US 2459875 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. Z5, 1949. Mj FOLKMAN sYRINGE AND AMPOULE 2 sheets-sheet 1 nllllllal' Filed sept. 11, 1944 Jan. 25,v 1949. y YM. l.. FOLKMAN` y2&4598'75 S'YRINGE AND AMPOULE Filed Sept. 11, 1944 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented Jan. 25, 1949 UNITED STATES lATENT OFFICE sermon.' AND AMPQULE Marvin..L.-Flkman, shakes Heights, ohio 'Appueatimseptember 11, 1944; seriarNafs-ss'geos This invention pertains to' the. art et. hypodermic or similar syringes and; involves novel im'- provements' in this type of. surgical instruments.
An especial. object of theinve'ntion; nasbeen to produce a syringe ot the classimentionediniwhich energy storingmeans, which mayi be. of a mechanical orfluid: pressuretype, `Ihay be availed of for ejecting the. medicant in the" syringe therefrom through! ther hypoderm-ic need-1ey Ior through other similar applicator' means.
i preferred formi of the" invention-isi contain'- platedl tov utilizeV an improved type-of energy storing spring' asi thev mechanical means'y orejecting the medicant' from the syringe, andix the inveny tion. involves,v further; different types. of? operating,-` instrumentalities whereby to compress or otlrier'wi'se act upon?v sa-id spring in order! to Store up the energy required? 'for the ejec'ting action previously reierredf to'.
Still/f another object of the invention has been to* devise certain novelinstrumentalties control"- ling: the application'of the: force ofy the energy storing" means to: the ampoule or cartridge-which contains the" medicanti; Y v
It is notablethat'z the: syringev of' the. type of my invention. i's utilizedA in connection. with ampoules or cartridges" tobe emplaced therein preliminary to ejection of@ inedicant"therefrorn,and one ofthe objects oft the invention is toI facilitatethe load-- ing and unloading. of' the' ampoules with' respect tol-the syringe casing orbody.
Another object of the invention has been to devise a syringeeonstruction in which complete ease of holding and' manipulation is olotaina'blein l use and no' stretching or special-"extramanipula- Ytionofi the lian'di is required in order lto force the medi'cant from the syringe. H
.A special feature of the invention. residesfin the instrumentalities employed?k in' my" .instrument whereby' the ease` oi control?of:v the 'operation thereof isV greatly enhanced. In other Words', my control' instrumentalities respond? instantlyV in respect to' giving either dropL by drop or full stream flow of the' medicant from the adminis'- teringneedle by means of simple nger pressure and' the me'dicant 'sreadily' further controllable to be h'eld inV the' syringe" untill it' is required for use. Likewise, a further?ohjectiv-'e'lieslin having a construction of cartridge or ampoule in which medic-ant ismaintainedi d'ryeind freefiom deterioration byf moisture or lightuntil it islready for use.. at winchA time practically instantaneous .and complete dissolving of' therrie'dicarlt4 Inayfbe eff# In syringes ofv4 thev class of myn-invention; one-of 3 Claims.- (Cl. 1428-215) the essential thingsdesirable is to practicalize and reduce the cost of the ampoule as much as possible'. bvfiouslyv the ampoules are manufactured and sold in large numbers, and itis a further object hereof that my' invention shall proevide an ampoule 'or cartridge which maybe. made in a very simple manner. from al manufacturing viewpoint, so as 13o/reduce the expense thereof to a minimum, vandiyet.4 be very eiectivey in its actual coopera-tive use inr conjunction with the syringe instrument, forthev purpose' of ejecting the medicanttherefrom through the administering needle' or other applicator" to' be employed.
Other objects of my invention willbecome more appa-rentas thisi description proceeds, and 1I. have illustrated: different-modineations ormy invention for preferred constructions' thereof, in` the accompanying drawings, in which.:
Figure 1i isi ai 'longitudinal' sectional vieE/f of a hypodermic syringe embodying the essential features.of"my invention, and'v in thisigure the am'- poulel ii'lustrated andf leil'aced.f in the syringe' i's shownjust after' the fnvernentthereof bywlich the end disc of the ampoule is punctured in order to' establish communication Between the needle and they medican't chamber. Y
Figure 2 is ai fragmentary top View partly in section showing the applicator portion of myi syringe and bringing out more clearlyV the side openings of the said lportion through'y which the ampoule may' be introduced into the applicator section previous' to theuse of the syringe; certain brake devices arealso'illustratedt for holding the energy storing means against action for ejectng the contents of th'e ampoule through the needle applicator. fli'gure 3L i's aseotional View` taken on the" line -Sif Figure' 22.10`dking'" in the' direction of" the arrows.. y
yi'gure. 1 is 'al view looking' toward the operating end of the syringe or handle means and illustrating the actuating-gearing for initiating the storaigeof energy the compressionlspring.
i Figure 5 illustrates asectional. View of. amodiled form-f of theVJ ampoule-in which fluidpressure may be generated forthe purpose oi obtaining; the necessary energy" fork ejecting the medican't from the ampouleand! fromthe syringe.A
l Eigurel is ai partial l'ongitudinalsectionalview showing' more particularly' the operating section ofmysyringexand illustrating a modified form of vto the ejecting operation.
3 trating still another modification of my invention.
Figure 8 is a vertical sectional view taken about on the line 8-8 of Figure T.
Figure 9 is a view similar to Figures 6 and 7 but showing a modincation of the same class of construction.
Figure l0 is a vertical sectional view taken about on the line IS--Hl of Figure 9. ,L 4
Figure 11 Ais a transverse or vertical sectional view takenV about on the line H--H of Figure 6.
Figure 12 is a dual fragmentary section and -now set forth the detail structure or formation of my ampoule and its parts. The ampoule or cartridge is generally designated A and comprises a straight glass tube. At one end of this glass tube A is a movable plunger and attached to said plunger is the tube which contains the medicant v to be dissolved and then subsequently injected. For simplicity and economy the said plunger, instead of being molded, as has been the pra-ctice in the art before, is made up of laminated discs cemented together. approximately 1/8" thickness can be cemented together for making the said plunger, I prefer, as shown in Figure l of the drawings, to'utilize an outer imperforate rubber disc B, an inner perforated rubber disc D, and between the two discs I emplace avfelt or asbestos disc'C also centrally perforated. The felt disc 4C offers advantages in facilitating movement of the plunger as well as in conjunction with the rubber discs providing for the necessary tightness of the While two rubber-discs of 1 plunger in the tube A.Y Likewise, the vdisc C at i its peripheral edge may be caused to carry a nlm vof glycerine, which will act as a lubricant.
Obviously, the discs D, C, and B Vcan readily be stamped from sheets of suitable material oi the 'i used for cementing the discs B, C, and D together,
The inner end of the plunger, as above described, notably the outer plunger of the ampoule vas it is emplaced in the applicatorfsection of my "syringe, has cemented to the disc D a thin plastic disc E, and integral with this plastic disc E is disposed at right angles to the plane thereof .a hollow tube Which carries or contains the medicant. The
medicant is thus permanently housed or protected from moisture and light insaid tube until it is ready to be dissolved and used. The tube 5' 'mentioned is designated F and is disposed Veccentric to the axis or center of the 'plunger so that it serves the function of anfarm as'later described, the purpose ofY which is to open the water compartment when the entire plunger is pushed back into the glass tube A preliminary The discs or members C, D, and E are centrally perforated, vwhile the rubber'disc B is not perforated. The object in this connection is to maintain'the contents of 4 the ampoule air-tight at Vthe end of the same where the plunger means just described is located. As will be later .set forth, the rubber disc B will be centrally punctured in order to establish communication between the hollow portion of the syringe needle and the medicant containing chamber of the ampoule.
Located approximately near the middle portion of the tube AV is therubber disc orpartition H which seals up vthe medicant in the chamber F of the tube and separates it from the liquid in the chamber, or compartment I, which liquid is employed to mix with the Vmedicant in the chamber Fand thus place the medicant in solution. At the righthand or inner end of the ampoule of the tube A is located a plunger which is very similar in construction to the Yiirst described plunger, in that itcomprises a unit made up of discs R, S, T. The discs R and 'I are made of rubber and the disc S of felt.
The foregoing description of the ampoule applies to the construction of this member of my Yinvention as illustrated in Figure ll of the drawings. However, in FigureY 5 I show a somewhat modified ampoule construction in that I desire under some conditions to provide Vsuch a construction wherein the pressure force may be generated inthe ampoule itself for the expulsion of the medicant therefrom. In Figure 5, therefore, my ampoule is of the same general construction which has been previously set forth in respect to Figure l, but Yis elongated in respect to the length of the glass tube container.
According to the construction of Figure 5, the left end plunger means, the partition H, and the right end closing plunger R, S,T, are as previously set forth. However, in this construction I provide ,a middle special composite plunger the parts of which are designated J, K, L, and M, and which correspond generally with the parts B,-C, D, E, as set forth. The middleplunger means J, K, L, M involves the use of a plastic .disc or member M in which the offstanding arm designated Nis solid and merely constitutes a tilting arm fora partition or disc P that separates water in the compartment Q from the dry gas producing medium which is illustrated in tablet form in the compartment O which is disposed between the member-P and the member M. The manner of use of the ampoule just described will be set forth later, though the principle of operation involves the tilting of the disc or partition P so that the water in the chamber Q may act in conjunction with the gas producing medium in `the compartment O to generate a gas by which the medicant in the compartment G, in dissolved condition, may be caused to pass from .the ampoule tothe administering needle.
Describing my syringe asfit is illustrated in Figure Il of the drawings,l I generally characterize the body of thesyringe as being divided into a left hand applicator section and a right hand operating section, because the means for supplying the medicant from the syringe is primarily located vin the applicator section while the right hand 'section of the syringe body is devoted to contain- .ing the operating mechanism for forcingthe medicant from the syringe,
At one end of the applicator section-of the syringe body is located the nozzle l which carries the needle 26-21. V The outer end of the needle, namely 26, is used for making the injection in the patient. TheA inner .end oi the needle, namely 21, is employed to puncture the cartridge orampoule plunger B and establish contact between the. hollow portion of the needlel and the dissolved medicant which is formedk in the ampoule as later to be setforth.
My syringe is of. the side loading type and the cartridge is therefore inserted in the side opening 2A of the .syringe and pressed. forward or' to: the left in Figure l as iai' as it will go, thisI performing two -actions-'rst, the puncturing of thev rubber disc B, and second, the forcv ing. of the left endV plunger of the ampoule ine wardly in the` tube A. When the ampoule is emplaced vin its chamber' of the applicator sec tion of:` my syringe, the sleeve 'I .surrounding the said section will .be pulled leftwar'd or toward the needle 26 in order to partially cover the rear pomion or thel opening 2 and prevent accidental displacement of the ampoule in handling the syringe.
AS- stated before, as the ampoule is moved'to the left or` forward, the part Ia, of the syringe nozzle engages the plunger B, C, D, E of the ampoule and thus moves the entire plunger inward'ly in the glass tube A. This movement of the rsaid plunger causes the medicant tube F to bear against thev closure orY partition disc H swinging it around and permitting the solvent inthe compartment I to dissolve the medicant in the tube F. The plastic disc E of the plunger B, C, D, E near the middle portion. thereof has projections shown in Figure l2 to prevent the possibility of the disc H falling. in a position that might cause closing of the middle aperture of said part. E. The said projections are designated E irl-.the drawings. Y
Itis apparent that simultaneously with the dissolving of the medicant in the water from the chamber I. by the above action of emplacing and moving the ampoule inthe syringe, the needle 2l will have punctured the disc B of the let end plunger and thus contact isV established between the compartment G of the ampoule and the needle Zlib-21l By reason oi the special control instrumentalities usedv for my syringe and now to be described in reference to the operating section thereof, the medicant will not flow from the' needle 26 until placed under pressure bythe energy storing or pressure means now tobe set forth.
The pressure for forcing the liquid .,m'edicanl',V from the ampoule is obtained fromvthe energy storing spring I2.. This spring is cncloseduin a spring case made in two sections 6 and I5, each one'closed: at one end and open at theother end, the two-ends which are open beingtelescopically fitted together and' slidable so that the secthatthe body ci the syringe is' made up 'of the Y nozzle I, the left hand applicator section Ib of hollow form the right hand operating section Ic of similar hollow form, and the middle bulged f' portion Id" which provides a brake chamber` or chamber for certainv mechanism. ofy the syringe. The parts Ib, I.c, and: lid might-be integral, but the part I c isvshown inthe drawings adapted to be screwedLintofth-ef part I-d'so as lto provide for separation of the' casing element for access.' to theinterior thereof. At the right hand end of the operating section is an enlarged portion Ie which may be termed a handle section and contains certain gearing under some modifications ot the invention.
Reverting to the spring compression mechanism oi my syringe, it is notable that the outer or larger section il of the spring case must be kept rigid so that. the spring may be completely compressed without' having it push the bearing end of the spring case t against the plunger of the ampoule or cartridge; otherwise the contents of the cartridge would' be expelled beforev desired. 'I have shown modified arrangements for a means for holding the outer spring case section 6 stationary or rigid preliminary to the ejection of the medicant from the ampoule.
In Figure l the last referred to means embodies two brake shoes each forming a semicircle around the outer spring case section: (i. brake shoe in turn is held lightly against -V this spring case section 5 by two spring wires I0 which form links or pivotal connections between the brake shoesand the portion Ib of the syringe body orv casing. The normal position of the links or suspension means I9 is such that any tendency of the spring case section t to move to the .eit asv seen in Figures 1 or 2 is resisted by the automatic dragging or braking action of theshoes Sl In: Figure l, I provide certain gearing and operating devices for placing the spring I2 un'- der tension as it works in connection with the spring case section enclosing same. This means includes an internal' gear 23 that provides a revo'luble handle and which gear meshes with a spur gear 24. The gear 2li in turn engages gear 25 and there are additional gear reductions at 22 and 2| for carrying the turning force of the above mentioned gears to the screw I9. The gear 2l is secured to the screw I9. The screw I'S hollow and mounted upon the shaft ida which carries the gear .22 fixed thereto. Turning of the han'F dle Vgear 23 will result in several turns of the screw lil. Riding on the screw le is a nut 2U which is engaged with a spline or guide member 2da that prevents turning of the nut. When the screw I9 is rotated by means of the handle gear 23, as seen in Figure l, the 'nut 2B moves to the left. -By means of rods :I8 attached tothe nut, the bearing plate Il also attached to the rods moves to the left an equal distance with the nut. The bearing plate I? is rigidly fastened to the closed end lo of the smaller spring case or section member lil and would push the entire spring assembly and case to the left unless the brake means 3 were provided. The friction between the brake shoes t and the member Blof the spring caseisgreater the more pressure is exerted against the spring oase section` 6V to the left, and only upon release of the friction ci the brake shoes 9 will the spring case section E ybe permitted to move leitward. Thus as the gear 23 is turned, the screw I9 revolves and nut 2li moves forward or to the left moving with it the bearing plate Il against the inner spring case member I5 which in turn compresses the spring l2 without moving the outer spring case 6. v
When the operator desires to use the dissolved medicant in the ampoule, he presses lever 3", which in turn presses down the toggle linkse andl thus forces a brake release wedge 23 between the semi-circular brake members il, moving vthe latter apart. Slight pressure on the lever 3 will permitonlyy a slow movement of the section S of the spring case to the left, and the end of which bears against plunger R, S, T, of the ampoule or cartridge. Thus a slow discharge from the cartridge will take place in the injection operation, even permitting a drop by drop ow. On the other hand, if. a full streamrof medicant is desired at higher pressure, more force is exerted on the lever 3, which in turn separates the'brake members S further and permits a rapid ilow by reason of rapid movement of spring case member 6. Release of the member 3 stops the ow entirely because the member E cannot move under the action of the energy stored up inthe spring-i2.
The left hand end or closed portion of the spring case section 6 is of a diameter very slightly smaller than the inner diameter of the glass tube A of the ampoule, and therefore the said end oi the mem-ber 6 is adapted to enter the tube and to force the right hand plunger R, S, T of the ampoule against the liquid medicant for ejecting the same through the needle 25. After the contents of the ampoule have been discharged, the handle gear 23 is given one complete turn in the opposite direction to its spring energizing direction of movement, and this brings the nut 29 back to its original position. The movement of the nut pulls on the rods i8 and upon the casing section lli and an end ilange I3' on said casing section engages lugs i6 on the inner surface of the section 6 of the spring casing, and thus the section S is pulled back as the spring I2 expands and assumes its original condition wherein energy is not stored therein by means of the gear 23. A ring member if may be used to hold the portion le of the syringe casing in proper cooperation with the ring gear 23 that forms the operating handle, see Figure 1. Normally a spring 5 cooperates with the toggle links 4 to maintain the same and the handle 3 in the unoperated positions thereof as seen in Figure l. Of course, in the restoring action of the parts last referred to the movement in a rightward direction of the case section 6 is not resisted by the brake shoes` 9 owing to the arrangement of the supporting links l0 for the latter.
In the modication of Figure 6 I again use the handle gear 23 and gears 2&3 and 25 cooperative therewith, but in this instance the gear 25 carries a shaft and the shaft carries a worm 33. The Worm 33 engages the teeth of a rack bar 34 and the rack bar is secured to the adjacent closed end of the spring casing member I5. By turningof the, worm 33 in a reverse direction the reverse movement may be imparted to the rack 34 necessary to perform the functions previously described in regard to the spring compressing operation and the release of compression. In this construction I use the unique brake means illustrated in Figures 6 and 11 of the drawings. The brake devices consist of discs having arc-shaped slots therein, the arcs of which commence at the center ofthe discs and approach the peripheral portions, the slots being therefore eccentric. The discs are designated 3Iland the slots 3|, and a ring surrounding the section passes through the slots 3l and is designated 32. The said ring may be suitably supported in the portion ib of the syringe casing, and by reason of the method of mounting of the discs 3S, it will be seen that movement to the left of casing member 6 is resisted bythe braking effect of said discs. Therefore, I use. a sleeve 29 operable by the lever 3 and bythe proper link member 4a, normally held to the left by means of the spring action 5, which sleeve 29 is adapted to engage the peripheral portions of the in a cavity AA--I of the plastic plunger.
discs 3G and thereby to release the'braking effect thereof when it is desired to permit movement of the spring'section 5 for causing the ejection of the medicant from the ampoule.
In Figure 7 of the drawings I show a further modification of my invention. In the Figure 7 construction I utilize a crank lever 39 on the side of the body of the syringe by which to give a complete revolution to an internal gear 36.` The internal gear in turn engages a spur gear 31 which is engaged with a rack 38 and imparts movement to the latter. The rackr38 is of courserattached to the closed end of the inner spring case section l5 and the operation is substantially the same as in the Figure' construction.
In Figures 9 and 10 I have illustrated another modification in which a turning lever or crank 39a is operable from a side of the syringe body and its shaft portion is connected with a bevel gear 40 inside the casing of the syringe. As the rangement as illustrated in Figure 1, or it may be substituted by a worm and rack arrangement as shown in Figure 6. It is quite clear how the drive may be carried from the crank handle 39 to the screw I9 and from the screw I9 to the nut which is the construction actually illustrated in Figures 9 and 10, and is similar to that illustrated in Figure l.
In Figures. 13 and 14 I have illustrated a modied form of plunger such as may Vbe used in substitution for the plunger B, CD, E previously described, or the plunger J, K, L, M ypreviously described. In this type of construction the body of the plunger is molded plastic as illustrated at A, A. Anyone of the plastics which can withstand a sterilizing heat is suitable for the purpose inasmuch as it may be desirable always to sterilize the complete plunger and in vfact the complete assembly in the tube of the ampoule. In the modified construction of plunger it is contemplated to employ a rubber disc BB inserted Rubber rings CC are Yplaced in the grooves AA-Z of the plastic plunger. The grooves hold these rubber rings rigidly and the rubber rings are designed so that they fit snugly in the glass tube A of the ampoule. This gives smooth, yet tight and leakproof construction. The rubber rings are preferably made from rubber stock which has Vparaffine incorporated therein so that the' rings may have a lubricating quality useful for-permitting the movement of the plungers inside the glass tube of the ampoule. At AA--S is the ridge at the endV of the orifice and slots are cut into this ridge to provide the construction which is indicated in Figure 12 where the projections E' are seen as extending from the plastic disc member E. The tubular arm or member AA-ll serves the dual -purpose of containing a medicant and Yactuating the diaphragm or member H. For the middle plunger of an ampoule 1ike shown in Figure 5, the parts AA-4 as illustrated in Figure li'would be solid and merely constitute a tilting arm for the member P.
The operations of the several forms of my syringe invention as set forth herein has been pointed out as an incident to the explanation of the constructions utilized, and it is believed they will be fully understood with reference tothe specific description supplied.
I do not wish to be limited to the precise or detail forms of construction as I have furnished the same in my drawings, because various departures may be made therefrom within the pur- View of my claims hereto annexed.
The ampoule of Figure is useful in syringes employing a valve in the applicator section to control passage of the medicant through the needle 26 so the operating means of the operating section would not be employed or be useful under such conditions.
In the Figure 6 construction spring I2 is omit- Q ted and screws 23a entering an annular groove in the member I c permit swiveling rotation of the handle 23 on said member Ic.
Having thus described my invention, What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States, is:
1. In a syringe, in combination, an applicator section for containing medicant, an operating section, and medicant ejecting means in the operating section including a spring case comprising relatively movable spring enclosing sections, a spring in the case, instrumentalities to compress the spring by relative movement of the case sections including a handle turnable on the operating section and a member operable by the handle to move a case section to put the spring under compression, and manually controllable detent means to normally restrain a section of the case against medicant ejecting action under` the action of the spring.
2. In a syringe, in combination, an applicator section adapted to receive an ampoule for containing medicant, an operating section, and medicant ejecting means in the operating section inf cluding a spring case comprising relative movable spring enclosing sections, a spring in the case, instrumentalities to compress the spring by relative movementv of the case sections, and
manually controllable detent means to normally f restrain a section oi the case against medicant taining medicant, an operating section, and. medicant ejecting .means in the operating section in.. cluding a. spring case' comprising relative movable spring enclosing sections, a spring in the case, instrumentalities to compress the spring by relative movement of the case sections, and manV ually controllable detent means to normally restrain a section of the case against medicant electing action under the action of the spring, in which the instrumentalities mentioned include a handle turnable on the operatingA section', and A spur gear and rack devices operable by the handle to move a case section to put the spring under compression.
MARVIN L. FOLKMAN.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 387,761 Briggs Aug, 14, 1888 1,258,018 Kilgore Mar. 5, 1918 2,101,140 Hege Dec, 7, 1937 2,150,738 Dunajei Mar. 14, 1939 2,313,483 Smith Mar. 9, 1943 2,322,244 Lockhart June 22, 1943