|Publication number||US2458294 A|
|Publication date||Jan 4, 1949|
|Filing date||Jan 17, 1945|
|Priority date||Jan 17, 1945|
|Publication number||US 2458294 A, US 2458294A, US-A-2458294, US2458294 A, US2458294A|
|Inventors||Parker Lenious G|
|Original Assignee||Parker Lenious G|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (14), Classifications (23)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Jan. 4, 1949. L. G. PARKER OIL DISTRIBUTING SYSTEM Filed Jan. 17. 1945 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. LEN/011$ 6. Flag/(EB BY i W V m,
J 1949- y L. a. PARKER 2,458,294
OIL DI STRIBUTING SYSTEM Filed Jan. 17, 1945 :5 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENT LEN/Ot/S 6. R4 2 Patented Jan. 4, 1949 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,458,294 v OIL DISTRIBUTING SYSTEM Lenious G. Parker, Oakland, Calii'. Application January 17, 1945, Serial No. 573,242
The invention relates to a mechanism and ar- Another object of the invention is to provide an oil distributing system for a multi-cylinder engine which will permit the elimination of a large number of the parts by avoiding the need for individual oil inlet lines to the cylinders from separate oil pumping units.
A further object is to provide an oil distributor system for multi-cylinder engines in which the actuating means for the pump unit is of a design which will enable the pump parts to operate at relatively low speed and without shock or noise.
A still further object of the invention is to provide an arrangement of the character described, which will permit manual or automatic variation in the quantity of oil supplied to the engine and adjustment in the speed of operation of the engine by control of the fuel supply in a simple and effective manner, and without requiring the use of springs.
Yet another object of the invention is to provide a distributor means of the character described in which the bearing surfaces between relatively movable parts defining passages or chambers for the fuel oil under high pressure will limit possible leakage from such passages or chambers to areas under pressures considerably above atmospheric so that dissipation of .the high fuel oil pressure Will be effectively limited.
The invention possesses other objects and features of advantage, some of which, with the foregoing, will be set forth in the following description of the preferred form of the invention which is illustrated in the drawings accompanying and forming part of the specification. It is to be understood, however, that variations in the showing made by the said drawings and description may be adopted within the scope of the invention as set forth in the claims.
Referring to said drawings:
Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of an oil distributor mechanism designed in accordance with my invention. v
Figure 2 is a plan view of the distributor with 9 Claims. (Cl. 123-139) a portion in section taken through the oil delivery duct. the plane of the section being indicated by the line 2-2 of Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a view similar to Figure 2, but taken through the oil feed ducts of the distributor, the section being taken on the line 3-3 of Figure 1.
Figure 4 is a longitudinal sectional view of the distributor taken through the delivery duct, the plane of the section bein indicated by the line 4-4 of Figure 2.
Figure 5 is a side elevational view of the oil inlet control means of the distributor.
Figures 6 and 7 are fragmentary elevational views at right angles to each other, showing the 1 oil control outlet means of the distributor.
Figure 8 is a diagrammatic representation of the cycle of operation of the oil distributor system.
Figure 9 is a view similar to Figure '7, but showing a modified form.
Figure 10 is a plan view of a multi-cylinder engine with the distributor unit operatively connected with the different cylinders.
The distributor system of my invention includes means for directing the fuel oil supply to oil pumping mechanism, and means directing the oil under pressure from such mechanism to the nozzles for injection of the oil into the engine cylinders in appropriate succession and at the proper intervals. In the present embodiment the distributor mechanism is combined with a fuel pumping arrangement which provides both for raising the pressure of the oil for injection to the cylinders, and for effecting such injection at the appropriate times. Pumping mechanism of this latter type as used with a single'cylinder is disclosed in my co-pending application, Serial No. 403,528, filed July 22, 1941, issued as Patent No. 2,369,174. r
In .the drawings the distributor i2 is shown as of a design for use with an oil engine l3 having four cylinders l4; however it will be understood. of course, the distributor may be designed for use with an engine havin any number of cylinders. As will be clear from Figure l, the distributor comprises a body i6 having a central distributing core I1 and oil pumping units l8, corresponding in number to the cylinders and with one unit associated with each cylinder and operatively connected to the injection nozzle l9 thereof.
Each of the pump units, as here shown includes a. plunger 2| mounted to reciprocate ina bore 22 formed in the body and disposed with its longitudinal axis parallel to the corresponding axis of the distributor core ll. Admission of fuel oil to the bore is by way of an inlet duct 22. and discharge is permitted through outlet ducts 24 and 28 leading from an extension 21 of the bore, the
extension communicating with the bore by a passage 28 which is closed against back-flow of the oil by means of a check valve 29. Oil from the various ducts 24 is arranged to be directed through the distributor in a manner to be hereinafter described, to the injection nozzles for admission to the different cylinders, while oil from ducts 2B is utilized in the manner set forth in said co-pending application for retracting the valve of the nozzle to admit the oil supplied from the bore 32 and defines with the spindle bearing.
36 at one end of the bore, an expansible chamber 31, the latter being closed and sealed except for a duct 38 which is connected by meansof a pipe 39 with the duct 26 of the associated plunger unit.
A valve 40 is provided on the spindle at the oil discharge end of the nozzle and the fuel 011 delivered to the nozzle for admission into the cylinder is exposed to transverse areas on the spindle I above and below the expansible chamber 31 in order that the pressure impressed on the spindle 4 times as the port 48 is in registration with one of the ducts. Y A feature of the present invention is the use of a single delivery line for transmitting the fuel oil from all of the pumping units simultaneously to the various injection nozzles. Formed between opposing surfaces of the shaft 42 and the bore 48 is a circumferentially extending oil receiving chamber 52 which is'sealed from the oil passage 48, and is arranged to be in communication with the various ducts 24. forded communication with the nozzles by means of a pipe which is operatively connected at its'opposite ends to a passage 55 leading to the chamber and a manifold 51 having inlet connections 58 to thevarious nozzles. As previously explained, when a plunger is I moved forwardly in one of .the bores 22 the oil,
which has been drawn into the bore during the previous return stroke, is forced through both ducts 24 and 26, the ducts 23 being closed off during such forward stroke as at such time the pressure is to be raised'sufliciently high in the bore to force the oil into the nozzles and effect by said oil will be preferably substantially equalv ized and the valve thus retained in closed position practically entirely through the action of spring 4i. On advance of the plunger in the pump bore 22, at which time inlet duct 23 will be closed,oll will be forced outwardly through both ducts 24 and 26 until near the end of the stroke delivery to duct 24 is interrupted and the continued advance of the plunger increases the pressure of the oil in duct 25 alone.- As the pressure differential is thus brought about and pressure in the bore and consequently in the chamber 31 reaches the desired value, the piston 34 will be raised and the valve 40 thus opened to admit the oil to the cylinder.
Included as a part of the distributor core H is a rotatable member or shaft 42 which is mounted in a longitudinally extending bore 43, preferably provided in an insert 44. Within the insert 44 are provided radial passages 41 which communicate with the pump inlet ducts 23 and are arranged to register with a port 48 formed in the side of shaft 42 which is in communication with a passage 49 extending longitudinally in the upper portion of the shaft. Fuel oil from a suitable source of supply is admitted to the passage 49 by means of a pipe 54. The port 48, as will be clear from Figure 3, is preferably elongated circumferentially of the shaft so as to provide for successive delivery of a sufllcient amount of fuel from the passage 49 to the ducts 23 as registration with such ducts takes place as the shaft is rotated. The insert may be turned in the .bore to adjust the registration of the passages and the insert is retained in adjusted position by means of a nut 5i. As will be understood, the shaft 42 will be rotated once for each complete cycle of the engine, that is, in the case of a four stroke cycle engine, and therefore where a four cylinder engine is used, the shaft will be rotated one-half the speed of the engine crankshaft. As the surface of the shaft in transverse alignment with the port 48 is not in communication with the port, the ducts 23 will be sealed from the fuel oil supply passage 49 except at such expansion of the chamber of the associated nozzle and unseat the nozzle valve thereof. As will be evident, as long as the pressures in the ducts 24 and 26 remain the same, no expantributor shaft 42 and extending into and defining in part the chamber 52. The land is of -a width which will keep one duct covered when the plunger in the bore with which such duct is connected is in its advanced position, and rotation of the distributor shaft is arranged in time with the reciprocation of the plunger, so that the land will progressively be disposed opposite the successive ducts 24 as the plungers reach their respective advanced positions in such bores. Rotation of the shaft is here shown effected by means of worm gears 6i and 62 which are operatively connected with the engine so as to provide the desired speed of rotation relative to the crankshaft. In order to provide for reciprocation of the plunger in proper sequence with the rotation of the shaft 42, means are provided, here shown in the form of a cam wheel 63 which is fixed to the shaft for rotation therewith, and is provided with a cam face 64 extending along the periphery of the wheel 63 and arranged to engage the dependinglends of the plungers. The cam includes high and low portions 66 and 61 respectively and is formed to provide for a ball race engagement with the plungers. The plungers are retained in engagement with the cam face by means of springs 68, and desirably the area of the cam face between the high and low portions is curved gradually for the full distance so that the speed of movement of the plungers will be reduced to a minimum, and thus insure a relatively smooth pressure acceleration of the oil The chamber 52 is afstart'the plunger on its downward or suction stroke which will continue for a full halfturn of the cam as indicated in the diagrammatic representation of the cam-and plunger operation depicted inFigure 8. During such stroke, port 4! will be open to duct 23 leading to the bore containing said plunger 50 that a full charge-of oil will be introduced into the bore. As the plunger reaches its lowest position as indicated at the right in Figure 1, the cam will have moved through its half turn and will be ready to raise and start moving the plunger on its upward stroke. port 48 will be rotated out of registration with the bore so that as the plunger advances the oil in the bore will be impressed with increased potential and forced out through ducts 24 and 28, the oil from duct 24 passing to the nozzle by way of chamber 52, pipe 64, and manifold 51, while the oil from duct 2| passes out through pipe 39 into chamber 81. The balanced condition of the pressures in both ducts is maintained as indicated in Figure 8, for the greater portion of the upstroke of the plunger, or in other words up to the time near the end of the stroke that the land 59 closes off communication of duct 24 with the distributing chamber 52 whereby on further advance of the plunger increase of the pressure of the oil in the bore is effected only in duct 26 to cause the opening of the injection valve.
In order to permit ready adjustment of the speed of the engine, the land 58 is formed so as to present a gradually decreasing transverse area preferably from the bottom to the top. and, at the same time the distributor shaft is arranged for longitudinal displacement so that the land may be moved to present to the duct 24 a greater or lesser area of the land during the rotation of the shaft and thus vary the length of time during which the injection valve is kept open. Preferably the longitudinal displacement and positioning of the distributor shaft is controlled by a speed governor operatively connected to the engine. As here shown, a lever 6 9 is operated by the governor in accordance with the speed of the As the latter movement is initiated the ment a dual opening of the injection nozzles is secured, whereby oil may be admitted to the engine cylinders at the inception of the intake or suction stroke, as well as at the beginning of the power stroke, so that a quantity of oil will be oil ,outlet to the pressure chamber of one nozzle engine, and one arm of such lever provides a support which engages the lower end of the shaft and thereby controls the positioning of the land. Preferably the upper end of the land terminates short of the upper end of the chamber 52, so that the distributor shaft may be positioned to avoid providing any pressure differentie] between ducts 24 and 28, and thus stop all injection of fuel to the motor. Control of the engine speed is also effected in accordance with the pressure of the oil admitted to the distributor bore 46, since the area of upper end face ill of shaft 42 is greater than the opening of passage 49. Thus as the pressure is increased the shaft will be forced downwardly and a shorter duration of valve lift in the nozzles will be provided.
It is also important to note that leakage of fuel oil from ressure chamber 52 can take place only to the bore portion at the oil inlet end or to bores containing the plungers. In this manner since the pressure in said bore portions and bores are arranged to be considerably more than atmospheric, very littl pressure dissipation of the oil in chamber 52 may be effected.
In Figure 9 I have shown the distributor shaft provided with an additional land II at the chamber 52. This land is narrower than land Bl, and is positioned in substantially diametrically opposed relation to land it. with this arrangeand a second oil outlet to thefuel passage of said nozzle, a distributor core including a member mounted to rotate in timed relation with the operation of the engine and including means to alternately open and close said inlets successive.- ly for the different pumps to a source of fuel oil, said core including a common delivery chamber for the second mentioned pump outlets operatively interposed between said second outlets and said nozzle passages and normally open to such second outlets, and means closing said second mentioned outlets to said common chamber successively from the different pumps during a portion of the oil delivery operation therein.
2. In a fuel distributor for multi-cylinder engines having a fuel injection nozzle for each cylinder provided with a valv controlled fuel oil discharge passage to the cylinder and a pressure chamber sealed from said passage and-adapted for opening the valve, a plurality of fuel oil pumps arranged for receiving and discharging operations and each pump having an oil inlet passage thereto and a first oil outlet passage to the pressure chamber of a nozzle and a second oil outlet passage to the nozzle fuel passage, a distributor core including a member mounted therein for rotation in timed relation to the operation of the engine, means moving with said member for alternately opening and closing said inlet passages successively for the different pumps to a source of fuel oil supply during the oil receiving and discharging operations respectively, a common oil delivery chamber interposed between the second mentioned pump outlet passages and the nozzle fuel oil discharge passages, and means moving with said member to successively close the passages from said chamber to the different nozzles upon substantial completion of the fuel discharge operations in the pumps.
3. In a fuel distributor for multi-cylinder en-.
gines having a fuel injection nozzle for each cylinder provided with a valve controlled vfuel oil discharge passage to the cylinder and a pressure chamber sealed from said passage and adapted for opening the valve, a plurality of fuel oil pumps arranged for receiving and discharging operations and each pump having an oil inlet passage thereto and a first oil outlet passage to the pressure chamber of a nozzle and a second oil outlet passage to the nozzle fuel passage, a distributor core associated with each of said pumps and including a movable member rotatable in timed relation with the operation of the engine, means on said member to alternately open and close said inlet passages successively for the different pumps to a source of fuel oil supply during the oil receiving and discharging operations respectively, a common oil delivery chamber in said core interposed between the second mentioned pump outlet passages and the nozzle discharge passages, and means on said member movable through said delivery chamber to successively close the passages from said delivery chamber to the different nozzles upon sub-.
stantial completion of the fuel discharge opera tions in the pumps.
4. A fuel oil distributor in accordance with-- claim 3, in which the rotatablemember is displaceable axially and formed so that upon such displacement the time of closing of the passages and the closed period will be varied, and means for axially displacing said member in accordance the inlet passages to the different pumps extending therefrom in spaced relation, a shaft I mounted to rotate in said bore in timed relation 6. In an oil engine fuel. distributor of the character described, a plurality of fuel oil pumps arranged for alternate receiving and discharging operations and each pump out of phase with the others and having an oil inlet passage thereto and a pair of separate outlet passages, a distributor core including a member mounted to rotate in timed relation to the operation of the engine, means on said member to alternately open and close the inlet passages successively to the different pumps during the receiving and discharging operations thereof, a common oil delivery chamber in said core with one of the corresponding outlet passages of each of the pumps extending to the chamber in spaced relation, and
.ineans on said member closing said passages to the chamber successively for the different pumps with the operation of the engineand having an end surface at said first portion and a passage extending through said shaft with its inletat' said first portion and an outlet at a side of 'the shaft registerable on rotation of the shaft successively. with the inlet openings in the second bore portion, a common delivery chamber defined by the bore andshaft and sealed from said first and second bore portions, said chamber having separate inlet openings thereto from the corresponding branches of the pump outlet passages and having a portion extending completely around the shaft, a land on said' shaft extending into said chamber formed and positioned to separately close the different chamber openings successively during the final part of the discharge operation of the associated pump,
arranged to vary the duration of closing Of said during the oil discharging operation of the assoelated pump.
7. In an oil engine fuel distributor of the character described, a plurality of successively out of phase fuel oil pumps each arranged for alternate receiving and discharge operations and provided with an oil inlet passage thereto and an oil discharge with branch passages, a body including a bore with a first portion arranged for connection with a source of fuel oil and a second portion sealed from said first portion and having the inlet passages to the different pumps extending therefrom in spaced relation, a shaft mounted to rotate in said bore in timed relation with the operation of the engine and having an end sur face and a passage in communication with said first portion, said last passagearran'ged on rotation of the shaft to successively register with the inlet openings in the bore, a common delivery chamber defined by the bore and shaft and sealed from said first and second bore portions, said chamber having separate inlet openings thereto .from corresponding branches of the pump outlet passages and having a portion on said shaft the different chamber openings during the final part of the discharge operation of the associated pump, and a cam rotatable with said shaft for "actuating said pumps.
8. In an oil engine distributor of the character described, a plurality of successively out of phase fuel oil pumps each arranged for alternate receiving and discharge operations andprovided with an oil inlet passage thereto and an oil discharge with branch passages, a body including a bore with a first portion arranged for communication with a source of fuel oil and a second portion sealed from said first portion and having chamber openings in accordance with the longitudinal positioning of the shaft, and a cam rotatable with said shaft for actuating said pumps progressively.
9. .In a fuel oil distributor for a multi-cylinder fuel'injection engine having an injection nozzle for each cylinder provided with a valve controlled fuel oil passage to the cylinder and a pressure chamber for opening Said valve, a body having a bore therein, a plurality of pump units spaced about said bore each having a bore parallel to said first bore and connected thereto by a pump inlet passage and to said nozzle pressure chamber by a pump outlet passage, a rotatable member fitting in said first bore and having portions cooperating with the wall thereof to alternately open and close said pump inlet passages successively for the different pump bores, means to lead the fuel oil to said cooperating portions for admission to said passages, said first bore and member defining an oil delivery chamber communicating with said nozzle passages and communicating by pump outlet passages with each of said pump bores at points spaced from said pump inlet passages, plungers in said pump plungers in the respective bores substantially completing their advance stroke.
LENIOUS G. PARKER. REFERENCES crran The following references are of record in the file of this patent: I
UNI,TED' STATESPATENTS fl-Iumber Name; Date 2,027,360 Alden Jan. 14, 1936 2,052,549 Alden Sept. 1,1936 2,191,186 Amery Feb. 20, 1940 2,310,370 Hoilfer Feb. 9, 1943 2,369,174 Parker Feb.13, 1245 I FOREIGN- PATEIEITS Number Country K I Date England l May 29, 1940
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|U.S. Classification||123/450, 239/533.3, 417/506, 417/502, 239/95, 239/94, 239/408|
|International Classification||F02M41/06, F02M47/02, F02M59/04, F02M41/08, F02B3/10|
|Cooperative Classification||F02M41/08, F02B3/10, F02M41/06, F02M2700/1329, F02M59/04, F02M47/02|
|European Classification||F02M41/06, F02M41/08, F02B3/10, F02M59/04, F02M47/02|