|Publication number||US2464485 A|
|Publication date||Mar 15, 1949|
|Filing date||Jul 9, 1946|
|Priority date||Jul 9, 1946|
|Publication number||US 2464485 A, US 2464485A, US-A-2464485, US2464485 A, US2464485A|
|Inventors||Burroughs Kenneth C|
|Original Assignee||American Cystoscope Makers Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (8), Referenced by (3), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
arch 1949- K. c. BURROUGHS 64,485
OPTICAL VIEWING INSTRUMENT, INCLUDING A COLLIMATING SIGHT FOR USE IN HARMONIZING GUNS AND SIGHTS Filed July 9, 1946 v 2 SheetsSheet 1 Fig.2
- INVENTOR. 1r E/V/VE 7' H C. BURR OUGHS BY ATTORNEY arch 15, 1949. K. c. BURROUGHS 2,464,485
OPTICAL VIEWING INSTRUMENT, INCLUDING A COLLIMATING SIGHT FOR USE IN HARMONIZING GUNS AND SIGHTS Filed July 9. l946 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. /v/v m c. BURROUGHS ATTORNEY Patented Mar. 15, 1949 unite. STATES.
The present invention relates to an optical instrument and more particularly to an optical instrument useful in the harmonizing of aircraft guns and sights.
The present invention and the use thereof will be described inconnected with the harmonizing of the sight and the guns on a fighter type of aircraft in which a plurality of guns is mounted in each of the wings and the sight ismounte'd in a suitable position forward of the pilot's cockpit. In such installations the guns are usually individually m'ounte'din fixed but adjustable positions within the wings with the muzzles thereof opening into the leading edges of the wings. Thus for any given adjustment of each gun a line through the'bore thereof will bear a fixed relationship to a reference line extending generally fore and aft" of theaircraft. Such reference line is established-- by means of a sight positioned for use by the-pilot'- a surface of a transparent or semi-transparent element through which the pilot may look while operating the aircraft. The image is so formed in the projecting system of the sight as to appear on the element as if it were at infinity. The line of sight thus established is generally fore and aft of the aircraft andparallel to the plane of flight thereof but-need not be precisely so.
Harmonizing of the guns and sight has been effected by bringing the aircraft into an attitude of level flight, which includes jacking up the tail of many types of aircraft, and shifting the aircraft about to bring the sight upon a target board positioned at a substantial distance ahead of the aircraft. This operation is slow and tedious inasmuch as the reticle in the sight must be made to coincide with a figure, such as crossed lines upon the target boardv The guns are then boresighted upon the target board for the desired convergence and elevation at the range represented by the distance from'the aircraft to the target board.
Various proposals have been made of procedures for harmonizing the guns and sights while the aircraft is in aparked-attitude in any location in which it may be parked. Fundamentally these proposals usually call for the posi tioning on some partof the aircraft of a target Obviously the guns must be so 2; board Y and the" provision of meanssuch" as peri scopes-and the like to 'boresight theguns' thereon in desiredpatter'n; The-present invention pro= vides a reliableand' rugged optical instrument for bringing. the sight upon such a target in a simple and" rapid manner and with extreme accuracyi Broadly speaking the optical instrument of the present invention establishes highly accurately parallel lines of sight extending. forwardly and rearwardly of an-operator andthe instrument is capable of use in any relationship where such characteristics maybe required. Thus the instrumentof the pres'ent invention is useful in" sucli activities as surveying as well in the particular It is afurther object of the present invention to'provide means for harmonizing the guns and sights I of aircraft including an" optical instrument which may be sighted upona t'a'r'get s'ecuredto' the empeiii'i'age o'f' trie'aircraft to form an image or suchtarger at infinity and" apparently ahead of the" aircraft, on" which image the aircraft sight may be brought by adjustment thereof relative to theairc'ra'ft andon which target the guns may be boresig-hted by the use of suitable periscopic or other apparatus. 1
Other and further objects of-the present inven tion in part will be obvious and in part willbeco-me apparent upon consideration of the following. detailed description of a preferred, but not neces sarily the only, form of the invention taken in connectionwith a the drawings accompanying and" forming a part of the present' specificatiom In the drawings:
Fig; lis a'ri elevational view'with'parts in sec tion of apparatus embodying the present invention Fig. 2 isan-enlargedtop plan'view of" a portionof the apparatus shown in Fig. 1';
Fig: 3 is a" sectional view taken along the line 3- -3'of'Fig'. 1
Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken-along the line" Fig; 5"is"-a' top p1a'n viewor a parked aircraft having the apparatus of' the resent invention attached thereto Fig. 6 is a side elevational view of the aircraft shown in Fig. and
Fig. 7 is a somewhat diagrammatic view of a target board which may be used in connection with the present invention.
Referring now to the drawings, 10 indicates a base plate which is adapted to rest across the cockpit 12 of an aircraft (see Figs. 1 and 5) and to be secured temporarily thereto as by adjustable clamps I4. As shown in Fig. 1, a standard I6 is secured as by bolts I8 to the base plate lb. The standard I6 is provided with bushings which receive a rotatable shaft 22 fitted at its lower end with thrust washers 24 and a friction nut 26. At the upper end of the standard [6 a thrust washer 28 rests upon the bushing 20 and in turn supports a segmental worm wheel 30 fixed to the shaft 22 (see Fig. 3).
A housing 32 is formed on the standard l6 and encloses a worm 34 fixed to a shaft 36 rotatably mounted in the housing and having a knurled knot 38 secured to the outer end thereof. Rotation of the knot 38 will produce limited rotation of the shaft 22 about a vertical axis.
The shaft 22 carries at its upper end a sleeve holder 40 pinned to the shaft 22 by a pin 42. The sleeve holder is split as shown in Fig. 2 and is provided with a threaded lug 44 on one half and an unthreaded lug 46 on the other half. A screw 48 is inserted through the lug 46 and threaded into the lug 44 whereby the halves of the sleeve holder may be drawn together when so desired. As shown in the drawings the screw 48 may be provided with tool openings 50 to receive a suit able lever or spanner not shown.
A sleeve 52 is positioned within the sleeve holder 40 and provided with a key 54 cooperating with a suitable key way in the sleeve holder to prevent rotation of the sleeve 52 within the holder while permitting longitudinal adjustment between the sleeve 52 and sleeve holder 40 upon loosening of the screw 48. A retainer ring 56 may be secured as by a set screw 58 adjacent the right hand end of the sleeve 52 as viewed in Fig. 1.
A body tube 60 is mounted for rotation within the sleeve 52 and is provided with a segmental worm wheel 62 as shown in Fig. 4. The segmental worm wheel 62 may be constructed in one or more parts but consists essentially of a strap or band secured to the exterior surface of the body tube 60 and a few teeth. The sleeve 52 has formed on it a housing 64 within which is positioned a worm 56 fixed to a shaft 68 having a knurled knob 10 fixed thereto outside the housing 64. The worm may be rotated by means of the knob 1!) to cause limited rotation of the body tube 60 within the sleeve 52.
The mechanism thus far described provides for rotation of the body tube 60 about the generally vertical axis of the shaft 22 and for rotation about the generally horizontal axis of the body tube. The knobs 38 and 10 may thus be manipulated to adjust the instrument for azimuth and elevation respectively. The specific details of the mounting and adjusting means for the body tube 60 may be modified in many ways and the detailed disclosure herein made is not intended to limit the scope of the invention since it is essential only that the instrument be rigidly supported and capable of accurate adjustments of the type described.
As shown in Fig. 2 the right-hand end of the body tube-60 has secured thereto a housing 12 in which is mounted an objective lens 14 and a first surface reflector 16. The optical axis of the objective I4 is disposed at an angle of 90 to the axis of the body tube 60 and the surface of reflector 16 is disposed at an angle of 45 to the axis of the objective 14. In a horizontal plane as viewed in Fig. 2 the surface of reflector I6 is disposed at an angle of 45 to the axis of the body tube 60 while in a vertical plane said surface is disposed at an angle of 90 to said axis. Thus light collimated by the objective 14 will be bent through 90 in a horizontal plane by the reflector l6 and will be transmitted through the body tube 60.
At the left-hand end of the body tube 60 there is secured a housing 18 having a half-silvered first surface reflector mounted therein at an angle of 45 in the horizontal plane and in the vertical plane to the axis of the body tube 60. Light transmitted through the body tube 60 will be bent through 90 in the horizontal plane by the half-silvered reflector 80 and thus transmitted in the same horizontal plane as the light entering the objective 14 and parallel thereto but in an opposite direction.
The body of the half-silvered reflector 80 is made of glass or other suitable transparent material. A semi-transparent reflecting surface 82 may be formed by lightly metalizing the body or coating the body 80 with a material having an index of refraction substantially higher than that of the glass or other transparent material from which the body of the reflector is made. The half-silvered reflector 80 therefore will not only reflect light passing through to body tube 60 but also will transmit light falling upon the rear or exterior surface 84 thereof. 7
The housing 18 also carries a collimating eyepiece indicated generally at 86, the optical axis of which is parallel to the optical axis of the objective 14. The optical axis of the eyepiece 86 is preferably established in the following manner: A meniscus having a transparent body 88 and a half-silvered reflecting surface 90 on the concave side is positioned in the eyepiece.- The rear surface 92 of the meniscus may be un-,
treated, if so desired, or treated with suitable material to reduce surface reflection. The meniscus 88 therefore will transmit light falling upon the surface 92 and also will reflect light falling upon the concave half-silvered surface 90. The latter surface is preferably spherical and the meniscus itself preferably has no power.
A reticle 94 is accurately and fixedly mounted in the plane of principal focus of the spherical reflecting surface 90. As shown in the drawings the reticle 94 may comprise vertical and horizontal intersecting lines formed on the inner surface of a transparentbody 96 preferably having plane parallel surfaces so as to have no power. Preferably the reticle pattern is formed of a highly reflective material having a reflecting surface facing the spherical semi-transparent reflecting surface 90. Light entering the instrument through objective 14 or through the halfsilvered reflector 80 will pass freely through the meniscus 88 and the semi-transparent surface 95. Certain rays of this light will impinge upon the reflective surface of the reticle 94 and will be reflected upon the surface 90. From the surface 90 these rays will be reflected in substantially parallel axial directions, since the reticle is positioned at the principal focus of the surface 90; and a virtual image of the reticle will be formed. When a person sights through the eyepiece 86 the virtual image of the reticle 94 will be superimposed upon the field of vision at-infinity.- In
the instrumentof'the present invention the optical axis-thus established is parallel to the optical axis of the objective 14.
It will be apparent from the above description that when the objective M is focused upon a target in the rear-of an observer a distance equal to the focal length of the objective id, an image thereof may be observed as if at infinity upon the reflector 80 and sighted through the eyepiece 86. This image will be clear and undistorted because neither the meniscus SS nor the reticle support 98 have any power. The virtual image of the reticle 94 may be brought into coincidence with the target image by proper manipulation of azimutha'nd elevation knobs-38 and 10. Furthermore the observer may have clear and undistorted viewthrough the half-silvered reflector til of such obj e'ctsas may be generally directlyahead.
The instrument of the present invention may be used to establish a'definite line ahead of the observer with reference to a point to the rear of the observer. Such line will be parallel to and offset from the line from the rear point to the center of the objective "M by the known distance from the center of the objective to the center of the reti'cle in eyepiece 86. Obviously the instrument may be used in avertical position as well as in the horizontal position shown in the drawings. The instrument is therefore useful in the field of surveying as well as in the specialized field chosen herein for illustration.
The use of the instrument of the present invention in the harmonizing of aircraft guns and sights will-now be described with particular reference to Figs. 5 and 6. In said figures an aircraft 98 is shown having starboard wing guns ltd, port wing guns 'I 02 and a sight I 84 of any desired type but preferably a reflex sight of the general type shownin U. S. Letters Patent 1,610,532 granted December '14, 1926 toRussell et al. The sight Iii-'3 is provided with azimuth and elevation knobs I63 and 1-05 which may be manipulated in a wellknown manner to adjust the sight relative to the aircraft. The type of aircraft shown is one which assumes an attitude when parked markedly different from that assumed in flight. For purposes of illustration it will be assumed that when in flight all parts of the aircraft move in planes parallel to a plane indicated by the line I05 which passes through the spinner I08 and the rearmost tip 1 I8 of the fuselage. Accordingly, the guns It?) and [02 must be adjusted for elevation relative to the plane I05. For purposes of illustration the line -I I2 (Fig. 6) indicates a continuation of the bore of one of the starboard guns l lfi. Furthermore the sight I04 must be adjusted with regard to the plane I86 in order that when in flight the aircraft may be held upon a target in the line of sight without undue difiiculty. Similarly the sight "I04 must be adjusted so that the line of sight 'extends generally fore and aft of the aircraft. For purposes of illustration the line of sight is indicated by the line II which extends substantially parallel to the plane m6 (Fig. 6) and substantially within a vertical plane through the center of the cockpit I2 and through the centerof the spinner I08 (Fig. 5).
It is the purpose of the present invention to provide means for establishing a predetermined relationshipbetween the line of sight I I4 and the lines extending axially of the bores of the various guns. Obviously, these lines will not be likely to be parallel inasmuch as the guns must be set for elevation and for proper convergence at a particular range. When the guns and sights are harmonized, the guns may be adjusted relative to the aircraft and the-sight also may be adjusted relative to the aircraft. Such procedure is, "of course, necessary when the g-uns and sight are :firs't positioned in the plane during manufacture and experience has shown that the .guns and sight must usually be harmonized after each operation of the'aircraft. With the instrument of the present invention, it is possible to harmonize the guns and the sight in-anylo'cation in which-the aircraft happens to be and it is obvious that this ability will result in increased elficiency and convenience in the manufacture of aircraft as well as at air bases and the like,
In the use of the present invention the instrument is placed across the cockpit of the aircraft in such position asgenerally to align the eyepiece 86 with the sight 'I 04 asshownin Fig. 5. The'base plate Ill is positioned across the cockpit l2 and is secured in place by proper manipulation of the clamps NI (see Fig. 1-). It will be understood that each instrument will be designed for a specific type of aircraft in order that it may be quickly positioned in proper relationship to the sight in such aircraft. Minor adjustments in position of the eyepiece relative to the sight in a horizontal plane may be made byloosening the sleeve clamp screw 5i) (Fig. 2) to permit movement of the sleeve 52 within the sleeve holder 40. Thescrew '50 is tightened when the eyepiece is aligned with fair accuracy and final alignment of the eyepiece with the sight H34 will be effected by'adjustment of the sight itself as will be more fully described herein below.
A target board I I6 of suitable dimensions is secured to the aircraft preferably at as great a distance as is practicable from the cockpit, In the ordinary aircraft it is preferable to secure the target board to the empennage. In the type of aircraft chosen for illustration herein, it will be observed that the target board I It is provided with suitable clamping devices H8 adapted to engage opposed surfaces of a stabilizer. As shown particularly in Fig. 5, the target board I It is cut away at IEfi in order that it may straddle the fuselage in a region adjacent the stabilizer I22. This-particular construction of the target board provides areas thereof on either side of the fuselage at a level such as to permit convenient'boresighting without the necessity for multitudinous corrections. The particular shape and size of the target board and the manner of securing the same to the aircraft forms no part of the present invention, it being understood that very wide variations will .necessarily be encountered as a result of the different structures of various aircraft. The essential features of the target board are first that it be so designed as to be secured to the aircraft in a definite position and second, that it be of sufiicient area to :permit of boresighting of theguns thereon. The particular target board chosenfor illustration herein is relatively narrow and requires a periscopic boresighting mechanism of a type which may be corrected for angular deviation between the line of sight and the axis of the bore. It is apparent that the target board might be made wide enough to extend out into direct alignment with the guns but that such board is likely to'be unwieldly and diflicult to handle.
The target board I'IG i's'provided -with a figure of suitable shape upon which the instrument of the present invention may be sighted. For
purposes of illustration intersecting horizontal and vertical lines may be provided as shown at, I24 in Fig. 7 This particular figure is particularly appropriate if the reticle 94 consists of horizontal and vertical lines intersecting as shown in Fig; 1. The figure I24 is preferably so positioned on the target board II6 that the horizontal line thereof lies substantially within a plane parallel toxthey-plane I06 and extending through the sight I84. The vertical line of the figure I24 is preferably offset from a vertical plane passing through the sight I04 by a distance equal to that between the axis of objective I4 and the axis of eyepiece 88. It is apparent from the foregoing that the target board I It must be especially designed for the type of aircraft with which it is to be used. Furthermore, as has been stated above, the focal length of objective I4 must be equal to the distance between the objective and the figure I24.
The operator enters the cockpit and manipulates the azimuth and elevation knobs of the instrument to bring the image of reticle 94 into coincidence with the image of the figure I24. This operation brings the optical axis of the eyepiece 86 into accurate parallelism with a line I26 (Fig. 5) which extends from the figure I24 to the center of objective I4. The operator then adjusts the usual azimuth and elevation knobs I03 and I05 of the sight I04 to bring the reticle image therein as seen through the eyepiece 86 into coincidence with the images of reticle 94 and figure I24. The line of sight of the sight I04 then bears a definite relation to the figure I24 and thereafter the figure I24 may be used as a reference point for boresighting the guns.
Any suitable method and/ or apparatus may be used for boresighting the guns on the target board I I6 to bring them into desired elevation and convergence. For purposes of illustration it has been assumed that the guns will be boresighted by periscopic devices known to the art. A device of this type is indicated at I23 in position upon one of the starboard guns and at I30 on -'one of the port guns. It will be understood that the devices I28 and I38 are so constructed that an operator may in effect peer through the bore of the gun and along an angularly disposed line of sight I32 or I34. Other periscopic devices are so constructed as to project a narrow beam of light through the bore and along the path indicated by the lines I32 or I34 to form a spot of light upon the target board. In either event the guns are individually spotted on the target board IIB; for example, the starboard guns may be spotted on the spots I36 and the port guns on the spots I38.
The disposition of the spots I36 and I38 relative to the figure I24 will be so predetermined as to bring the guns into proper elevation and convergence for an actual target at a particular range when the aircraft is so directed as to bring the sight I04 upon such target.
In the above detailed description of a preferred form of apparatus and an illustrative method of employing such apparatus, it will be understood that the terms used are intended to be descriptive rather than limiting in sense and that modifications and variations may be resorted to by those skilled in the art within the scope of the appended claims.
' '1. For use with an aircraft having wing guns and a reflex sight, an optical viewing instrument for facilitating adjustment of said sight relative to a target boardfixed to the empennage of said aircraft and upon'which the wing guns may he;
boresighted; said optical instrument including an ocular, a reticle, means for forming an image of said reticle at a great apparent distance within the field of view of said ocular to establish an axis for said ocular, a diagonal semi-transparent reflector in the field of View of said ocular, and means including an objective for forming at a great-apparent distance upon said reflector an image of an object on said target board, the axis of saidobjective being spaced from and parallel to the axis of said ocular; and means for mounting said optical instrument within the cockpit of the aircraft in such position that said reflex sight may be viewed directly through said ocular and said objective is directed rearwardly of said aircraft toward said target board, said mounting means including means for adjusting said optical instrument relative to said aircraft to bring the axis of said ocular into predetermined position relative to the object on said target board. I
2. For use with an aircraft having wing guns and a reflex sight, an optical viewing instrument for facilitating adjustment of said sight relative to a target board fixed to the empennage of said aircraft and upon which the wing guns may be bore-sighted; said optical instrument including a housing, an ocular within said housing, a reticle, means for forming an image of said reticle at infinity within the field of view of said ocular to establish an axis for said ocular, an objective mounted within said housing the axis of said objective being parallel to the axis of said ocular, a diagonally disposed plane refiector positioned within said housing and intersecting the axis of said objective, a diagonally disposed plane semi-transparent reflector positioned within said housing and intersecting the axis of said ocular, said reflector and said semi-transparent reflector being effective to direct light from said objective to said ocular, and means defining an opening in said housing in alignment with said ocular and said semi-transparent refiector; a support adapted to be secured in fixed position within the cockpit of an aircraft; and adjustable mounting means carried by said support and adapted to position said optical instrument in such manner, that the field of view of said objective is directed rearwardly of the aircraft toward the target board on'the empennage thereof, and the field of view of said ocular through said semi-transparent reflector and said opening is directed forwardly of said aircraft to permit viewing the reflex sight, said adjustable mounting means beingadapted to so adjust the position of said housing as to bring an image of a selected object on said target board upon said semi-transparent reflector and into coincidence with the image of said reticle whereby adjustment of said reflex sight may be made to bring the line of sight thereof into coincidence with the axis of said ocular and thus parallel with the line of sight from the optical center of said objective to said object on said target board.
3. For use with an aircraft having wing guns and a reflex sight, an optical viewing instrument for facilitating adjustment of said sight relative to a target board fixed to the empennage of said aircraft and upon which the wing guns may be bore-sighted; said optical instrument including an: ocular having a reticle, means for forming animage of said reticle at a great apparent distance within the field of view of said ocular to establish an axis for said ocular, a diagonal semi-transparent reflector in the field of view of said ocular, and means including an objective for forming at a great apparent distance upon said reflector an image of an object on said target board, the axis of said objective being spaced from and occupying a definite position with respect to the axis of said ocular; and means for mounting said optical instrument within the cockpit of the aircraft in such position that said reflex sight may be viewed directly through said ocular and said objective is directed rearwardly of said aircraft toward said target board, said mounting means including means for adjusting said optical instrument relative to said aircraft to bring the axis of said ocular into predetermined position relative to the object on said target board.
4. For use with an aircraft having wing guns and a reflex sight, an optical viewing instrument for facilitating adjustment of said sight relative to a target board fixed to said aircraft at a point remote from said sight and upon which the wing guns may be bore-sighted; said optical instrument including an ocular, a reticle, means for forming an image of said reticle at a great apparent distance within the field of view of said ocular to establish an axis for said ocular, a diagonal semi-transparent reflector in the field of view of said ocular, and means including an objective for forming at a great apparent distance upon said reflector an image of an object on said target board, the axis of said objective being spaced from and parallel to the axis of said ocular; and means for mounting said optical instrument within the cockpit of the aircraft in such position that said reflex sight may be viewed directly through said ocular and said objective is directed toward said target board, said mounting means including means for adjusting said optical instrument relative to said aircraft to bring the axis of said ocular into predetermined posi-- tion relative to the object on said target board.
5. For use with an aircraft having wing guns and a reflex sight, an optical viewing instrument for facilitating adjustment of said sight relative to a target board fixed to the rearward portion of said aircraft at a point remote from said sight and upon which the wing guns may be boresighted; said optical instrument including an ocular, a reticle, means for forming an image of said reticle at a great apparent distance within the field of view of said ocular to establish an axis for said ocular, a diagonal semi-transparent reflector in the field of view of said ocular, and means including an objective for forming at a great apparent distance upon said reflector an image of an object on said target board, the axis of said objective occupying a definite position within a plane parallel to the axis of said ocular; and means for mounting said optical instrument within the cockpit of the aircraft in such position that said reflex sight may be viewed directly through said ocular and said objective is directed rearwardly of said aircraft toward said target board, said mounting means including means for adjusting said optical instrument relative to said aircraft to bring the axis of said ocular into predetermined position relative to the object on said target board.
KENNETH C. BURROUGHS.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 683,203 Grubb Sept. 24, 1901 714,276 Blish Nov. 25, 1902 725,839 Grubb Apr. 21, 1903 835,625 Konig Nov. 13, 1906 854,310 Robertson May 21, 1907 1,339,006 Sperry May 4, 1920 1,985,067 Wandersleb Dec. 18, 1934 2,353,272 Simmons et a1. July 11, 1944
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|U.S. Classification||356/138, 89/41.21, 89/200, 89/41.1|