Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS2464755 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 15, 1949
Filing dateJul 9, 1946
Priority dateJul 9, 1946
Publication numberUS 2464755 A, US 2464755A, US-A-2464755, US2464755 A, US2464755A
InventorsAbraham Taub
Original AssigneeVodol Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Coated gauze
US 2464755 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

A. TAUB COATED GAUZE March 15', v1949.l

Filed July 9,l 1946 MMMJMUW Patented Mar. 15, 1949 UNITED STATES ATENT OFFICE COATED GAUZE Abraham Taub, New York, N. Y., assignor to Vodol Company, Chicago, Ill., a'corporation of Illinois 12 Claims.

This invention relates to a coated gauze especially useful as a 'bandage for open Wounds or other open lesions and more particularly to a gauze lwhich is coated or saturated With a flexible non-tacky Water-dispersible ointment base which is compatible with the majority of medicaments employed as healing aids and which may contain.

one ormore of such medicaments.

Known -hydrophilic ointment base materials, which have heretofore been 'employed for coating gauze, either dry to a stiff horny material after application to the fgauze or contain `sullcient petrolatum or other oily or fatty material such as lanolin or glycerides that they remain tacky. In either case, the resultant bandage material is difficult to handle and apply to Wounds. A stiff dry material is harsh and does not easily conform to Wound surfaces While known ointment bases which contain suficient oleaginous material to remain soft and flexible adhere to and leave-deposits of the ointment on other materials With Which they come in contact.

In contrast, the coated gauze of the present invention provides a dry non-tacky surface but at the same time the product remains soft and ilexible. This results `from the fact that drying of the ointment 'base material after application to the gauze causes the -formation of an extremely thin 'non-sticky film on the exposed surfaces of the product leaving the `remainder of the ointment vbase material in and on the gauze in the form of a soft gel. The surface iilm thus forms an lenvelope around an internal vportion of soft gel positioned onthe surface of land in the interstices of the gauze. The surface film prevents further evaporation lof `Volatile Lmaterial from the oint-l ment base material. The coated gauze therefore remains soft and `flexible indenitelyduring storage and shipment and can be associated With other vbandage material such as uncoated gauze' 2 in its form when applied or after being moistened by an aqueous liquid and again dried.

The coated gauze discussed above is particularly effective as a medium for applying iodine to Wounds and will be specifically discussed largely in connection With ointment base material containing readily available iodine although it is to be understood that other medicaments can be employed. Thus, the coated gauze containing iodine in the ointment base material may be packaged in rolls from which any desired length of coated gauze can be severed and held in position by any suitable bandage material or it can be packaged in individual pieces for the same purpose. A preferred manner of supplying the coated gauze is a composite bandage material in Which a section of the coated gauze is secured to the mid portion of the adherent side of a length of adhesive tape for holding the gauze in a desired position, the adherent portions of the extending ends of the adhesive tape as well as the exposed surface of the coated gauze being protected by removable strips of uncoated gauze.

It is therefore an object of the invention to provide an .improved gauze coated With a non-tacky Water-dispersible ointment material which remains soft and flexible until used.

Another object of the invention is to provide a medicated flexible gauze in which the filaments ofthe gauze are coated or impregnated with a water-dispersible gel containing a medicament,

the gel having a substantially dry surface 1m` which renders the surfacevof the gel non-tacky.

Another object of the invention 'is 'to provide a flexible non-tacky coated gauze car-rying a water-dispersible gel in which is incorporated a Water-soluble or dispersible medicament :as a healing aid for Wounds or other open lesions.

Another object of the invention is to provide a flexible gauze coated or impregnated With la non-tacky iodine ointment which freely 'liberates iodine When brought into contact with aqueous iiuids.

A. further object of the invention is to provide an improved composite bandage in which a medicated gauze eleinent 'is associated with an ad# hesive tape element, the gauze element vcarrying a water-dispersible Vointment material which presents a non-tacky ysurface and `carries vWaterdispersible iodine or other ymedicament suitable 3 as a healing aid for wounds or other open lesions.

A still further object of the invention is to provide an improved method of making a flexible gauze material coated or impregnated with an ointment material in the form of a waterdispersible gel having a non-tacky surface film.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will appear in the following description of preferred embodiments of the invention illustrated in the attached drawing, of which Figure 1 is a somewhat diagrammatic vertical cross-section of a fragment of a coated gauze in accordance with the present invention;

Figure 2 is a schematic view of apparatus illustrating one method of making the gauze of the present invention; and

Figure 3 is a vertical cross-section through a composite bandage containing a coated gauze element.

Referring more particularly to the drawings, Figure 1 is intended to illustrate a gauze made up of woven filaments I and II coated with the ointment or ointment base discussed below, the ointment coating having an inner portion I2 and a surface lm portion I3. In this figure, the size of the textile filaments has been exaggerated for clarity and the same is true of the thickness of the coating. Sharp lines of demarcation have been been shown between the coating and the filaments as ,well as between the surface film I3 and the inner portion I2 of the ointment -coating although there is at least some penetration of the ointment coating into and between the fibers of the filaments I0 and Il and the surface iilm I3 of the ointment coating is extremely thin and merges into the inner ,portion I2 of the ointment coating. Nevertheless, the major portion of the ointment coating is represented by the inner portion I2 and this material remains in the form of a soft gel with an extremely thin substantially dry surface film I3 so that the entire coated gauze remains entirely flexible and soft even though it has a non-tacky surface.

The preferred ointment base material is that disclosed and claimed in my copending application Serial No. 620,408, filed October 4, 1945, now abandoned, and constitutes essentially a soft gel containing a water-dispersible alkvlated cellulose, a polyhydroxy, alcohol, a mineral oil and an oilsoluble dispersing agent such as a phospholipid. A specific example of a preferred composition of the final ointment base is approximately as follows:

Parts by weight Hydroxyethyl cellulose 150 Triethylene glycol 900 Mineral oil 75 Oil-free corn oil phosphatides 6 Water 300 A preferred manner of making the above ointment base is to first disperse the 150 parts of hydroxyethyl cellulose in 750 parts of water and then add the 900 parts of triethylene glycol. The resulting mixture is' heated under vacuum so that the final temperature of the mixture is approximately 100 C., the heating being carried on while the resulting mixture is constantly stirred and until approximately 450 parts of water have been evaporated leaving the V300 parts of water in the final composition. A mineral oil-dispersing agent composition is prepared by adding the six parts of oil-free corn oil phosphatides slowly to the mineral oil while the latter is heated to approximately 100 C. The mineral oil-phosphatide mixture is then added to the hydroxyethyl cellulose, triethylene glycol and water mixture and the two stirred together while at a temperature between approximately and 100 C. Upon cooling, a semi-solid gel having the consistency of a paste or salve suitable for ointment bases is formed.

The mineral oil in the above composition may vary in viscosity from a relatively light oil to a semi-solid material such as petrolatum but an entirely satisfactory gel may be obtained by employing a medicinal mineral oil such as that specified in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. The preferred dispersing agent is composed of phosphatides obtained from corn oil by known processes as such phosphatides are light in color and extremely stable. As obtained from corn oil, phosphatides ordinarily contain in the neighborhood of 35% corn oil and this is preferably removed by known solvent treatments such as by dissolving out the corn oil with acetone in which the phosphatides are insoluble. Various other phospholipides may, however, be employed, for example, other natural or synthetic phosphatides or derivatives or compounds thereof.

Similarly, other alkylated celluloses may be employed, for example, water-dispersible methyl cellulose. Polyhydroxy alcohols other than triethylene glycol, for example, other liquid glycols as well as glycerine can be substituted in whole or part for the triethylene glycol, the polyoxyethylene glycols being the most suitable. Depending upon the viscosity of the mineral oil employed and the nature of the alkylated cellulose and polyhydroxy alcohol, the proportions of the various ingredients may vary through relatively broad ranges. Thus, the polyhydroxy alcohol will vary between approximately 50 and 90% of the final ointment base, the mineral oil between approximately 3 and 20%, the alkylated cellulose between approximately 1/2 and 25%, the dispersing agent between approximately 0.0005 and 2%. and the water between approximately 1 and 25%. The best gel structures are obtained when the ointment base is prepared in the manner described in the specific example given above although certain modcations of the order of mixing and the amount of water evaporated from the mixture containing the alkylated cellulose are possible.

The ointment base prepared as described above is inert to and compatible with the vast majority of medicaments employed for treatment of open Wounds and other open lesions. As an example of an ointment suitable for coating on gauze, 956 parts of the above ointment base may be admixed with 20 parts of iodine (resublimed crystals) and 24 parts of powdered .sodium iodide. The iodinel and sodium iodide may be added to the ointment base while at a temperature of approximately 90 C. at which temperature the ointment base is a high viscosity liquid. The heated composition is stirred until the iodine dissolves therein and then is allowed to cool to room temperature. Upon cooling, the gel structure referred to above is formed and the resulting material may be stirred or otherwise agitated without destroying the gel structure.

The resulting ointment containing iodine or other medicament may then be coated upon the gauze inany desired manner, a preferred method of coating being illustrated diagrammatically in Figure 2. In accordance with this figure, a web of gauze I4 may be withdrawn from a suitabley rollffl' offfgauze by means of a-pair of drivenfrolls Hita-nd I8 which may be positioned in a drying: chamber indicated generally at I9. The web I4 may be drawn by the rolls I1 and' I8 over a guide roll ZI and between a pair of coatingrolls 22y and 231,-the-coating rolls 22 andy 23 engaging transfer rolls" 24 and-25, respectively, the latterrollsl-rotating in contact with the ointment-material-held infsuitable containers or troughs 21.and'l 28, re-Y spectively. Ointment picked up by the-rolls 24 andL 26' is transferred to the rolls 22rv and 23 and then applied to the web I4- of gauze. Iffdesired, the ointment material in the containers 21- and 28 may be` warmed sufliciently to cause it to liquefy; In many cases, a coating on one side of; thegauze only is sufficient in which case the roll 25 and associated trough 28 can be omitted'.

The coated gauze is then preferably subjected to a` surface drying operation, for exampla bybeirig festooned in the drying chamber I9. Thus, the rolls I1 and i8 may deliver the Web of coated gauze so as to hangthe web in festoons 29 on suitable velongated members 3I carried by chains 32 engaging sprockets `33 which may be-driven' from any suitable source of power by means not shown..

The drying chamber I 9 may have a casing 34 through which heated drying air may be, blown by means of an inletstructure 36 opening into the casing 3A. at 31 and an outlet structure 38 opening into the casing 34 at 39. Thepreferred temperature of the drying air ranges between D and 120 C. although temperatures as high as 1,40? C. may be employed without damaging, the product. A small amount of water need be evaporated from the ointment coated uponthe gauze sincein the absence of agitation a thin sub.- stantially impervious ilm rapidly `forms over the surface of the ointment on thegauze `and the resulting coated gauze may then bewithdrawn from the drying chamber I9, passed through a.r cooling chamber 4l), then over a guide roll 4I and again rolled, for example, upon aroll 42. Rolls43. and 44.,driven atl the same speed as the rolls I1 and I8.

are also preferably positioned-in the drying chamber I9 in' order to withdraw the dried gauze from the .festoons 29 at Vthe same rate at which itis delivered bythe rolls i1 and I8. The dried gauze may be cooled to approximately room temperature in the cooling chamber lll by circulating dry cooled air therethrough by means ofan inlet connection 45` and an outlet connection 45. The resulting coated gauze may be wound upon theroll 42, without adherence between the various plies ofygauze thereon as the surface dried lm referred to renders the surface of the gauzefnon-tacky The gauze, however, remains extremely exible andin vmany cases is even more exible than the originalgauze because of the softening and lubricatingvqualities of the gel upon the fibersv ofthe;

surface film again forms on the outer surface cfs' the gauze to prevent furthery evaporation ofi-water'- so that the surface ofthe gauze inA contact ,with-fa wound or skin remains moist andnon-,adheren enabling the bandage to be readily removedk with? out damage to the Wound surfaces. Repeatedfrep.

dressing of the wound with the coatedigauze'of4 the present invention is thereforenon-irritating. It is apparent that gauze coated with thev ointment base is an improved bandage material irre spective of whether the ointment base containsv a medicament.

For major wounds, the coated gauze may bey supplied in rolls so that relatively large areascanbe covered. It can be employed alone or other bandage material such as uncoated gauze can be employed to cover the coated gauze. For minor cuts, bruises and the like, a composite bandage such as shown in Figure 3 is advantageously e1n.y

ployecl. Thus, the composite bandage of Figure 3 may comprise a narrow element of tape 46-having an adhesive layer 41 thereon to which isadhered adjacentits central portion a pad or folded layer of ointment coated gauze 48. The adhesive layer 41 may ordinarily be that used foradhesive tape for medical purposes as the dry surfacehilm of the coated gauze element 48 readily adheres to such an adhesive surface. In order to retain the exposed surface of the coated gauze element 48 in sterile condition, a pair of gauze elements 49 and 5I may be adhesively secured to the ends of the adhesive tape 46 so as to overlap the coated gauze element 48. The gauze elements 49 and 5I may 4 above, the action of the coating employed prevents adherence of the element 4 8 to the surfaceV of the wound While at the same time providing f or rapid application of the iodine and the drainage of fluids from the Wound.

While I have disclosed the preferred embodiments of my invention, it is understood that the details thereof may be varied Iwithin the scope of the following claims:

I claim:

1. Asr a product of manufacture, a coated gauze suitable for bandage material, the coating on said gauze being a soft gel adjacent the filaments of said gauze and having a substantially dry,rnon

tacky exposed surface iilm, said coating being l rreadily dispersible in aqueous media and com--` -,prising a major portion ofaliphatic polyhydroxy absence of the other ingredients of said coating. 2. As a product of manufacture, a coated gauze suitable for bandage material, the coating on said 70, gauze being a soft gel adjacent the filaments of said gauze and having a substantially dry, nontacky exposed surface film, said coating being readily dispersible in aqueous media and-comprising a major portion of aliphatic polyhydrpgry alcohol and minor portions ofwater-dispersible alkylated cellulose, water, an oleaginous material and a small amount of phospholipid as a dispersing agent for said oleaginous material, the total polyhydroxy alcohol content of said coating being liquid in the absence of the other ingredients of said coating.

3. As a product of manufacture, a coated gauze suitable for bandage material, the coating on said gauze being a soft gel adjacent the lilaments of said gauze and having a substantially dry, non-tacky exposed surface film, said coating being readily dispersible in aqueous media and comprising a major portion of aliphatic polyhydroxy alcohol and minor portions of Waterdispersible alkylated cellulose, Water, a mineral oil and a small amount of phospholipid as a dispersing agent for said mineral oil, the total polyhydroxy alcohol content of said coating being liquid in the absence of the other ingredients of said coating.

4. As a product of manufacture, a coated gauze suitable for bandage material, the coating on said gauze being a soft gel adjacent the filaments of said gauze and having a substantially dry, nontacky exposed surface film, said coating being readily dispersible in aqueous media and comprising a major portion of aliphatic polyhydroxy alcohol and minor portions of water-dispersible alkylated cellulose, Water, a mineral oil and a small amount of corn oil phosphatide as a dispersing agent for said mineral oil, the total polyhydroxy alcohol content of said coating being liquid in the absence of the other ingredients of said coating.

5. As a product of manufacture, a coated gauze suitable for bandage material, the coating on said gauze containing a medicament and being a soft gel adjacent the filaments of said gauze and having a substantially dry, non-tacky exposed surface film, said coating being readily dispersible in aqueous media and comprising a major portion of aliphatic polyhydroxy alcohol and minor portions of Water-dispersible alkylated cellulose, water, a mineral oil and a small amount of corn oil phosphatide as a dispersing agent for said mineral oil, the total polyhydroxy alcohol content of said coating being liquid in the absence of the other ingredients of said coating.

6. As a product of manufacture, a coated gauze suitable for bandage material, the coating on said gauze containing a small amount of iodine and sodium iodide in solution therein and being a soft gel adjacent the filaments of said gauze and haY ing a substantially dry, non-tacky exposed surface nlm, said coating being readily dispersible in aqueous media and comprising a major portion of aliphatic polyhydroxy alcohol and minor portions of Water-dispersible alkylated cellulose, water, mineral oil and a small amount of corn oil phosphatide as a dispersing agent for said mineral oil, the total polyhydroxy alcohol content of said coating being liquid in the absence of the other ingredients of said coating.

7. As a product of manufacture, a flexible coated gauze suitable for bandage material, the coating on said gauze containing a medicament and being a soft gel adjacent the filaments of said gauze and having a substantially dry, non-tacky exposed surface film, said coating being readily dispersible in aqueous media and comprising approximately 0.5% to 25% water dispersible l alkylated cellulose, approximately 50% to 90% aliphatic polyhydroxy alcohol, approximately 3% to 20% mineral oil, approximately 0.0005% to 2% phospholipid as a dispersing agent for saidmineral oil and approximately 1% to 25% water, the total polyhydroxy alcohol content of said coating being liquid in the absence of the other ingredients of said coating.

8. As a product of manufacture, a flexible coated gauze suitable for bandage material, the coating on said gauze containing a small amount of iodine and sodium iodide in solution therein and being a soft gel adjacent the filaments of said gauze Iand having a substantially dry, non-tacky exposed surface film, said coating being readily dispersible in aqueous media and comprising approximately 0.5% to 25% water-dispersible a1- kylated cellulose, lapproximately 50% to 90% allphatic polyhydroxy alcohol, approximately 3% to 20% mineral oil, approximately 0.0005% t0 2% phospholipid as a dispersing agent for said mineral oil and approximately 1% to 25% water, the total polyhydroxy alcoho1 content of said coating being liquid in the absence of the other ingredients lof said coating.

9. 'Ihe method of making a flexible, non-tacky, ointment coated bandage material, which comprises, impregnating a web of gauze with a water-dispersible, semi-solid ointment material in the form of a soft gel, said ointment material containing a major Iportion of aliphatic -polyhydr-oxy alcohol and minor portions of Water-dispersible -alkylated cellulose, water, an oleaginous material and a small amount of a dispersing agent for said oleaginous material, the total Polyhydroxy alcohol content of said ointment material being liquid in the absence of the other ingredients of said ointment material, and thereafter surface drying the coated gauze until a substantially dry, non-tacky film forms on the exposed surface of said gel leaving a layer of said soft gel adjacent the filaments of said gauze.

10. The method of making a f1exi-ble,nontacky, ointment coated bandage material, which comprises, impregnating a web of gauge with a water-dispersible, semi-solid ointment material containing a medicament, in the form of a soft gel. said ointment material also containing a maior portion of aliphatic Ipolyhydroxy alcoho1 and minor portions of water-dispersible alkylated cellulose, Water and mineral oil and a small amount of phospholipid as a dispersing agent for said mineral oil, the total polyhydroxy alcohol content of said coating being liquid in the absence of the other ingredients of said coating and thereafter surface drying the coated gauze until a non-tacky lm forms on the exposed surface of said gel leaving a layer of said soft gel adjacent the filaments of said gauze.

11. The method of making a flexible, non-tacky, ointment coated bandage material, which comprises, impregnating a web of gauze with a wa,- ter-dispersible, semi-solid ointment material in the form of a soft gel containing a small amount of iodine and sodium iodide in solution therein, said ointment material also containing a major portion of aliphatic polyhydroxy alcohol and minor portions of water-dispersible alkylated cellulose, Water and mineral oil and a small amount of phospholipid as a dispersing agent for said mineral oil, the total polyhydroxy alcohol content of said coating being liquid in the absence of the other ingredients of said coating, and thereafter surface drying the coated gauze until a non-tacky film forms on the exposed surface of said gel leaving a layer of said soft gel adiacent the filaments of said gauze.

12. The method of making a flexible, non-tacky, ointment coated bandage material, which coinprises, impregnating -a web of gauze with a Water-dispersible, semi-solid ointment material in the form of a soft gel containing a medicament, said ointment material also containing approximately 0.5% to 25% Water-dispersible alkylatecl cellulose, approximately 50% to 90% aliphatic polyhydroxy alcohol, approximately 3% to 20% mineral oil, approximately 0.0005% vt0 2% phospholipid as a dispersing agent for said mineral oil and approximately 1% lto 25% Water, the total polyhydroxy alcohol content of said ointment material being liquid in the absence of the other ingredients of said ointment material, and thereafter surface drying the coated gauze until a non-tacky lm forms on the exposed surface of said gel leaving a layer of said soft gel adjacent the filaments of said gauze.

ABRAHAM TAUB.

10 REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the le of this patent:

UNITED STATESy PATENTS (Filed Dec'. 18, 1941) OTHER REFERENCES Committee on Medical Research, O. S. R. S.; Contract No. OEMcmr-334-Bimonthly prob- 20 ress report #8, Oct. 1, 1944.

Dedication 2,464,755.Abmham Tomb, New York, N.Y. COATED GAUZE. Patent dated Mar. 15, 1949. Dedication filed June 30, 1964, Vby the assignee, Benjamin Olayton.

, Hereby dedioates to the public the terminal part of the term of Said patent effective December 31, 1963.

[Oficial Gazette September 29, 1964.]

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US974294 *Mar 25, 1910Nov 1, 1910Edmund Morse PondSurgical bandage.
US974295 *Jun 2, 1910Nov 1, 1910Edmund Morse PondSurgical bandage.
US1044817 *Oct 18, 1909Nov 19, 1912Edmund Morse PondSurgical bandage.
US1304600 *Aug 5, 1914May 27, 1919 Composition of matter for plasters
US2145755 *Sep 13, 1937Jan 31, 1939Johnson & JohnsonSurgical dressing
US2226546 *Sep 24, 1938Dec 31, 1940Golden State Supply CoTransparent, elastic surgical bandage
US2390391 *Aug 4, 1942Dec 4, 1945Hans Ritter Charles RudolphIodization of textile fabrics
US2408818 *Dec 18, 1941Oct 8, 1946Mount Sinai Hospital Res FoundMedicated surgical dressings
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2567584 *Mar 14, 1949Sep 11, 1951Charles C H ThomasColloidal iodine preparation and method of making the same
US2667443 *May 14, 1949Jan 26, 1954Johnson & JohnsonDental floss
US2700636 *Jan 13, 1953Jan 25, 1955Johnson & JohnsonGum-impregnated dental floss
US2804424 *Apr 24, 1951Aug 27, 1957American Cyanamid CoMethod of preparing a tetracycline type antibiotic-containing wound dressing
US4865355 *Mar 14, 1988Sep 12, 1989Mcvay Roger SPipe blocking system
US4898884 *Feb 12, 1986Feb 6, 1990Kenneth R. WatsonMethod and composition for treating arthritis
US5057308 *Jun 8, 1990Oct 15, 1991Hill Ira DMethod of treating the oral cavity with oral hygiene preparations containing active SnF2
US5057309 *Jun 8, 1990Oct 15, 1991Hill Ira DOral hygiene preparations
US5389092 *Jun 24, 1992Feb 14, 1995Laboratoires D'hygiene Et De Dietetique (L.H.D.)Non-adhesive healing dressing
US7152611Dec 30, 2002Dec 26, 2006International Tape Partners, LlcCoated multifilament dental devices overcoated with imbedded particulate
US20040123877 *Dec 30, 2002Jul 1, 2004Brown Dale G.Coated multifilament dental devices overcoated with imbedded particulate
US20060177384 *Feb 7, 2006Aug 10, 2006Brown Dale GSialagogue coatings for interproximal devices
US20070110681 *Oct 16, 2006May 17, 2007Whitehill Oral Technologies, Inc.Flavor-stable dental devices
US20080140115 *Aug 16, 2005Jun 12, 2008Stopek Joshua BStapling Support Structures
US20080286346 *Jun 10, 2005Nov 20, 2008Rudolf GoerlWound Dressing
DE1037076B *Mar 8, 1955Aug 21, 1958Johnson & JohnsonBlutstillende Wundverbaende
DE3619531A1 *Jun 10, 1986Mar 12, 1987Romano CaliAnatomische, kosmetische gaze
EP0065399A1 *May 7, 1982Nov 24, 1982Smith and Nephew Associated Companies p.l.c.Dressings, manufacture and use
Classifications
U.S. Classification424/447, 602/51, 604/304, 424/676
International ClassificationA61L15/50, A61L15/44, A61L15/16
Cooperative ClassificationA61L15/50, A61L2300/106, A61L15/44, A61L2300/404
European ClassificationA61L15/44, A61L15/50