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Publication numberUS2458865 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 11, 1949
Filing dateOct 27, 1945
Priority dateApr 15, 1944
Also published asUS2543463, US2588740
Publication numberUS 2458865 A, US 2458865A, US-A-2458865, US2458865 A, US2458865A
InventorsWilliam A R Malm
Original AssigneeWilliam A R Malm
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Invisible light television system
US 2458865 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 11, 1949. w. A. R. MALM INVISIBLE LIGHT TELEVISION SYSTEM Original Filed April 15, 1944 IN V EN TOR.

Patented Jan. 11 1949 UNITED RAIRE NT OFF-ICE lzss isss- "i INVISIBBE LIGHT TELEVISIONSYSTEM william A lh Malm, New Orleans, La.

27,4945, SerialNo. 625,035

, 2 Claims.

7 This application is a division of =myipending; application, Serial .Nm 53l, 2 05, filed;Apri1 15,-;1944:

This-invention rrelatestg imethods and means for 1 controlling invisible; and wisi-ble; scanning beams einan inframedeor ultrla-violet ray television system and the like wherein; objectse-are scanned bycmeans of infra-red or,nlt ra+violet raysyandlaivisiblelrimage of saidiobject lis i rmed upon =azrscreen, and methods; and. means for mechanically interlocking: the; scanning; devices in an apparatus-which is; effectively a. television transmitter and-receivenclosely coupledthereby eliminating the enecessi-ty, of; costlyscanner synchronizing :devices.

Obj ect scanning at the transmitter-V and image scanning-at the receiver .;have both :been. accomplished. by electronic; and mechanical means; The electronic devices weresefficientbut expen e sive; while the: mechanical clevices proposed heretofore 1 were inexpensive but. inefficientcand some wereimpractical. I s

It is 1 a well .;known. factethatl' an lobject which emits or reflects visible light rays islinvisible to thezeye if a-foggori-haze exists-between .the object and. the; observer, because the visible rays-= are diffused by the-foge-or haze-,whil thegpenetrating infra-cred rays areznotrdetectedqby theieye Like-:- wise,; objects which emit o1: refiectconl-y'ginirau-red or ultra-violet rays are @not visi bleeto. theceye.

This invention provides, means for scannmg :a television obj cat; which ,-emits,or reflects; visible light raysbutis obscured r-by fog or haze, or. a television object emitting or: reflectingeinfra-lred orultra-violet-rays an'd,.enveloped in darkness, andlmeanstfor scanning a television image. offsaid object upon aisuitable screen; comprised offinfrared or ultra-violetnray.detecting devices, transducers for.convertingtheinfra-red ,or-ultra-violet scanningerays into visibleilight scanning rays, invisible and visible ray kineto-opticalLdevices, etc., hereinafter described. 7 .An object of this inventionis to provide practicalimeansfor viewing an object envelopednin darkness, fogcor haze.

Other objects of this invention, will appear hereinafter.

. The views inthe drawing are entirelylsectional, to.facilitate illustration of theeopticalldevices.

The, drawing .shows .the invention asvapplicable to infra-red or ultra-violetv television, ,,wherein visible, television images of v objects which emit or. reflect, invisible, but retractable. rays are. received .upon' a suitable viewingscreen. Thedee vices. effectively comprise, a, transmittencobject as Lorre 10f: the kineto=opticalr prismaticr lenses functionssimultaneouslyas antobject and image scanners.therebyueliminating the. necessity of otherxzsynchroniingi means. The drawing" is a vertical plane section embodying related devices fcrzpr-odncingv:televisionsimageaof objects,- the directovision of: which liS' obstructed iby darkness; fog :or-whazen Theoparallel scanning- .lrreazmsx of light rays and infra-red or ultra-violet rayslare shown proportionately over-sized, aas'; illa isaquite envious thatihight quality picturedetail can be ohtainedionly' when saidapazrallel scanning beams arecextremiellyyzsmall ingtheir crossesectionalrarea .;l3,escrinticn;cfthe:devicesxshownainithedrawill isclose theirroperation.. v -Flhe erefractive devicesnshownl in: the drawing could be useful.@ifnconstmcted; of 1 conventional optieal imediaw crown andxfiint glass ihOWBVBI', for reflection of infraered ;;or=;ultra-violet; rays the: efiiciency; of; said refractive -,.devijces {would be increasedaif th y; wer made .of, pol tyrene: or similar :plastic "material.

31 represents ,1 an: object beingscanned :-;by a beam niiinfna red ;or ultra-violet vrays .3-2. :33-.is a suitalblezfilter which ;.al1o.ws either. infra-red or ultra-v o eta vsit ppass, as I y; abereq Theubeam, ofgira-ys lslrcon-ldrb'e emitted from an object ,:radiating-:, inf1za+red. --or ultra'rvioletrays, 0r:"1t fl@C;l d'-: r0m :en 1 object flooded h infrared or ultra-violet rays. Theaefiective=focus..of lens assembly ,3sl andz 35 :(preierablwmade of polystyrene or similar plastic materia-l).-:determincs thewsize pf :thfirfijeldfof View being scanned. V v 1 gylinglrical; lens- 3 6 :omzerges,v in a vertical pl n mal o i h rays:intercep edwhyl n s e ly ,34 1111165., 7 s

Br matic, lensfil is a polyhedron (with al cone ce I ri'c'. circular hole; which rotates :in 'a'lvert-ica'l wplan eeatpa ccnstantl speeds Its speed ;must be consistent with the numbei ;of. .;polyg-onal sides entitle-polyhedron,image scanning line-,and-gframe frequencies; theflpractica-l limits of rotational c s-1 s a n I Cylindricali lens 138. converges; ninja [horizontal plane; a ,of the-rayssvertically-deflected by;rotat:- ing pris matic lens, 31'. v

ismatil lens- 911s a polyhedr nW -me centric. circular hole; which rotates in .-a horizontaL-plane-and atiaficcnstantispeed, I-Its speed must be consistent-with the numbernof. polygonal theepolyhedron, image scanningslinet and name ,freqnencies; and;-the practical limits of scanner and, receiver image: scaxmerev directly rotationaLdevices The speed of rotation of prismatic lenses 3! and 39 increases with the required number of image scanning lines and frames per second, and varies inversely as the number of polygonal sides.

The means for rotating and synchronizing prismatic lenses 31, 39, and 46 are not shown in the drawing, for simplicity, as they are conventional devices.

The aperture in plate 40, by virtue of the related positions of prismatic lenses 3! and 39, allows only the infra-red or ultra-violet rays from the spot of the object which is being scanned at each instant to enter the photo-electric cell symbolized by 4|.

Photo-electric cell 4| converts the infra-red or ultra-violet ray impulses passing through aperture in plate 40 into electrical impulses which are passed through amplifier symbolized by 42. Amplifier 42 gives the said electrical impulses sufficient gain to operate the neon, argon, or similar gas crater type of lamp symbolized by 43. This invention involves the use of any suitable transducer which would convert the electrical impulses into light impulses within a parallel beam of light having an extremely small cross sectional area.

The parallel beam of light 44 emitted from said neon lamp 43, obviously would carry the modulations of the invisible infra-red or ultra-violet ray beam 32.

Prismatic lens 46 is a polyhedron with a concentric circular hole, which rotates in a horizontal plane (1. e., relative to the rotational plane of prismatic lens 31) and at a constant speed. Its speed must be consistent with the number of polygonal sides of the polyhedron, image scanning line and frame frequencies, and the practical limits of rotational devices.

The concentric circular hole in prismatic lenses 37, 39 and 46 provides means for increasing the total deflection of the beams refracted by said prismatic lenses, to compensate for reduced refraction in the polyhedron caused by increasing the number of polygonal sides in order to obtain a rotational speed within practical limits and commensurate with present day standards of line and frame frequencies. Experiments have demonstated that the angle of total deflection of the scanning beam within the polyhedron varies inversely as the diameter of the concentric circular hole.

As light beam 44 passes through rotating prismatic lens 31, it is vertically deflected and scans a vertical line upon screen 50 each time a polygonal side sweeps through said light beam.

Light beam 44 follows a succession of divergent paths in a vertical plane. as it is deflected by rotating prismatic lens 31. These successively divergent paths are paralleled by means of cylindrical lens 45, so that said light beam 44 may be properly deflected by prismatic lens 46 rotating in a horizontal plane.

Light beam 44 then passes through rotating prismatic lens 46, its horizontal deflection causing the vertical lines scanned upon screen 50 by prismatic lens 31 to appear adjacent to each other in rapid succession, as each polygonal side of prismatic lens 46 sweeps through said light beam.

Light beam 44 follows a succession of divergent paths in successive horizontal planes, as said light beam is vertically deflected by prismatic lens 31 and simultaneously deflected horizontally by prismatic lens 46. These successively divergent paths, in successive horizontal planes, are paralleled by means of cylindrical lens 41 thusly form-- 4 ing a television image with the modulations of light beam 44 for projection upon screen 50.

The size of the television image appearing upon screen 50 is determined by the effective focus of lens assembly 48 and 49.

Observer 5| can make the devices sensitive to infra-red, ultra-violet, or visible rays by simply changing or removing the filter 33, as may be required.

The infra-red or ultra-violet sensitivity of photo-electric cell 4! would be increased, if at least a portion of the bulb through which the rays pass was made of polystyrene or similar plastic material.

This invention may have other embodiments without departing from its spirit.

Whatis claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is as follows:

1. In the art of television and the like, a device which combines the scanning of an object with the scanning of an image of said object for the purpose of viewing said object when enveloped in fog, haze, or darkness, comprising a lens assembly for intercepting a succession of parallel beams of infra-red or ultra-violet rays radiated from the surface of said object, means for filtering said successive parallel beams, a dual purpose rotating polyhedronal prismatic lens having a concentric circular hole and related cylindrical lenses providing means for simultaneously and vertically deflecting said successive parallel beams of infra-red or ultra-violet rays and a parallel beam of visible light rays hereinafter described, a second rotating polyhedronal prismatic lens having a concentric circular hole and related cylindrical lens for horizontally deflecting said parallel beam of infra-red or ultra-violet rays, and an aperture plate which by virtue of the successive related positions of the said rotating prismatic lenses allows only the rays within said infra-red or ultra-violet scanning beam to convey modulating impulses to a photo-electric cell; a photo-electric cell or similar device, an amplifier and related means for producing a parallel image scanning visible light beam modulated by the output impulses of said amplifier, a third rotating polyhedronal prismatic lens having a concentric circular hole and related cylindrical lens for deflecting said parallel beam of'modulated visible light rays in a plane perpendicular to the plane in which said modulated beam of visible light rays are deflected by the aforementioned dual purpose rotating polyhedronal prismatic lens, and a lens assembly providing means for determining the total viewing screen area scanned by said modulated parallel visible light beam thereby determining the size of the television image projected upon said screen.

2. In the art of television and the like, means for producing and controlling object and image scanning beams, comprising a lens assembly for intercepting a succession of parallel visible or invisible object scanning beams emitted or reflected from the surface of said object, means for filtering said successive parallel beams, a kineticoptical polyhedronal prismatic lens having a con-- centric hole or core of required refractive index and related cylindrical lenses providing means for simultaneously and vertically defiectingsaid successive parallel visible or invisible beams and a parallel image scanning visible light be m hereinafter described, and a second kineto-optical polyhedronal prismatic lens having a concentric hole or core of required refractiveindex and a related cylindrical lens providing means for horiproducing said parallel image scanning visible light beam having an extremely small cross-sectional area and extending to the viewing screen, a third kineto-optical polyhedronal prismatic lens having a concentric hole or core of required refractive index and a related cylindrical lens providing means for deflecting said parallel beam of modulated visible light rays in a plane perpendicular to the plane in which said beam of visible light rays are deflected by the aforementioned dual purpose kineto-optical polyhedronal prismatic lens, and a lens assembly for controlling the projection of said modulated and deflected parallel image scanning visible light beam upon said viewing screen to produce an enlarged scanned image of the scanned said object.

WILLIAM A. R. MALM.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,781,799 Baird Nov. 18, 1930 2,213,307 Elliott Sept. 3, 1940 2,222,987 Dimmick Nov. 26, 1940 2,225,097 Cawley Dec. 17, 1940 2,262,942 Jones Nov, 18, 1941

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1781799 *Oct 7, 1927Nov 18, 1930Baird Television LtdMethod of and means for transmitting signals
US2213307 *Jun 26, 1937Sep 3, 1940Elliott Douglas AApparatus for deflecting light
US2222937 *Sep 21, 1937Nov 26, 1940Rca CorpScanning device
US2225097 *Apr 8, 1937Dec 17, 1940Cawley Aloysius JDiavision
US2262942 *Feb 28, 1938Nov 18, 1941Kansas City Testing LabNavigation instrument
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2920136 *Jun 22, 1955Jan 5, 1960Peterson Charles WInfrared telescope
US5532763 *Feb 10, 1995Jul 2, 1996North American Philips CorporationSingle panel color projection video display
US5608467 *Jul 18, 1995Mar 4, 1997Philips Electronics North America CorporationSingle panel color projection video display
DE1813743C3 *Dec 10, 1968Mar 11, 1971Aga AbAnordnung zur Abtastung eines Feldes in zwei Richtungen
Classifications
U.S. Classification348/164, 348/202, 348/E03.8
International ClassificationG02B26/10, H04N3/06, H04N5/74
Cooperative ClassificationG02B26/108, H04N5/74, H04N3/06
European ClassificationH04N5/74, H04N3/06, G02B26/10R