints.
In detail the construction illustrated in the drawings, referring first to Figs. 2 and 7, consists in forming a structural frame for a panel. which comprises the vertical intermediate studs I. and the. side studs 2, joined across the. top by the. top ground 3. and at the bottom by the base ground 4. Thistop ground projects outward from the plane of the frame a distance equal to the thickness of the base ground 4, which will determine the thickness of the interior coating; cfplasterzi.
1 Claim. ,p (01. 25 -154) The assembled panel frame is securely nailed together and has the coarse wire mesh lathing 6 stapled to the whole surface of one side of the frame. The removable side forms I, 8 are then attached to the lateral margins of the frame, see Fig. 6. The panel frame is then laid flat on a levei casting platform X, see Fig. 7. Form boards 9. 9' are then placed between the studs at thelevel of the base ground: 4, so that the stud ends protrude as at I. The form board 9: is attached to the top ground 3.
The usual interior plaster mixture is then poured en masse through the mesh 6 to form the plaster layer 5 enclosing the mesh 6 to the exterior depth determined by the top ground 3, the base ground 4 and the. side. forms I, 8. The depth above the mesh is just enough to insure proper bonding of the plaster with the mesh lath 5.
When it is desired to provide thermal insulation within. the. wall, rockwool. asbestos fiber or the like Hi is. introduced between the: studs l, 2, within the surrounding frame of the panel. The top surface: of this layer of insulation is then coated with the impervious coating to form the sheet I I of bituminous or other quick drying easy flowing material that will not penetrate or be absorbed by the insulation. This coating is preferably carried across the edges of the studs 1, acting as a seal to. prevent penetration of moisture from the exterior of the wall. When this coating is suinciently set, the coarselwi're mesh lath I'Zis stapled tothe tops of the studding t, 2 and the permanent members. of the panel frame. Conventional tar impregnated building paper may be substituted for the sheet H where preferable or when the insulation i0 is: not used.
The exterior layer of plaster or stucco i3 is then poured. through the mesh t2 and is supported by the insulationand coating sheet H. or the. building. paper, see Fig- 2. The thickness. of this outer layer is determined by the boards I, 8, 9, 9 of the casting form. l
The. sidestuds 2, 2., may be ribbed as at I4, and
grooved as at. L5 to form interlocking marginal sides on the panels. or mitered or otherwise formed as at the corner t6. Panels constructed in. ac cordance with this invention can be erected in the usual practice of architecture and carpentry.
One method oferecting the panels isshown 3;. thelineal cement foundation t't has forms are then placed in position with respect to the foundation and the lower margins of. the" panel walls. The cement floor 2| is then poured into the floor forms and flows around the protruding stud ends I', 2 and the anchorwires I8 to completely enclose and anchor the base of the panel walls. The base ground 4 projects above the floor level to provide a nailing strip for the base board or other trim forming part of the conventional inner finish. The finished fioor can be tiled as at 22 or finished in any other conventional manner.
In Fig. 1, a conventional window opening 23 is shown, ready to receive the usual mill window frame 23' containing the desired form of sashes or easements. The door openings are similarly provided, differing only in the fact that they extend to the floor level and are appropriately equipped.
When the panels are thus installed to form the building walls the parting lines in the plaster coating are filled with similar matching plaster or stucco. To insure a tight and waterproof joint between the panels, the plaster seal 24 is introduced into the interlocking joints between the panels. This packing accommodates any inequalities in fit between the panels, and is hidden when the joint is pointed or plastered over.
While the exterior plaster I3 is still plastic it can be scratched, stippled, coated with gravel or otherwise decorated. The procedure in constructing and mountingthe roof on the plates is conventional in accordance with the type of roof desired. This invention is particularly adapted to the construction of small dwellings, because of the simplicity and economy in the structure of the panels and their easy erection in forming the walls. It. is equally adaptable to industrial buildings by making the plaster layers 5, I3 of hard cement and aggregate, with heavier reinforcing lath meshes 6, I2. In buildings of more than one story, bridge bracingcan be introduced between the studs I, I, 2, and the number of studs increased in each panel. Panels of this general construction are adapted to use as enclosing walls or plating for regularly framed buildings of several stories, where the weight and stresses of the building structure are absorbed by the framing. They may also be used for curtainwalls and partitions in steel framed buildings.
The present method of applying the inner plaster 5 by precasting it against the platform X has the advantage of uniform thickness and bonding with mesh 6. And the further advantage that the plane of the interior wall surface is perfectly flat and dense because of the fact that the finer grout or binder in the plaster settles to the surface of the platform. This platform surface may be stippled or otherwise conditioned to impress any desired decorative effect on the interior plaster surface. These desirable advantages are not accomplished by applying the plaster manually as is the usual practice.
The opposite effect is advantageously present with respect to the exterior plaster I3, in which the more dense particles of the plaster settle and enclose the mesh I2 to insure better bonding of the stucco I3 under severe climatic conditions. L
4 Precasting the interior and exterior coatings of plaster en masse and prefabricating the panel as a whole enables the proper curing and setting of the plaster before it is exposed to the direct action of the elements under destructive conditions such as rain, wind and storms, 'or the dehydrating effect of direct sun rays or dry winds.
Figs, 8 and 9, illustrate the adaptability of the invention in meeting the requirements of a wide rangeof architectural variations. For instance, in Fig. 8, common wall board 5a: has been substituted for the interior plaster 5. Many types of wall board are available, ranging from plaster board to plyboard composed of wood veneer. Fig. 9, shows the panel being formed on the platform X Without any interior finish such as 5. In this instance the insulating material I0 is laid within the panel between the studs Ix, Ix, against the platform X, and then coated at I Ix, as described, before the application of the mesh I 2:0 and the exterior stucco I3:l:. The insulation I01; adheres to the coating IIa: sufficiently to make it practical to transport the fabricated panel to the place of erection, where the desired interior finish may be applied in the regular manner.
Figs. 8, 9, illustrate a modified joining of the panels in the corners and intermediately, avoiding the'necessity for mill work. Instead of forming the tongue and groove joint as in Figs. 1, 2, the furring strips I400, Ma: are nailed to the opposed side studs 2x, 20:, to form overlapping or interlocking joints as desired. The interlocking corners may be formed in like manner by rearrangin the opposed studs as at I6:c.
Having thus described this invention what is claimed and desired to secure by Letters Patent The method of applying spaced coatings to a horizontal prefabricated building panel having spaced studs with a layer of open mesh lathing attached to the lower sides of said studs and grounds connecting each of the adjacent ends of the studs and extending below said lower sides and said lathing: consisting in laying said panel with the grounds engaging a horizontal casting platform for spacing said studs and lathing thereabove and with side forms on all sides thereof resting on said platform; then flowing plaster through said lathing against the platform, the grounds and the side forms until said lathing is embeddedin the plaster; then attaching an impervious covering material with a superimposed layer of open mesh lathing to the upper sides of the studs; and then flowing plaster through the last-named lathing and against the impervious material and the side forms until the last-named lathing and the upper sides of the studs are embedded in the plaster applied thereto.
OTTO A. DEICHMANN.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 681,700 Himmelwright Sept. 3, 1901 681,728 Orr Sept. 3, 1901 852,688 Wade May '7, 1907 1,364,768 Levaur Jan. 4, 1921 1,460,682 Schleicher July 3, 1923 1,462,663 Schall July 24, 1923 1,562,706 Lake Nov. 24, 1925 (Other references-on following page) Number Name Date Hedden Dec. 11, 1928 Hull Sept. 1, 1931 Graves Jan. 16, 1934 Foster Feb. 5; 1935 Foster May 14, 1935 Thomas July 14, 1936 Graef Dec. 8, 1936 Foster Feb. 9, 1937 Herbest, Jr. Dec. 13, 1938 Vokes Apr. 18, 1939 HOge Oct. 3, 1939 Number Number Name Date Cory Jan. 16, 1940 Anderegg Mar. 11, 1941 Karelius Mar. 25, 1941 Mechlin Nov. 18, 1941 Henderson Sept. 1, 1942 Parkhurst Nov. 24, 1942 Foster Dec. 22, 1942 FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date France May 29, 1906 France 1919