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Publication numberUS2460346 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 1, 1949
Filing dateDec 8, 1944
Priority dateDec 8, 1944
Publication numberUS 2460346 A, US 2460346A, US-A-2460346, US2460346 A, US2460346A
InventorsHagner Frederick H
Original AssigneeHagner Frederick H
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Star matcher and sun compass
US 2460346 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

F. H. HAG N ER STAR MATCHER AND SUN COMPASS 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Fb.l,1949.

Filed Dec. 8, 1944 I ELEVATED POLE\ 3? Ml l5 s zem-rn /'\24 27 5 2 w h 2/ S p i BSERVAT/ON FAG/N 6 NORTH Feb. 1, 1949. H, HAGNER 2,460,346

STAR MATCHER AND SUN COMPASS Filed Dec. 8, 1944 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 1 65. 1, 1949. HAGNER 2,460,346

STAR MATCHER AND SUN COMPASS Filed Dec. 8, 1944 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Firm 5mm b. ///9 6405/? Patented Feb. 1, 1949 Ll'x-xi 1, 11

TUNlTED STATES PATENT OFFICE 11 Claims.

This invention relates to a star matcher and sun compass, and has for one of its objects the production of a simple and efficient means for determining direction and approximate latitude and local time day or night, without the necessity of referring to other equipment or tables. simply by matching the navigational stars with their indicated positions upon the dome of the device while viewing these stars through the dome.

A further object of this invention is the production of a simple and efiicient star matcher and sun compass having a collapsible dome which may be collapsed to fit substantially flat relative to the supporting ring, and may be pulled to an extended operative position when it is desired to operate the device.

Another object of this invention is the production of a simple and efiicient instrument having a time scale and a star calendar associated with a star matching dome and an observers meridian are, a horizon arc and an altitude and polar distance are for facilitating the measuring of the angle of an observed celestial body or other object relative to the position of the observer and the azimuth bearing.

A still further object of this invention is the production of aninstrument for determining north and south in a manner whereby a ray of light from a selected celestial body cast upon a selected point of reference will indicate that the instrument is oriented to the true celestial north and south points when the instrument is level and set for the proper date and the observers latitude.

Other objects and advantages of the present invention will appear throughout the following specification and claims.

In the drawings:

Figure l is a side elevational view of the device when in use;

Figure 2 is a front view;

Figure 3 is an enlarged front view with certain parts in section;

Figure 4 is a top plan view with certain parts broken away;

Figure 5 is a top plan view of the segments assembled which form the collapsible dome showing the segments in a collapsed position;

Figure 6 is a fragmentary sectional view of the device in a collapsed position;

Figure 6 is an exaggerated fragmentary sec-- notch into which the anchoring knob of the connecting pin for the segments of the collapsible dome is suspended;

Figure 9 is a diagram of the time scale and star calendar distorted as to actual proportional size for the purpose of illustrating the scale and calendar;

Figure 10 is a perspective view of one of the dome segments;

Figure 11 is a perspective view of the altitude and polar distance are;

Figure 12 is a plan view of the sighting strip.

By referring to the drawings, it will be seen that I0 designates the supporting ring which carries the rings l6 and I1. These rings l6 and I1 are secured by an overhanging tongue-andgroove connection of any desired type to permit the ring I6 to rotate relative to the ring H. The segments ll form the collapsible dome l2. The segments H are normally arched when in an extended position and are threaded through the slots I2 of the ring H, as shown in Figure 6. Beads l3 are provided at the lower ends of the segments II to provide stops and to limit the upward movement of the segments when they are pulled to an extended position. The inner ends of the segments ll overlap and are slotted as at M, for receiving the connecting and anchoring pin l5 which pin secures the inner ends of the segments together. These slots I4 permit the inner ends of the segments to slide one over the other when the segments are collapsed and lie in a substantially flat position. The segments are formed of transparent flexible material such as transparent plastic of such a character that the segments will lie fiat when collapsed and will take the form of a dome when extended as shown in Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4.

The relative locations of the navigational stars are marked on the dome l2, as at S, so that these stars may be matched with the navigational stars in the heavens when viewed through the transparent dome l2 by an observer, as shown in Figure 1. These locations are preferably designated by apertures formed in the segments of the dome which apertures are surrounded by luminous rings or linings in the same manner as illustrated and described in my application filed April 26, 1943, Serial Number 484,639, relating to Star identifier, which became Patent No. 2,372,487, issued March 27, 1945. The ecliptic line E is also indicated upon the globe l2.

The supporting ring l0 carries a pair of rotatable rings l6 and H, the ring l6 being the time scale and the ring l1 being the star calendar. The time scale is marked with the hours of the day from 12 noon to midnight and midnight to 12 noon, to cover the 24 hr. period. Midnight and noon may be considered the zero points. The star calendar is marked in 12 divisions designating 12 months of the year from January through December, the zero point being between J anuaryand December. This scale is shown in Figure 9. A sighting strip I8 is carried by the inner face of the supporting ring I! and spans the diameter thereof. A sighting aperture I9 is provided in the center of the strip I8 so that an observer may sight a selected star or celestial body therethrough in the manner as described in the following. As shown in the exaggerated view in Figure 6 the sighting strip I8 is adapted to lie flat and the segments I2 are of suflicient thinness to permit the segments to collapse without interfering therewith, and the parts are exaggerated as to size to facilitate illustration.

An observers meridian are 28 is pivoted at each end to the edge of the ring ID by pins 2|, and is adapted to swing over the top of the dome I2 when the dome is extended in the manner as shown in Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4, and extends across the pole of the dome. The are 20 is provided upon one side at a central point intermediate its ends with a notch 22 into which fits the neck portion 23 of the knob 24 of the pin I5 for supporting the pole of the dome I2, thereby holding the dome in an extended position.

A horizon arc 25 is pivoted to the edge of the ring II), as at 25, and at right angles to the pivot pins 2| of the are 20. The horizon are 25 is provided with a scale adjacent each edge, one scale being 0 at its center and being graduated to 90 degrees toward one end and 2'70 degrees toward the other end. The scale on its opposite edge is marked 180 degrees at its center and is graduated to 90 degrees at one end and at its opposite end to 2'70 degrees, so that the are 25 may be swung over to be used upon the opposite side of the dome to that shown in Figure 1.

The transparent altitude and polar distance are 21 is pivoted at one end to an anchoring slide 28, as at 28, Which slide 28 is slidable along the length of the are 20 and is so constructed as to pass over the knob 24 when the dome is extended, the arc 20 being formed to transparent yieldable material, it will also flex sufiiciently for this purpose. The slide 28 may move to a position where the arc 21 may be used in a reverse position from that shown in Figure 1 when observing the opposite side of the dome I2. A transparent index slide 29 which carries a lens is slidable along the are 21 to a position to be in line with a selected celestial body and the actual location of the body to be matched. When these are in alignment with the eye of an observer, the angle of the celestial body relative to the artificial horizon on the edge of the are 25 may be measured in the manner shown in Figure 1. The arc 21 is graduated from 0 at its base to 90 degrees at a point directly over the pivot 28. The base of the are 21 is pivoted, as at 28 to the inverted U-shaped shoe 30 which is slidable around the upper edge of the horizon are 25. A leveling device 3| of a suitable type is suspended from the shoe 30 as shown, and is adapted to be gripped by one hand of the operator to facilitate keeping the ring 25 approximately in a level position. The edge of the ring I I] is gripped by the opposite hand and the dome I2 is steadied or braced at its base by the fingers, as shown. The leveling device 3| is removable.

The names of the navigational stars are placed near the representations of these stars upon the dome, and the months are indicated adjacent the ecliptic line. Other data may be placed upon the dome I2, if desired.

When using the device to determine latitude, the dome I2 is held in the position shown in Figure l. The observer by viewing the navigational stars will then match these stars with the designations upon the dome. The matching of the stars with the indication of the stars positions on the dome will cause an observer to face north, and the observers meridian are 20 is then in a true north-and-south line. This orients the observer and the observer then moves the horizon are 25 until the touch-sensitive level indicates that the are 25 is in a horizontal plane and level. The are 25 is then held in this lever position directly in front of the observer's meridian arc 28. The observer then selects a matched star which is either in alignment with the arc 28 or is approaching the observer's meridian repre sented by are 20. When the star is exactly on his meridian and the horizon are 25 is level, the observer reads the angle opposite the horizon line on the observer's meridian are 20 and therby obtains his latitude. This gives the observer an opportunity to determine his latitude from each star as it crosses his meridian While still facing I north. The ring I1 is rotated to bring the date July 1 opposite to, or in registration with, the mark designating midnight on the scale I6, because Vega is on the meridian on July 1 at midnite. Hence, the observer measures the altitude of Vega at the time it is on the meridian at midnight, thereby determining the observers latitude. The observer then has his latitude and direction. The observer measures the time and date since the dome is carried by the star calendar ring which rotates with the dome and rotates with the time scale ring. For example Vega will be on the meridian on July 1 at midnight, that is. the are 28 will be opposite the mark July 1 on the star calendar and 12 midnight on the time scale.

When the device is used as a sun compass, the instrument is placed fiat upon a support in a level position. The leveling device is disconnected from the are 21 and the leveling device may be .placed upon the support to ascertain whether or not the support is level.

The sight 29 is brought. to a position at the base of the are 21 which is marked zero on the scale of this arc 27 adjacent the shoe 30, if the sun is in zero declination which would be determined by the date on the ecliptic. The shoe 28 is slid along the are 20 toward the north to bring the pivot of the are 21 to the point on the scale of the are 20 which indicates the observer's known latitude, and the distance from the zero point at the base of are 2! will give the polar distance of the sun for the date of observation. This correct angle is taken from the ecliptic E on the dome.

The instrument is then rotated and the are 27 is rotated around the pivot 28 until the lens in the sight 29 casts a sun spot upon the reference plate R on the sighI ng strip I8 at the center of the dome. Then the observer knows his true north and south points and the azimuth band 25 represents all other directions because the base of the arc 21 where it joint the are 25 points north and the balance of the scale indicates all other directions.

A compass of a conventional type may be checked by placing the instrument above the compass with the sighting aperture I9 directly over the center of the compas card, so that the sun spot will strike the plate R over the sighting aperture I9.

When the arc 21 is in a position to bring the lens in the sight 29 directly over are 20, the sun spot should appear cast upon the plate R which is swpng to a closed position over the aperture l9. If this does not happen it is an indication that the observer has set the incorrect latitude upon the are 20 of the instrument. He then moves the pivot 28 until the sun spot is properly centered on plate R and then he reads his correct latitude on are 20. This tells the observer it is 12 oclock noon and the sun has reached its highest point on that day.

When the sun is in south declination, a dome having the ecliptic representing the suns angular position while in south declination is used. When the sun is in north declination a dome having the ecliptic representing the sun's angular position while in north declination is used.

The instrument above described may be used in identically the same manner as set forth in connection with its use upon a compass, by placing the instrument in the center of a raft. life-boat, and the like, so that the suns point will pass through the transparent dome and strike a central reference point under the dome on the instrument, which central point will be directly over a line drawn fore and aft on the craft.

What is claimed as new is:

1. An instrument of the class described comprising a transparent dome-like member, a base for said dome-like member, said dome-like member being rotatably mounted upon said base, a time scale rotatably mounted relative to said dome-like member, an observers meridian arc pivoted to said base and movable to a position overlying said dome-like member, a horizon and azimuth arc pivoted to the base at right-angles to the observers meridian arc and movable to selected positions over the face of the dome-like member, and an altitude and polar distance are pivotally and slidably connected at one end to said observers meridian arc and carried by the horizon and azimuth arc and bodily movable with the horizon and azimuth arc to and from an elevated position relative to said base.

2. An instrument of the class described comprising a support, a transparent dome-like member rotatably mounted upon the support. the dome-like member having star location designations properly located thereon. an observers meridian arc pivotally mounted adjacent the dome-l ke member and movable across one face of the transparent dome-like member. said observers meridian arc being graduated in degrees. a horizon and azimuth arc pivotally mounted with respect to the dome-like member and at right-angles to the observers meridian are, an altitude and polar distance are pivotally and slidably mounted at one end upon the observers meridian arc and engaging the horizon and azimuth are at its opposite end, and a leveling means carried by the horizon and azimuth arc.

3. An instrument of the class described comprising a support, a transparent dome-like member rotatably mounted upon the support, the dome-like member having star location designations properly located thereon, an observers meridian arc pivotally mounted adjacent the dome-like member and movable across one face of the transparent dome-like member, said observers meridian are being graduated in degrees, a horizon and azimuth arc pivotally mounted with respect to the dome-like member and at right-angles to the observer's meridian arc. an altitude and polar distance are pivotally and slidably mounted at one end upon the observers meridian arc and engaging the horizon and azimuth arc at its opposite end, a leveling means carried by the horizon and azimuth arc, an index slide slidably mounted upon the altitude and polar distance arc and said altitude and polar distance are being graduated throughout its length, the altitude and polar distance arc being adapted to bodily move with the horizon and azimuth arc and being adapted to swing laterally with respect to said observers meridian arc.

4. An instrument of the class described comprising a support. a transparent dome-like member rotatably mounted upon the support, the dome-like member having star location designations properly located thereon. an observers meridian arc pivotally mounted adjacent the dome-like member and movable across one face of the transparent dom -like member. said observers meridian are being graduated in degrees, a horizon and azimuth arc pivotally mounted with respect to the dome-like member and at right-angles to the observers meridian arc, an altitude and polar distance are pivotally and slidably mounted at one end upon the observer's meridian arc and engaging the horizon and azimuth are at its opposite end, a leveling means carried by the horizon and azimuth arc, said dome-like member being formed of a plurality of segments movable from a substantially horizo tal to a dome-formation position.

5. An instrument of the class described comprising a support, a transparent dome-like member rotatably mounted upon the support, the dome-like member having star location designations properly located thereon, an observers meridian arc pivotally mounted adjacent the domelike member and movable across one face of the transparent dome-like member, said observer's meridian are being graduated in degrees, a horizon and azimuth arc pivotally mounted with respect to the dome-like member and at rightangles to the observers meridian are, an altitude and polar distance are pivotally and slidably mounted at one end upon the observers meridian arc end engaging the horizon and azimuth are at its opposite end. a leveling means carried by the horizon and azimuth arc, said dome-like member being formed of a plurality of segment-s movable from a substantially horizontal to a dome-formation position, and means for holding the dome-like member in an extended dome-like form.

6. An instrument of the class described comprising a support, a transparent dome-like member rotatably mounted upon the support, the dome-like member haiiingstarzlllgatiorrdesignations properly located thereon. an observers mer'idiax'i'arc pivotally mounted adjacent the domelike member and movable across one face of the transparent dome-like member, said observers meridian are being graduated in degrees, a horizon and azimuth arc pivotally mounted with respect to the dome-like member and at rightangles to the observers meridian arc, an altitude and polar distance are pivotally and slidably mounted at one end upon the observers meridian arc and engaging the horizon and azimuth are at its opposite end, a leveling means carried by the horizon and azimuth arc, said dome-like member being formed of a plurality of segments movable from a substantially horizontal to a dome-formation position, the segments having overlapping inner ends slidable one with respect to the other, a connecting pin for holding the inner ends of the segments together, and said pin having means engageable with the observer's meridian'irc for fixedly supporting the dome-like member in an extended dome-like form.

7. An instrument of the class described comprising support, a transparent dome-like member rotatably mounted upon the support, the dome-like member having star location designations properly located thereon, an observers meridian arc pivotally mounted adjacent the domelike member and movable across one face of the transparent dome-like member, said observer's meridian are being graduated in degrees, a horizon and azimuth arc pivotally mounted with respect to the dome-like member and at rightangles to the observers meridian are, an altitude and polar distance are pivotally and slidably mounted at one end upon the observers meridian arc and engaging the horizon and azimuth are at its opposite end, a leveling means carried by the horizon and azimuth arc, and a transversely extending sighting strip spanning the diameter of said dome-like member and having a sighting aperture at its center normally located directly under the center of said dome-like member.

8. An instrument of the class described comprising a support, a transparent dome-like member rotatably mounted upon the support, the dome-like member having star location designations properly located thereon, an observers meridian arc pivotally mounted adjacent the dome-like member and movable across one face of the transparent dome-like member, said observer's meridian are being graduated in degrees, a horizon and azimuth arc pivotally mounted with respect to the dome-like member and at right-angles to the ob-servers meridian arc, an altitude and polar distance arc pivotally and slidably mounted at one end upon the observer's meridian arc and engaging the horizon and azimuth arc at its opposite end, a leveling means carried by the horizon and azimuth arc, a" transversely extending sighting strip spanning the diameter of said dome-like member and having a sighting aperture at the center normally located directly under the center of said dome-like member, and means carried by said Sighting strip movable over said aperture and providing means upon which a ray of light may be cast by the sun whgn passing through said transparent dome-like... mfimb&.r-., z

9. An instrument of the class described comprising a support, a transparent dome-like member rotatably mounted upon the support, the dome-like member having star location designations properly located thereon, an observers meridian arc pivotally mounted adjacent the dome-like member and movable across one face of the transparent dome-like member, said observers meridian are being graduated in degrees, a horizon and azimuth arc pivotally mounted with respect to the dome-like member and at right-angles to the observer's meridian arc, an altitude and polar distance are pivotally and slidably mounted at one end upon the observers meridian arc and engaging the horizon and azimuth are at its opposite end, a leveling means carried by the horizon and azimuth arc, an index slide slidably mounted upon the altitude and polar distance arc and said altitude and polar distance are being graduated throughout its length, the altitude and polar distance arc being adapted to bodily move with the horizon and azimuth arc and being adapted to swing laterally with respect to said observer's meridian arc, and a supporting member for said opposite end of the altitude and polar distance are mounted for slidable movement upon said horizon and azimuth arc and being pivotally connected to one end of said altitude and polar distance arc.

10. An instrument of the class described comprising, m goa ie ring and a star calendar rin mounted in concentric and rotatable rela' ion with respect to each other, a semi-spherical collapsible dome formed of a plurality of segments, each segment having an inner and an outer end, means connecting the inner ends of said segments, guiding means for the outer ends of said segments carried by the star calendar ring, the outer ends of said segments being adapted to spread apart radially as the dome is collapsed and thereby permit the dome to lie substantially flat relative to the support when the dome is in a collapsed position, and the dome being adapted to be extended to an approximate semi-spherical shape when in a set-up position.

11. An instrument of the class described having a central point upon which the rays of light from the sun may be cast comprising a transparent globe segment having an ecliptic line thereon and marked with the daily positions of t h e suns declination, a support for the glo be segment, light-intercepting means carried by the support and movable circumferentially and vertically over the globe segment for intercepting a. ray of light-cast therethrough upon a selected daily position of the suns declination as appearing on said ecliptic line on said globe segment, means connected with said support for indicating the central point within said globe segment, a horizon are carried by the support, a level indicating means carried by said horizon arc, and a movable meridian indicating means extending transversely of said globe element and also substantially conforming to the contour of said globe element and carried by said support, means connecting said light intercepting means with said meridian indicating means, and the position of said movable meridian indicating means being adapted to indicate a north and south line when the suns rays register with the light-intercepting mean-s, mmdt posion said ecliptic line and said cen ral fiifit when the instrument is in a level. position as indicated by said level indicating means.

FREDERICK H; HAGNER.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 775,364 Gallagher Nov. 22, 1904 2,055,148 Hagner Sept. 22, 1936 2,337,587 Brocky Dec. 28, 1943 2,372,487 Hagner Mar. 27, 1945 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 72,041 Germany Nov. 20, 1946 218,527 Great Britain July 10, 1924

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US775364 *Feb 12, 1904Nov 22, 1904Richard D Gallagher JrCollapsible globe.
US2055148 *Apr 18, 1934Sep 22, 1936Position Finder CorpAstronomical instrument
US2337587 *May 5, 1942Dec 28, 1943Mark Cook And George CookNavigation guide
US2372487 *Apr 26, 1943Mar 27, 1945Hagner Frederick HStar identifier
*DE72041C Title not available
GB218527A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2994971 *Jan 28, 1959Aug 8, 1961Gilbert Co A CInstructional sky scanner
US3169319 *May 11, 1962Feb 16, 1965Hoffmeister Philip EPosition indicator
US3434211 *Oct 22, 1965Mar 25, 1969Us NavySatellite tracking and plotting device
US3863364 *Sep 5, 1973Feb 4, 1975King Scient LimitedEducational/navigational device
US4156975 *Jan 16, 1978Jun 5, 1979Harding Douglas EVisual aid and display device
US4912853 *Nov 17, 1981Apr 3, 1990The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The ArmyReticle plate and method for establishment of a north-oriented or south-oriented line by circumpolar orientation
US4945644 *Feb 1, 1989Aug 7, 1990Fuller George LHemispherical sundial with installation indicia
US8205346 *Jan 28, 2011Jun 26, 2012Hong-Wen ChengQuasi-uniaxial solar trajectory tracking transit system
US20120159796 *Jan 28, 2011Jun 28, 2012Hong-Wen ChengQuasi-uniaxial solar trajectory tracking transit system
Classifications
U.S. Classification33/269, 33/1.0SA
International ClassificationG01C21/02
Cooperative ClassificationG01C21/02
European ClassificationG01C21/02