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Publication numberUS2463763 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 8, 1949
Filing dateApr 27, 1948
Publication numberUS 2463763 A, US 2463763A, US-A-2463763, US2463763 A, US2463763A
InventorsChester Graff
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Gbavity b alil computing apparatus
US 2463763 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March s, 1949. C. GRAFF A 2,463,763

GRAVITY BALL COMPUTING APPARATUS Filed April 27, 1948 Nw-awww@ -NnlcnmQ /7 /7 INVENTOR. mi f z g- 2 CHESTER GRA FF BY 20g. M

ATTORNEY sat'ented Mar. 8, 1949 UNITED S TAT ES 'PATE NT lOlFf-Fl-CE 2,463,763 GRAVITY 'BAILL- COMPUTING APPARATUS Chester Graff; 'Los Altos, `Calif. Application IApril 2'7, 1948,'Serial N0. 23,533

9 Ciairns.

.l This invention relates to computing apparatus, and more particularly to an apparatus lfora'ddin'g and subtracting, tallying oricountingby controlled .gravity Amovement of balls r otherlfreemoving obj ects The general purpose Yis to Lprovide acompact vand simple device, of Akeyless and gearless Iconstruction, enabling the user, 'by onefinger Vpresas applied in written or mental'addition and subtraction.

A further object is to 'provide .a device for tallying or counting purposes by gravity `movement of objects, and particularly where varying numbers of units are toibe tallied or counted.

'A still further Objectis to provide a computing device with a Vminimum -of movable mechanical parts, rugged in construction, efficient in operation, and economical to manufacture, .and to generally Aimprove upon devices of the character described.

With the foregoing and other objects in view, which will be further explained herein, or apparent from this specification, one form in `.which the invention may be embodied is -described herein and illustrated in the `accompanying drawing, it being understood that changes in minor details may be resorted to without departing from the spirit of the 'inventicnvwhich is deiined inthe appended claims.

In the drawing:

Fig. 1 is a front elevation of the invention.

Fig. 2 is an enlarged horizontal lateral transverse section on line 2`2 of Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is an enlarged broken vertical lateral transverse section on line 3 3 of Fig. 1.

Fig. 4 is an enlarged broken perspective view of structure of a channel member.

Referring to the drawings vin which like reference characters indicate corresponding parts in the several views, I0 indicates `generally an elongated box-like channel case, having one or more elongated grooves II therein which are closed at their respective opposite ends by end plates I2.

When a plurality of grooves are employed'they are relatively parallel. --It is preferred that the casing have from four to six of the grooves II since that number very `conveniently accommodates. as many computing units as are necessary for computations by the average person, though,

`whereas the inner separator 'members .the ends oi the channels in event the flanges I5 may beeliminatedffrom the since each groove operates mechanically independently, the number of groovescma'y .be iincreasedor kdecreased to anydesired'anumber, four being illustrated in fthe present example The grooves I I I receivetherein .elongated frelatively parallel channel members I3 "open 4at the topf'as at I3a and oi:a:1eng.th"to `extend substantially the length `of the igroove's between sthe Sopposite end plates 412, the opening ISabeing an elongatedslot,

It will be observed that the grooves II are formed 'between elongated upstanding relatively spaced separatorwalls I4,'the.terniinalwfron1, face portion ci 'which are `provided with elongated flanges `I5 which overlie ia sideziedge portion of the groove. It isapparent that the fouterwall of the Acasing requires only "one such ange, 'have flanges which extend in voppositefdirections. The flanges I5 `serve to hold fthe channel `members I3 within the' grooves by 'engagement under the flanges of an inwardly inclinedv angedlip portion I6 along yeach side oi the open top i3d-of each channel memben 'The fchannel members may be slid intothe groovesfrom fan endprior to attachment or" `end plates I2. .'Ifdesired, cross bars Ziiaimay beisecured transversely across fthe opposite endsofthe channelsand grooveslto hold the grooves, iii-which mechanical standpoint, but fit is'pre'ferredtoretain Vthem for -rappearance 4and to provide lbetter space for numerals hereafter mentioned.

Each channel member has Aat its 'bottom agplurality of longitudinally spaced resilient #spring members 'VI which foot-on `the inner -bottom Zwall `of the 'groove members Vand normally resiliently hold the bottom oi the ichannels spaced las rat Ila `from the bottom :of the grooves, and hold the inclined lips t6 of `the Achannels against the flanges I5. Approximately centrally of Vitslength each channel member I3 isprovided-with-afpress button I9 vor bridge across the slot AopeningIT-mt. These'press 'buttons or bridges-l9 are to'fprovide a total release and -are upraised Aas 4at 2Gb from the transverse'plane of the openings i3d, ifor purposes to be --d'secribed Readily slidable [tally objects are mounted within the channelmernbersand in the `present `example -balls I3 -are lemployed ior the purpose,

the use of the term ball-beingwgeneric-to include any suitable slidable objects adaptable -for the same purpose. The balls -are Yof a :diameter to readily vroll in .the channel andto resten the bottom wall ofthe channeland extend somewlsiat-beyond the slot opening l 3a, as best shown in Figs. 2 and 3, the bridge or the button total release i9 having its wall upraised suiiiciently so that the balls may pass thereunder.

Next adjacent to the total release press buttons I9, xedly extending transversely across the front face of the casing and of all of the grooves and channels, is a ball-stop bar Z9, which engages the balls I8 and prevents their passage thereby when the channels i3 are at normal raised position responsive to springs il', the resilience of the springs and space ila being such that the channels may be manually depressed suiciently so that the balls may roll unimpeded under the stop bar, but at this point it may be stated that the stop bar 2li divides the channels into a register section 22, and a totalizer section 23, the channels of each section being of a length to hold eighteen balls exclusive of the space occupied by the press button total release i9 in the totalizer section.

Longitudinally of both the side walls lila of the casing, and also of the separator members I4, the upper faces ifla are inscribed with columns of consecutive numbers 2i paralleling each of the channel columns I 3 which contain balls I8, the numbers in the columns being longitudinally spaced a distance substantially equal to the diameter of the balls I8. For convenience these columns of consecutive numerals are indicated A, B, C, D, and E.

In the present illustration the arrangement is for computation in units of dollars and cents, in which case the central column C may omit the inscribed consecutive numerals, whereby a decimal point may be thus indicated between the columns for dollars and the columns for cents.

In the register section 22 at one side of the stop bar 20, the numbers in the columns are consecutive from 1 to 9 commencing with 1 at the stop bar. In the totalizer section 23 on the other side of the stop bar, there is iirst a skipped space in each numerical column for the total release press button I9. Then, in the two columns A and B for cents and in the first column D for dollars, the numerals commence adjacent the total release button and stop bar with numeral 2 and are consecutive up to 10 and are then continued consecutively on a down scale from 9 to l, whereas in the last dollar column E (to the left in Fig. 1) the numerals are consecutively continuous, commencing next below the total release press button I9, and are consecutive on a downward scale continuously from 18 to 1 to the bottom of the column.

The balls I 8 are illustrated herein as being disposed in the register section, since that would be their disposal at commencement of an operation, the separate channel columns being indicated F', G, H, and I for convenience of reference.

The first nine of the balls it next adjacent to the stop bar in the channel columns in the channels of the register section, collectively indicated in the respective columns F1, G1, H1, and Il, are preferably of a different color in each of the channels. The remainder of the balls in each column F2, G2, H2, and I2 may be a uniform color different from the colors used for the first nine balls, say red for the following illustration of operation. This variation of the coloring of the balls is for convenience of operation to afford an easily recognized differentiation between the several columns and as a facility to tell at a glance when a column has more than the nine digits, which would indicate that a numeral is to be carried to the next decimal column. The mechanical parts, and the operation thereof, is in no way affected by the color of the balls.

In mechanical operation it will be noted that balls iii are held in the register section by crossbar 2l) responsive to the upward pressure of springs il' on the channel and that upon resiliently depressing the channels, either by pressure upon the balls therein or upon the total release or press button i9, the balls may roll past the stop bar 2@ from one section to the other, passing freely under the raised press button total release I9.

For purposes of addition, all of the balls are rst cleared from the channels of the totalizer section 23 into the channels of the register section 22. The device is now held with the total section 23 lower than the register section 22. Numbers or amounts are entered in the totalizer section by pressing the ball immediately above the desired number showing on the channel case; for example, if it is desired to add the numeral 5, the ball 6 would be pressed, depressing the channel member so that five balls roll under stop bar 231 into the total section channel. When the pressure would be released on the ball 6, on which pressure has been exerted, all of the balls above it in the channel column move by gravity until the stop bar 29 is reached. Another ball in any column may now be passed to the total section in the same manner.

When more than 9 indicator balls are accumulated in a total channel column, as indicated by the red balls appearing in the total section, ten balls are returned to the register section 22 by tripping the device to bring the register section to a position lower than the total section, and by exerting pressure on the ball representing the digit to be retained in the column. One ball is then released from the register section to the total section in the column immediately to the left of the column from the total section from which the indicator balls have been removed from the total section to the register section.

As illustrative of this operation, if 5 and 4 have been added in the cents digit column F, and then 7 cents more is added in that column, there would be 16 balls in the column F of the total section, the lower 9 being one color and the upper 7 being red indicating it was time to carry 10 to the next decimal column G to the left. Since digits to be retained would be 6, the depressing of the channel would be by pressing on ball 6 and rolling the ten free balls back into the register section, then depressing ball 2 in the register section of the next decimal column G, thereby dropping one ball to the totalizer section in that decimal column. The balls would then register l in column G and 6 in column F, indicating a visual total of 16.

For purposes of substraction, the larger nurnber is first released as in the adding procedure. The device is now tipped to bring the register section to a position lower than the total section and the number to be subtracted is released from the total section to the register section.

When the device is returned to adding position, the remainder is indicated by the number of balls remaining in the total section of the device.

As stated, the balls roll freely under the upraised total release press button I9, but since the pressure on this button likewise depresses the channel I3, all balls in one or more or all the columns may be returned from the total section to the' register sectionby pressure on. this button, or all balls may bepassed from all the columns of one section into the columns of the; other. section by pressing allv the buttons I9 consecutively or simultaneously.

It Will be. observed that the numerals paralleling the balls in the column I are consecutive from l to 18. Since, in the present illustration, there are no further columns to the left to .which a higher decimal numeral may be carried the total must be indicated in that column. But, as stated, additional columns may be employed, if desired.

It is to be understood that the numerals indicated in the numeral columns A, B, C, D, and E may be changed to suit the convenience and preference of the operator, some of whom may prefer to have all the columns in the total section run consecutively 1 to 18 from bottom to top, while others may prefer to have numerals 1 to 9 and the remainder' blank in the columns A, B, C, and D, andretain the completely numbered column E- to indicate a total above ten, because there is no further columns to carry over the accrued decimal. The numerals shown merely represent the preference of the inventor, and in no way affect the mechanical elements of the apparatus or the operation thereof.

Having thus described the invention, 1 claim:

1. A computing apparatus including a casing, an elongated channel member in said casing and having the top thereof open providing an elongated slot, said channel being adapted for slidably receiving therein a plurality of indicator tally objects, resilient means for supporting the channel normally in spaced relation to the inner bottom of the casing, and a stop means mounted on the casing transversely across the slotted opening of the channel intermediate the opposite ends thereof for releasably `engaging tally objects in said channel.

2. A device of the character described including a casing having a plurality of elongated grooves therein, an elongated channel member in each of said grooves and of lesser depth than the grooves, said channels having the tops thereof open providing elongated slots, a plurality of tally objects slidable in said channels and extending through the slots thereof for engaging a stop means, spring means for resiliently supporting the channels normally in spaced relation to the bottom of the grooves, and a stop means mounted transversely of the casing and across ne slotted openings of the channels intermediate the opposite ends thereof for releasably engaging tally objects in said channels.

3. In a computing apparatus, the combination of a plurality of relatively parallel elongated channel members resiliently supported in a casing, said channels having the tops thereof open providing an elongated slot, resilient means for normally supporting the channels in spaced relation to the inner bottom of the casing, a plurality of tally objects slidable in said channels and extending through the slot thereof for engaging a stop means, faces paralleling said channels for inscribing numerals thereon, a stop means transversely fixed across the slotted openings of the channels intermediate the opposite ends thereof for normally engaging the tally objects and for releasing the tally obj ects when the channel member is depressed, means intermediate the opposite ends of the -channels for depressing the channel members to permit passage of tally objects past the stop means, the said tally objects being of a size to engage the stop means when 6, thev channels arer resiliently'suppor-ted ati normal raised position and toI pass; by thestop means when the channel member is'depressed..

4. A device of the character described, including a casing, a plurality of resiliently supported elongated channel; membersv in. the casingA and havingV the topsthereof; openprovidingelongated slots, saldi channels being; adaptedl for slidably receiving therein` a` plurality of indicator tally objecta springs to resiliently support the channel members in normal spaced` relation to the inner bottom of the casing, faces parallelingA said channels forvinscribing numerals, thereon, and stop means transversely fixed across the slotted 4openings of the channels intermediate the opposite ends thereofffor releasably impeding `the pas,-

sage of tally objects when the channels. are.' at normal raisedposition and releasing the tally,v ob.- jectsA therepast when. the channels are depressed.

5. In4 a device of; thechar-acter described,` the combinationof a casing, a plurality of elongated channel members relatively parallel in thecasing, each channel havingv the top thereofl open providing an elongated slot, springs for resiliently supportingthe, channel members normally in spaced relation tothe inner bottom of the casing, a plurality of tally objects slidable in the channels and extending through the slot thereof for eng aging a stop means, a stop means transversely fixed across the slotted openings of the channels intermediate the opposite end thereof for releasably engaging the tally objects, and a press button for depressing the channel members, said press button being upraised from the plane of the slotted opening of the channel members so that the tally objects may pass thereunder, the tally objects being of a size to engage the stop means when the channels are resiliently supported at normal raised position and to pass by the stop means when the channel members are depressed into the casing.

6. A computing apparatus comprising a casing having elongated grooves therein, a plurality of resiliently supported elongated relatively parallel channel members in said grooves and having the tops thereof open providing an elongated slot in each channel, means for resiliently supporting the channel members normally in spaced relation to the bottom of the grooves, a plurality of tally objects slidable in said channels and being of a size to extend through the slots thereof for engaging a stop means, a stop means xedly mounted transversely on the casing and across the slotted openings of the channels intermediate the opposite ends thereof for releasably engaging the tally objects, a press button for depressing the channel members, said press button being upraised from the plane of the slotted openings of the channel members so that tally objects may pass thereunder, the tally objects being of a size to slide freely under the stop bar when the channel member is depressed into the groove.

'7. A device of the character described, including a casing, a plurality of resiliently supported elongated channel members relatively parallel in the casing, each having an elongated slot in its top, spring means for resiliently supporting the channel members in spaced relation to the inner bottom of the casing whereby they may be depressed in the casing, a plurality of tally objects slidable in said channels and extending through the slot thereof for engaging a stop means, a stop means mounted on the casing and transversely across the central portion of the slotted openings of the channels and adapted for releasably endreamegaging the tally objects, and means adjacent to the stop bar and upraised from the plane of the slotted opening of the channel members adapted so the tally objects may pass thereunder and under the stop bar.

8. A computing device including a casing, a, plurality of relatively parallel elongated channel members in said casing, and of lesser depth than the casing, each of said channel members having an elongated slot at its top, spring means for resiliently supporting the channel members normally in spaced relation to the inner bottom of the casing, a plurality of tally objects slidable in said channels and extending through the slot thereof for engaging a stop means, a stop means mounted xedly and longitudinally centrally on the casing and transversely across the slotted openings of the channels intermediate the opposite ends thereof, for releasably engaging the tally objects, each of said channel members having adjacent the stop means a manually depressible button for depressing the channel member whereby tally objects may be freed from engagement by the stop bar, said button being upraised from the plane of the slotted opening whereby the tally objects may pass thereunder.

9. In a computing apparatus, the combination of a casing, an elongated channel member in said casing, said channel member having an elongated slot at its top and being adapted for slidably receiving therein a plurality of indicator tally objects, means for resiliently supporting the channel normally in spaced relation to the inner bottom of the groove, a face paralleling said channel andradapted for inscribing numerals thereon, a stop means mounted on the casing independently of the channel member and extending transversely across the slotted top of the channel centrally thereof for obstructing free sliding of tally objects in the channel member, means adjacent the stop means for manually depressing the channel member whereby tally objects may slide clear of the stop bar, said depressing means being upraised from the plane of the slotted opening of the channel members so that the tally objects may freely pass thereunder.

CHESTER GRAFF.

No references cited

Referenced by
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US2651851 *Sep 4, 1948Sep 15, 1953Valpey Arthur LToy
US2764822 *Oct 28, 1954Oct 2, 1956Nina GurevitchCalculating appliance
US2875529 *Aug 3, 1954Mar 3, 1959Cornelius George WDevice for teaching basic arithmetic
US3101555 *Sep 27, 1960Aug 27, 1963Harold A ArmandCurve plotter
US3127686 *Mar 3, 1961Apr 7, 1964Goldfarb Adolph ECalculator
US3450866 *Jul 28, 1965Jun 17, 1969Lab Suisse De Rech HorlogeresApparatus for the registration of the medicaments and of their valence on the basis of observed symptoms
US3690018 *Dec 3, 1970Sep 12, 1972Arroyo John JMathematics training toy
US3864850 *Jul 11, 1973Feb 11, 1975Crocker Country Day School IncTeaching aid
US4331424 *Nov 12, 1980May 25, 1982Crane Jane LMath educational apparatus
US5382165 *Jul 16, 1993Jan 17, 1995Knox; Jayne B.Calorie counter device and method for use