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Publication numberUS2458119 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 4, 1949
Filing dateFeb 20, 1943
Priority dateFeb 20, 1943
Publication numberUS 2458119 A, US 2458119A, US-A-2458119, US2458119 A, US2458119A
InventorsGerrit Van Daam
Original AssigneeGerrit Van Daam
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electrically heated wearing apparel
US 2458119 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 4, 1949. G. VAN DAAM ELECTRICALLY HEATED 'HEARING APPAREL 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Feb. 2o, 1945 GERM?- 14m/@MM INVENTOR M, Jamal/MM ATTORNEYS Jan. 4, 1949. G. VAN DAAM ELECTRICALLY HEATED WEARING APPAREL 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Feb. 20, 1945 V 65W 7- %sw 06AM I l N VE N TOR Br im@ /MJ/M/h/aw ATTORNEYS Patented Jan. 4, 1949 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ELECTRICALLY HEATED WEARING APPAREL VGerrit Van Daam, Buffalo, N. Y.,

Application February 20, 1943, Serial No'. 476,553

Claims. 1

This invention relates to electrically heated Wearing apparel, andr more particularly to garments or suits accessory wearing apparel to be .Worn by aviators and may also be embodied in garments or suits and accessory wearing apparel to be worn by divers and others subjected to W temperatures. The principal object of the invention is to provide new and improved wearing apparel of these types.

The novel features of the invention will appear from this specification and the accompanying drawings, showing several embodiments of the invention, and forming a part of the specification, and aller these novel features are intended to be pointed out in the claims.

In the drawings:

Figure l is a iront elevation of a garment embodying the invention, to be Worn by an aviator, for example, the fabric part of the garment and the belt means therefor being omitted, but indicated in broken outline, in order to more clearly show the arrangement of the electric heating means and the conductor means for feeding the heating means with electric current,

Figure 2 is a section tal-:en on the line 2 2 of Figure l, the fabric wall of the garment being here shown in section, along with belt means for the garment,

Figure 3 is a fragmentary sectional View taken on the line -B of Figure 2, considerably enlarged,

Figure fi is av partly broken plan View, ona larger scale` than Figure l, of an electrically heated innersole means i'or heating a foot of a wearer of the garment shown in Figure 1',

Figure 5 is a section taken on the line 5 -5 of Figure Figure 6 is a fragmentary View partly7`4v in section, taken on the line B-E of Figure l',

Figure 7 an elevational view, on a larger scale than Figure l, of the palm sid'e of a" mitten for heating the left hand of the wearer of the garment shown in Figure l,

Figure 8 is a fragmentary sectional View, on' aiarger scale, taken along the line' 3 8" of Figure?,

'Figure 9 is an electrica-l diagram of the`r circuits corresponding to the embodiment shown in Figure l, and

Figure l0 is a fragmentary electrical diagram* operate with holes 23 in the other end of the'belt. It willibe understood of course that means for detachably joining. the' ends of the beltv may as sume any other desired and suitable4v form. The longitudinal margins of the' belt are stitched as by stitching 24 (Figure 3)', or otherwise) suitably fastened, to the waist portion of the garment' so that theY longitudinal center portion of the belt and the opposite adjacent portion" 9' of the gar"- inent may be moved away from each other there'- by to provide conduit means 26m Whichfbus con-v ductor means 25 maybe inserted. The stitchingy 241 hereinbefore referred to may terminate a desired distance short of the buckle end: ofthe bel-t 2li, and a desired distance short ofv the' cooperating, other end ofl the belt,` so that the buckle and thel cooperating, other endlare free ofv` the garment for desired lengths as indicated: in Figure 2. The bus conductor means 25 disposed' within they conduit means 25 provided by the belt 20 as hereinbefore described, isv electrically connected, in this instance, to conductor means here shown as a two-conductor cable 271 of any desired length provided at the free end thereof with aV plug adapted for insertiony ina socket 29 (Figure 9) connected to line Wires 30' from a source of electricity. If desired, a lineA switch L20, and a rheostat l2-i may be interposedy in the line wires 33. In general, reference may be had to Figure 9 for the electrical connections of the embodiment of Figure l. The cable- 21 may be supported by a bracket 3l carrying av clamp 32, the bracket being suitably fastenedA to the belt 20, and the arms of' the clamp 32 serving to holdthe cable 2l relatively to the belt.

The bus conductor means 25 has a portion 33 which runs clockwise, as viewed from above the belt" 20, in the conduit means 26` provided` by the belt from the place where the cable 2T enters the belt, to a' switch 3'4 which carried by the belt 20 and is interposed in the bus conductor means 25 so as to be adapted t'o complete or' interrupt the'current supply' to the electrical heating means provided in the garment (see Figure 9). If desired electrical outlet means 35, here shown as a two pole socket, may' be mounted on the belt 20 and`v electrically connected in' parallel to the bus conductormeansZS, for purposes to be described.

The bus conductor means' 25 disposed within the conduit means 25 provided by' the' belt il also has a portion 38 which extends in a counterclockwise direction from the place Where the cable 2l enters'the belt 2li, around the back t'o the weare."s right side.

Vhate'ver heating means is provided for the garment is fed by suitable connections to the bus conductor means 25, each heating means being connected in parallel with the bus conductor means. In the instance shown in Figure 1 there is provided a belt-like electric heating means 31 for heating the chest and back of the body of the wearer of the garment, the terminal end margins 38, 39 of this belt-like heating means being here shown as disposed adjacent the longitudinal split (indicated by the broken line 40 in Figure 1) in the anterior wall of the garment. The belt-like heating means 31 is thus adapted substantially to encircle the chest and back of the wearer leaving only a slight gap, if any, in the front. The longitudinal split 40 in the garment, which may extend from the neck to the crotch of the garment if it is of the coverall type, may be closed by a closure means 4l of the interlocking-element slide-operated type, or by buttons or any other suitable closure means. f

A conductor cable 42 comprising two conductors connected respectively to the conductors Iof the portion 36 of the bus conductor means 25 serves. to feed with the current the belt-like chest and back heating means 31.

Thev ends of the belt-like heating means 31 may befastened to the inside of the garment so that these ends are adjacent the longitudinal split, by 'a desired number of snap fasteners 43 or in any other desired suitable way. One of these snap fasteners, 43, is shown in side elevation in Figure 6, the socket part 43a of the snap fastener being, in this instance, mounted on the fabric wall portion g2 of the garment and the plug part 43h being mounted on the heating means 31. The heating means 31 is here shown as in the form of a heating pad comprising a suitably insulated resistor 45 which is disposed between two walls 45, 41 of wool fabric or any other suitable insulating material, these walls being shown in Figure 6 as partly broken away at the top to show a part of the resistor 45. The wool walls 46, 41 are desirably slightly larger than the area of the insulated resistor 45 and the overlapping margins may be fastened together by stitching 48 or in any other suitable way. It will of course be evident that the beltlike heating means 31 is assemblable with and separable from the garment as a unit. If desired the heating means 31 may be fastened to the garment by fasteners at other additional points of its circumference.

AIt will be evident that the circumferential length of the heating means 31 may be so selected, or the fastener parts 43a and 43D so located, or both, that when the closure means 4I is closed, the heating means 31 is put under tension sufcient so that the heating means is maintained snugly encircled about the back and chest ofV the wearer, and hence in heat-conducting relation to the back and chest, even though the garment itself may fit the wearer loosely. The snugly encircling effect of the heating means 31 is enhanced if this heating means is at least somewhat eXtensible and contractibla'which it is in this instance, because at least the covering comprising the walls 46, 41, to which the fastener parts 43a are attached, is resiliently eX- tensible and contractible.

Electrically connected to the conductors of the portion v35 of the bus conductor means 25 is conductor means which may be a two conductor cable 49T. The cable 49T passes through an aperture l! in the wall portion g of the garment, up-

wardly inside of the garment and passes over the right arm pit of the garment into and along the inside of the right hand sleeve 5h'. The cable 49T is here shown as extending beyond the terminal end of the sl-eeve 51T, and the end of the cable is provided with any suitable insulating supporting means 53 for supporting a pair of connector terminals 52 to which the conductors of the cable 491` are respectively electrically connected. The connector terminals 52 may be of the snap fastener type or any other type affording easy attachment and detachment from complementary connector terminals on a glove or mitten (Figure 7) containing electric heating means for heating the hand of the wearer.

Conductor means which may be in the form of a cable 54T is electrically connect-ed to the portion 36 of the bus conductor means 25 at approximately the same place as the cable 491', but extends downwardly into and along the inside of the right hand leg 55T of the garment. As here shown the lower end of the cable 541* carries any suitable insulating means 56 for supporting a pair of connector terminals 51 adapted to cooperate with complementary connector terminals on a heating means (similar to Figure 4) for heating the right foot of the wearer, as will more fully appear.

As here shown, the embodiment in Figure 1 also includes heating means, in the sleeve 5Ir, for the right arm, in this instance in two parts, one part 58a for the upper part of the arm and another part 58h for the lower part of the arm. The heating means 58a, 58h are in this instance connected in series and are fed by cable Sr comprising tw-o conductors electrically connected to the bus conductor means 25 similarly to the cable 49T. The cables 49T and 601* are shown separated in Figure 1 for the sake of clearness, but they preferably lie side-by-side against the adjacent inside wall of the garment.

As here shown, the embodiment in Figure 1 also includesheating meansfor the right leg 551, in this instance in two parts, one part 10a for the upper part of the leg and another part 1b for the lower part of the leg. The heating means 10a, 18h are in this instance connected in series and are fed by a cable 1h' comprising two conductors electrically connected to the bus conductor means 25.

Means is provided for holding the hereinbefore mentioned cables in predetermined desired position within the garment, this means being here shown as a tape or elongated piece of fabric EIT disposed against the inside wall of the garment and stitched longitudinally at 62, 63 to the wall of the garment so as to form conduit means 64T in which the cables are disposed. The conduit means 641 is omitted in Figure 1 for the sake of clearness. The upper part 64a (Figure 3) of the conduit means 64T extends upwardly from the 1ocation of the belt means 2l), around the arm pit part of the right hand sleeve 5l1" and downwardly a desired distance along the inside surface of the right hand sleeve, The conduit part 64a contains the cables 491, r. The lower part 64b of the conduit means 64 extends downwardly from the location of the belt means 2G, along the inside of the right hand leg 55T a desired distance. The conduit part 64b contains the cables 547', 1h'. The heating means for the left side that is for the left leg 551 and foot and the left arm 5|Z and hand is here shown the same as for the right side hereinbefore described, the heating means having the same relative locations and being fed by cables 491, 601, and 541, `||1, from the bus conductor means 25, and disposed in conduits as already described in connection with the cables 49T, 601 and 54T, 1|r. If desired the cable 42 for feeding the heating means 31 may also be run in a fabric conduit 80 similar to the fabric conduit |54.

The heating means for the arms and legs may be constructed in the form of heating pads similarly to the heating means 31, and snap fasteners (not shown) may be used to detachably fasten the arm and leg pads to the garment. The arm and leg pad-s need not be made in two parts but each limb may be heated by a unitary pad.

Referring particularly to Figures 4 and 5 there is here shown an innersole means 901 comprising two pieces of leather 9|, 92, or other suitable material, which are spaced apart by a member 93 of cork composition, or any other suitable material, having an aperture 94 which may generally follow the outline of the insole means 901, leaving a space in which is disposed an insulated resistor 951 having lead terminals 96 connected respectively to parts of snap fasteners 91 adapted to cooperate with the complementary snap fastener parts 5'1 carried by the cables 54T and 541, respectively. The snap fasteners 91 are carried by a. exible tab 98 of suitable length made of two pieces of soft leather, or other suitable flexible insulating material, suitably stitched or otherwise fastened together and to the innersole means proper. Between the parts of the tab 98 are disposed the lead terminals 96 of the resistor 951. The resistor 951 may be suitably cemented in place. The pieces 9|, 93, 92 may be cemented and stitched together.

The innersole means 901 is so constructed and arranged that it may be readily inserted into the left shoe (not shown) of a wearer of the garment, the tab 98 extending upwardly along the inside rear wall of the shoe, whereupon the wearer puts the shoe on his foot and snaps the connectors 91 to the connectors 5'| on the cable 541 or the cable 541 as the case may be, it being of course understood that an innersole means similar to the innersole means 901 is provided for the right shoe of the wearer. It will be evident that if the resistor of an innersole means should fail or the innersole means should otherwise become unuseable, it is not necessary to discard any shoe with worn over the usual shoes, and in this case the l innersole means will be disposed between the insole of the boot or over-shoe and the bottom of the sole of the usual shoe.

Referring now to Figures 7 and 8 there is here shown a mitten or glove 991 comprising in this instance a portion adapted to take the thumb, a forenger portion |0|, and a portion |02 for the remaining three fingers. The portions |00, |0|, |02 are heated by an insulated resistor |301 comprising insulated resistors |03, |04, for the respective portions, these resistors being connected in series, the lead terminals |06, |01 to this series of resistors being connected to two snap fastener parts |08y |09 respectively, which are mounted on the inside of the mitten and are carried by a relatively stiff strip l I0 of any suitable insulating material fastened to the glove as by screws and nuts or in any other suitable way. A thermostat l2 may be interposed in the circuit of the resistors in order to interrupt the circuit in response to excessive temperature. Ordinarily the desired rate of heat dissipation is higher for the resistors in the mitten than for others of the heating elements, so that excessive heating is more apt to occur.

Figure 8 shows a section of the portion |02 of the mitten of Figure 7, enlarged, the outer part ||3 of the mitten being leather or other suitable material, lined with a wool layer or other suitable layer of material ||4 which may if desired be cemented to the inside of the leather. The resistors |03, |04 and |05 are fastened between two layers of wool ||5, ||6 or other suitable material, shaped to conform to the inside of the layer ||4, and desirably so constructed and arranged that the resistors and the covering layers ||5, |6 constitute a unitary heating means separable from the mitten proper, so that if a resistor should fail, or the unit otherwise wear out, it is unnecessary to throw away the mitten proper.

The snap fastener parts |08, |09 of each mitten are adapted to cooperate with the complementary snap fastener parts 52 (Figure l).

Referring now to Figure 10, there is here shown an electrical diagram of an embodiment suitable for use in case the garment comprises separate coat and trousers, as distinguished from a coverall type of garment. In this instance the belt of the trousers may contain bus conductor means 250 corresponding to the bus conductor means 25 of Figure 9. In this instance the bus conductor means has connected thereto a socket |40 into which may be inserted a plug carried by a cable (not shown) connected to or connectible to a source of electricity. In this respect the form shown in Figure l0 is the reverse of the form shown in Figure 9, and, of course, if desired, the form shown in Figure 10 may embody a cable such as the cable 2'1 of Figure 9, having a plug 28 connectible to a source of electricity.

The bus conductor means has connected thereto a socket 350, corresponding to the socket 35 of Figure 9 but having an additional function as will appear. Auxiliary bus conductor means 250a is provided which is carried by the coat part of the garment. The auxiliary bus conductor means 25001I has connected thereto a cable |50 of suitable length so that a plug |5| carried at the end of the cable may be plugged into the socket 350 so that the bus conductor means 250ais fed in parallel with the bus conductor means 250 from the socket |40 through a switch 340 corresponding to the switch 34. The auxiliary bus conductor means 250s is adapted to feed all of the heating means associated with the upper garment or coat, including the hands of the wearery whereas the bus conductor means 250 is adapted to feed all of the heating means associated with the lower garment or trousers, including the feet of the wearer. The cables in Figure 10 corresponding to those in Figure 9 bear reference characters in which the numerals of the reference characters of Figure 9 have been multiplied by ten, for example, cable 4901* of Figure l0 corresponds to cable 49T of Figure 9, and so on. It will be understood that the respective cables in Figure 10 lead to heating means corresponding to the heating means to which corresponding cables lead in Figure 9.

Referring again to Figure 9, the socket 35 may be used to receive a plug connected to conductor means leading to a heating pad, which may be a separate heating pad, on which the wearer of the garment may sit, or the socket may be used to make connection to an electric light, or to any other desired electric translating device. The

7 socketllA of Figure'li) may be used for similar purposes, in which'case the plug I5! will of course have been rst removed. By making the heatingmeans for different parts of the body (which includes the limbs and extremities thereof) separate and connectible in parallel to the source of current (speciiically the bus Iconductor means) each separate heating meanshas the same voltage applied thereto and each'is'designed to havea desired total heat dissipating capacity and a desired heat dissipating capacity per unit of area of the part of the body"` to which I@the respective heating means is applied. Obviously, the total rated heat dissipating capacity of a given heating mean, or the dissipating capacity per unit oi appliedareathereoi, orboth oi these characteristics, may be made the same or different from thesefcharacteristics of onezor more of the other heating means. Furthermore, greater flexibility of design is possible, particularly where, as is usually the casewith respect to garments for aviators and so forth, the available voltage is relatively low, as for example of the order of l2 volts to 24 volts. Obviously, dierent sizes and/os; lengths of resistor may be used, if desired or necn essary, in the separate heating means` Preferably the resistors of the heating means are made of material that has a high tempera ture coefficient of resistance, so as automatically to limit the current iiow therethrough and hence the amount of heat generated, as the temperature of the heating means rises. While the insulation for the resistors of the heating means may be of any suitable nature, such an insulated resistor as disclosed in the patent to Van Daarn and Stranszky 2,251,697, August 5, 194.1 is very desirably embodied in the various heating means hereinbefore described due to its moisture-resistant, heat-resistant and other mechanical and electrical characteristics. From the foregoing it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that each of the illustrated em bodiments of the invention provides new and ime proved electrically heated wearing apparel and accordingly, each accomplishes the principal object of my invention. On the other hand, it also will be obvious to those skilled in the art that the illustrated embodiments of my invention may be variously changed and modiiied, or features thereof, singly or collectively, embodied in other combinations than those illustrated, without de'- parting from the spirit of my invention, or sacu ricing all of the advantages thereof, and that accordingly, the disclosure herein is illustrative only, and my invention is not limited thereto.

I claim:

l. In combination: a garment; a plurality of individual electric heating means for heating different parts of the body o a wearer of said garment; individual conductor means for separately supplying each of said electric heaters with electric current; belt means, permanently fastened to said garment about the waist portion thereof, so constructed and arranged as to4 provide conduit means between the inside surface of said belt means and the outside surface of said waist portion; bus conductor means disposed in said conduit means; electrical connection means, electrically connected to said bus conductor means, constructed and arranged for connection to a source of electric current, to connect said source to said bus conductor means; said individual conductor means being electrically xedly connected to said bus conductor meansyand switch means 8 carried 'by said belt means and electrically intere posed in said bus conductor means for controlling the supply of current to said bus conductor means separately from said electrical connection means. i

2. In combination: a garment; a plurality of individual electric heating means for heatingdifferent parts of the body of a wearer of said garment; individual conductor means for separately supplying each of said electric heating means with electric current; belt means, permanently fastened to said garment about the waist portion thereof, so constructed and arranged as to provide conduit means between the inside surface of said belt means and the outside surface of said waist portion; bus conductor means disposed in said conduit means; electrical connection means, electrically connected to said bus conductor means, constructed and arranged for connection to a source of electric current, to connect said source to said bus conductor means; said individual conductor means being electrically xedly connected to said bus conductor means; and electrical outlet means, carried by said belt means and electrically connected to said bus conductor means, constructed and arranged for electrical connection thereto of selected auxiliary electrical translating devices external to and separate from said garment to supply said translating devices with current from said bus conductor means.

3. In combination: a garment comprising a part constructed and arranged to encircle a portion of the body of a wearer of said garment, said part being discontinuous at one place in the direction of encirclement, the free ends at said place being provided with joining means for detachably joining said ends, the circumferential extent of said part being such that when said joining means joins said ends, said part loosely encircles said portion of the body of a wearer; electric heating means carried by and on the inside of said part of said garment, said heating means being of less circumferential extent than said garment part and constructed and arranged to engage said portion of the body of the wearer when said joining means joins said ends; and said heating means and said part of said garment being relatively so constructed and arranged that said heating means is pressed into heat-conducting relation to said portion of the body of the wearer by reason of circumferential tension on said heating means caused by joining of said ends by said joining means, while joining of said ends leaves said garment part free of circumferential tension and loosely encircling said heating means.

4. In combination: a garment comprising a part constructed and arranged to encircle a portion of the body of a wearer of said garment, said part being discontinuous at one place in the direction of encirclement, the free ends at said place being provided with joining means for detachably joining said ends, the circumferential extent of said part being such that when said joining means joins said ends, said part loosely encircles said portion of the body of a wearer; electric heating means carried by and on the inside of said part of said garment, said heating means being a belt-like unit of less circumferential extent than said garment part and constructed and arranged to engage said portion 0f the body of the wearer when said joining means joins said ends; and said heating means and said part of said garment being relatively so constructed and arranged that said heating means isl pressed into heat-conducting relation to said portion of the body of the wearer by reason of circumferential tension on said heating means caused by joining of said ends by said joining means, while joining of said ends leaves said garment part free of circumferential tension and loosely encircling said belt-like heating means.

5. In combination: a garment comprising a part constructed and arranged to encircle the torso of a wearer of said garment, said part being discontinuous at one place in the direction of encirclement, the free ends at said place being provided with joining means f or detachably joining said ends, the circumferential extent of said part being such that when said joining means joins said ends, said part loosely encircles the torso of a wearer; electric heating means carried by and on the inside of said part of said garment, said heating means being a belt-like unit of less circumferential extent than said garment part and constructed and arranged to engage the torso of the wearer when said joining means joins said ends; means for fastening the ends of said beltlike unit to the inside of said garment near the parts of said joining means respectively; and said heating means and said fastening means of said garment being relatively so constructed and arranged that said heating means is pressed into heat-conducting relation to the torso of the wearer by reason of circumferential tension on 10 said heating means caused by joining of said ends by said joining means, while joining of said ends leaves said garment part free of circumferential tension and loosely encircling said belt-like heating means.

GERRIT VAN DAAM.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the iile of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 718,896 Ames et al. Jan. 20, 1903 721,270 Zeckendorf Feb. 24, 1903 1,284,378 Lemercier Nov. 12, 1918 1,358,509 Birkenfeld Nov. 9, 1920 1,510,125 Woodford Sept, 30, 1924 1,691,472 Graham et al. Nov. 13, 1938 2,227,781 Joy et al Jan. 7, 1941 2,277,772 Marick Mar. 31, 1942 2,287,915 Taylor June 30, 1942 2,298,298 Joy et al Oct. 13, 1942 2,329,766 Jacobsen Sept. 21, 1943 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 258,384 Italy Apr. 23, 1928 556,594 Great Britain Oct. 12, 1943

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Classifications
U.S. Classification219/211, 219/507, 219/528
International ClassificationH05B3/34
Cooperative ClassificationH05B2203/036, H05B3/342, H05B2203/017
European ClassificationH05B3/34B