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Publication numberUS2466214 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 5, 1949
Filing dateSep 20, 1943
Priority dateSep 20, 1943
Publication numberUS 2466214 A, US 2466214A, US-A-2466214, US2466214 A, US2466214A
InventorsDeaton Charles U
Original AssigneeDeaton Charles U
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Actuating means for marionettes, puppets, and the like
US 2466214 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 5, 1949. c. u. DEATON ACTUATING MEANS FOR MARIONETTES. PUPPETS AND THE LIKE 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Sept. 20, 1943 /A/l ENTO/? C'HAELES U- DEAnv/g HrTOQ/s EK April 1949. c. u. DEATON 2,466,214

ACTUATING MEANS FOR MARIONETTES,

PUPPETS, AND THE LIKE Filed Sept. 20, 1943 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 isp/Le; 4 fir raeA/a/ April 5, 1949. c. u. DEATON 2,466,214 ACTUATING MEANS FOR MARIONETTES, PUPPETS, AND THE LIKE Filed Sept. 20, 1943 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Q g F N k: N U! a I g WM :o)/)

3 r U) (I) April 5, 1949. c. u. DEATON ACTUATING MEANS FOR MARIONETTES, PUPPETS, AND THE LIKE Filed Sept. 20, 1945 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Apnl 5, 1949. c. u. DEATON 2,466,214

ACTUATING MEANS FOR MARIONETTES, PUPPETS, AND THE LIKE Filed Sept. 20, 1943 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Patented Apr. 5, 1949 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ACTUATING MEANS FOR MARIONETTES, PUPPETS, AND THE LIKE 18 Claims. 1

This invention relates to a certain new and useful improvement in marionettes, puppets, and the like.

My invention has for its chief object the provision broadly of mechanism whereby the marionette or puppet may be automatically animated in synchronism with, and directly responsive to movements of, a live person or individual-for brevity, designated actor.

More particularly, my invention has for its objects the provision of mechanism to automatically effect unitary movement of a puppet or marionette from one location to another by movement of an individual or so-called actor spaced from the puppet but attached thereto by a movement transferring apparatus; to duplicate automatically in the body, limbs, and other parts of a puppet the relative movements of the body, limbs, and corresponding parts of an individual or actor generally simulated by the puppet; to effect in a puppet movements of different parts of the puppet operated from different sources, as, for example, movements of the legs or body by one individual or actor and movement of arms or facial features by another individual or actor; and to actuate a puppet having a plurality of relatively movable parts so that the means of operation will be hidden or concealed from view, at least from view in a given. direction, so that the puppet may be viewed or photographed during its movements without disclosing the operator or the operating mechanism.

And with the above and other objects in View, my invention resides in the novel features of form, construction, arrangement, and combination of parts presently described and pointed out in the claims.

In the accompanying drawings (five sheets) Figure 1 is a reduced, partly broken, perspective view of a marionette or puppet actuating, animating, and photographing mechanism constructed in accordance with and embodying my invention-more fully stated, Figure 1 is a perspective view of a structure of my invention embodying a pantographic apparatus and a correlated cord-and-pulley arrangement, there being a harness at one operative end of the apparatus for application to the actor and there being a puppet or marionette at the other operative end of the apparatus so uniquely constructed and connected to the harness that the puppet may be moved as a unit, and its parts may be moved relatively to each other, to correspond to the movements of the actor as a unit and to the relative movements of the body, head, limbs,

and other parts of the actor; the puppet or marionette is partially surrounded by a scenicsetting, broken away in part for better illustration; also shown is a supplementary operating device or means for actuating parts of the puppet or marionette in addition to and independently of the operation of puppet parts by the pantographic apparatus and cord-and-pulley arrangement; also shown is a camera for photographing the puppet from the same angle irrespective of movements of the puppet;

Figure 2 is a vertical section through the scenic-setting and the puppet support and associated elements and is taken approximately on the line 2-2, Figure 3;

Figure 3 is a plan view of the parts shown in Figure 2;

Figure 4 is a detail plan View of some of the parts shown inv Figures 2 and 3 and is taken approximately on the line 4-4, Figure 2;

Figure 5 is an elevational view of a simulated human or actor equipped with a harness for actuating or animating the marionette or puppet figure in synchronism and exact accordance with physical movements of his body and limbs;

Figure 6 is an elevational view, partly broken away and in section, of a jointed and wired or corded marionette or puppet adapted for actuation or animation by the pantographic apparatus and cord-and-pulley arrangement in synchronism with movements of the actor of Figure 5 and to whom the harness is attached;

Figure '7 is a vertical transverse section through the puppet or marionette of Figure 6, taken substantially on the axis of the puppethead and body and one leg;

Figure 8 is a similar section taken through one of the arms of the puppet as indicated by the line 38 in Figure 6;

Fi ure 9 is an isometric detail showing the puppet, its support, and associated parts;

Figure 10 is an isometric detail showing a portion of the harness attached to the simulated individual or actor of Figure 5; and

Figures 11, 12, and 13 are diagrammatic views illustrating the functioning of the parts shown in Figure 10.

Referring now more in detail and by referenc characters to the drawings, which illustrate a preferred embodiment of my invention, the pantcgraphic structure generally designated A in cludes a stationary frame I upstanding upon a base 2 and mounting a stationary scenic-setting or stage indicated by a platform 3, a background 4, and sides 5.

Upright i has spaced laterally presented brackets (5 receiving a bearing l, which pivots in the brackets is about vertical pintles 8. A horizontally disposed supporting-bar a has its one or so-called inner end journalled, as at iii, in the bearing l for rotatory movement about its longitudinal axis, the bar t being also swingable in a horizontal plane with bearing 1 about pintles 8 and being secured or retained against vertical movement by opposed guys ti and d engaging an intermediate bearing l located on the opposite or outer end of bar 9.

A bar ll extends in suitably spaced relation alongside bar 9 and is supported thereon by a link I? and a boom-like lever 53 both having vertical pivots to bars 9 and l l and holding them in parallel relation, as best seen in Figure 1. Bar I l may swing with bar ii about the axis of the latter and about pintles S and may, to a limited extent, move lengthwise of bar 9, but bar Ii cannot rotate on its own axis or pivot relatively to bar 9, as will be seen.

Lever l3 extends forwardly, as at Hi, from the outer end of bar l l and at its forward end mounts a universal joint connection it, best seen in Figure 10, to the belt B of a harness H applicable or attachable to a live or simulated individual or character here indicated as a male-actor M.

A substantially U-shaped carrier member l6, best seen in Figures 1 and 9, is mounted on the inner end of the supported bar ii and includes a base or widened leg-portion ll pivoted on bar H by an upright shaft it, a tubular bight-conduit l9 extending upwardly from base ll and having a horizontal or other leg-portion it terminating in a universal joint-connection 2i vertically aligned with shaft l8, the joint corresponding to the universal joint-connection i5 and mounting a puppet or marionette P here shown as simulating a man.

The frame-members l, 2, parallel bars 9 and II, link i2, lever l3, and member iii form, in substance, the pantographic apparatus A, whereby unitary movements of the actor M are automatically dupiicated by the puppet P. For example, if the actor lvi crouches towards, or jumps upwardly from, th floor F, actor M will tilt or shift lever i3, bars 9 and ii, carrier l6, and the puppet P about the journal Iii or bar 9, causing bar -l l, carrier l3, and the puppet P to be lowered or raised, tilted or shifted, correspondingly but in proportion to the length of the link-part i i of lever l3 to the total length of the lever.

If the actor M moves forwardly or rearwardly, the actor M will swing all parts of the apparatus about the pintles 8 of bar 9, causing bar H, carrier l6, and the puppet P to be moved forwardly or rearwardly, respectively, the move-- ments of the pup-pet P being proportionately reduced. It will be seen that the bars 9, ii, l2, and I3 are pivoted together in the manner of a pantograph and the proportional relations between the lengths of such members and the pivot points therebetween will, just as in a conventional pantograph, determine the ratio between the amount of movement of the actor M and the puppet P. Obviously, if it were desired to distort the movement of the puppet P in one plane relatively to the movement of the actor M in that plane as compared with the actor and puppet movements in another plane, then the ratio between the several bars 9, M, ii, and I3 and the pivot points therebetween may be Eli , However, for e.

suitably distorted, just as would be true of any conventional pantograph.

If the actor M moves to his right or left, lever it will swing about the pivotal connection of the latter to bar 53, moving bar H and carrier it longitudinally with respect to the stage 3, 4, 5, but to a lesser distance in accordance with the relative lengths of elements i3 and its link portion l4 etween the bars 9 and H.

In addition to the overall or bodily movements of the actor M from one location to another, and their transmission to the puppet P through the pantographic apparatus A as described, there are other movements of the r; actor, such as the twisting and bending of his body and the movements of his head, arms, hands, legs, and feet relatively to the body and to each other which it is desired to transmit to the puppet P. Such movements are effected by a plural cord-and pulley arrangement, indicated generally at C, th several cords c of which extend along the outer portion i i of lever 53, along bar ll, and then along carrier it, being reeved over respective pulleys journaled in axial alignment with the pivotal connection between lever 23 and bar I l and the pivotal connection between bar ii and carrier is and also being reeved over other respective pulleys journaled on the universal joint IS, the harness H, and the carrier l6.

.aticn of the cord-and-pulley arrangebe readily understood by reference to rugs, and it is unnecessary to describe in he elements effecting operation of each part of he pup-pet P by a part or" the actor mple, it may be noted that a cord attached to the right foot of the actor" lgure 5, runs over a pulley 23 of the harness H near the knee-joint and a second pulley 2 of the harness H near the hip-joint and then M 3 through a tube 355 and along lever-link i l, over pulley 25, along bar l l, over a pulley ill on shaft it, as best seen in Figures 2 and 9, to a reducinglever 23, where the extent of movement of the remainder of the cord 22 is reduced, the cord 22 and the reducing-lever 23 being tensioned by the spring 5. The cord continues, as at 25!, over a pulley and additional puppet pulleys, best seen in Figure 6, to connect to the right foot of the puppet P. It will be understood that normally the ratio between the arms of lever 28 corresponds to the ratio between lever l3 and its inner link portion id, so that the movement of the puppet attached cords 0 will be reduced in extent in the same proportion as the other movements of the puppet P relatively to the movements or" the actor M.

Some of the cords 0, such indicated at 3t, 3t, and 32, Figure 10, are actuated by movements of the parts of the universal joint it"; caused by the movement of the body of the actor M, as in bending and twisting, as illustrated in Figures ll, 12, and 13. These movements do not in themselves affect the cords 0 leading to the actors head and limbs. Similar movements of the puppet P are effected by cords c which over pulleys on shaft 5 3 and are extended, as at 3'3, to run over pulleys 3t and and similarly actuate the universal joint 2 l, Figure 9, and the body of the puppet P without substantially affecting the cords 0 connected to the head and limbs of the puppet P.

It will be understood that the movements of the actor M. transmitted through the pantographic apparatus A, the movements transmitted from the universal joints, and the movements transmitted through the various cords c of the harness I-I may be transmitted simultaneously, so that the combination of movements by the actor M will be duplicated in and by the puppet P.

In addition to the movements of the puppet P effected automatically by the mechanisms described, there is provided a separate control for actuating the facial elements of the puppet P. This control is indicated generally at D, Figures 1 and 9, and comprises levers M with knobs S'l adapted for grasping manually by an operator, not shown, other than the actor M, the levers 36 being connected by respective cords 38 extending through cables 39 and conduit is to the interior of the head of the puppet P, where they extend over suitable pulleys 40 to levers 4! to the jaw, lips, and eyes of the puppet P.

The joints and various other movable members of the puppet P are tensioned or normally held in the position of their most extreme retracted movement by springs, such as those indicated at s in Figures 6, 7, and 8. For instance, the spring at the knee joint will operate so that the is drawn upwardly and backwardly to whatever desired position may be selected the most err treme backward position of such member, as schematically shown in dotted lines then be drawn tightly against the tension of s ii. spring s. As a result, when the actor puts his foot into the harness which controls the other end of the cord 22, he will have to draw it down into an intermediate position suitable to himself against the tension of the spring s. Thereupon, if he kicks his foot forwardly, draw ing the cord 22 further forwardly, the cord will accordingly pull the corresponding leg member of the puppet P forwardly in a similar man her. On the other hand, if the actor hicks his foot backwardly toward the rearinost position, the cord 22 will tend to be relaxed and the spring s will draw the member backwardly corresponding fashion, keeping the cord tensioned. A similar arrangement is carried out for all. the other movable members. Similarly, the torso or trunk of the puppet P is h .d pr ferably erect by the large spiral spring s so that the cords will control the uprightness of the puppets trunk and will maintain such upright and hold the trunk-controlling cords tensioned. If the actor bends forwardly at the waist, the cord a, as shown in Figure '7, which is connects. to cord iii) (see Figure 5), will be drawn tight and the puppets body caused to bend forwardly. @n the other hand, if the actor bends backwardly at the waist, the companion cord 2, which is connected to cord 35, will be drawn tight and the puppet caused to bend backwardly in corresponding fashion. It may be noted in this connection that the cords will become slack. if the actor moves a particular member in some direction past the position of maximum retracted movement of the corresponding member of the puppet P.

In Figure 9, a somewhat similar arrangement is schematically shown. In that case, however, only one trunk-controlling cord is shown for causin the puppet P to bend forwardly, rearward bending movement being entirely omitted. In such case, even though the actor were to bend backwardly, such backward bending movement would not be transmitted to the puppet P for the reason that the puppet P would not be set up for such purpose. In connection with Figure 9, it may also be well to point out that the cords 33 are crossed as they run upwardly through the hollow column 56, thereby synchronizing the movement of the puppet P with the movement of the actor. If it were not for the cross of the cords, the puppet P would twist to the right when the actor twisted to the left and vice Versa.

Control D may be positioned near or remote from the puppet and near or remote from the actor and the operator of the control may follow the facial movements of the actor or may operate the control to provide the puppet P with facial movements independently of the facial movements. if any, of the actor M, as will be understood.

All of the described operating structure may be concealed from the view of spectators in front of the puppet P, or it may be desired to use the entire structure for moving pictures or television. In such use, it may be desirable to shift the puppet P or the line of sight from the camera to the puppet relatively to the background or scenic setting ll, ii, without affecting the movements of the puppet P by the actor M and the operator of th control D. For such purpose, there is provided a telescoping rod 42 having a .ntal pivot is to carrier base ll. At its outer end, rod is connected to a camera E focused upon the puppet P and mounted upon a tripod it, which may be rolled over the studio floor F and elevated or lowered as desired. Due to the telescoping construction of connection 42, the cam ra E may be moved towards and away from the stage and puppet P without aifecting the latter, due to the horizontal pivot 43, the camera E may be elevated and lowered relatively to the stage and pup-pet P without affooting the latter. If the camera E is moved horizontall to the right or to the left, it swings carrier it about shaft it as a pivot, thereby maintaining the camera E substantially in alignment with the front of the puppet P but effecting a relative shifting of the puppet P and the background l. All of these movements of the camera E, including the latter-mentioned swinging of the puppet P about shaft 88, may be made without afiecting the puppet P otherwise and without affecting movements of the puppet P by the pantographic apparatus A and by the cord-and-pulley arrangement C.

For the purpose of illustration, the puppet P is shown in simulation of a man standing upright similar to the actor M, but it is within the scope of my invention to have the puppet P take other forms, such as an ape, a dog, an elephant, a dragon, or other imaginary creature, and it is also within the scope of my invention to have a live animal or other animated individual than a human serve as the actor, which expression is employed in an inclusive sense in this specification and the appended claims.

It will also be understood that the harness H may be varied to meet various operating conditions, the essential features being the cords c, which are moved or pulled by the actor M and his or its respective limbs or head, as the case may be.

And it may here be remarked that the puppet P may also be of any selected jointed effect comprising a jointed body, jointed arms, and jointed legs and a head equipped with shiftable lips, eyes, and chin, the particular cord c from any particular part of the actor M being attached to a simulative or corresponding part or element of the puppet or figure P, as the case may be.

Thus the limb, body, and facial movements of the particular actor M are transmitted and reproduced automatically and synchronously by the puppet P through the unique transmitting mechanism (3-D, and it is to be understood that changes and modifications in the form, construction, arrangement, and combination of the several parts of the puppet may be made and substituted for those herein shown and described without departing from the nature and principle of my invention.

Having thus described my invention, What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. In a puppet structure, apparatus including a device for attachment to, and for actuation by, an actor, an actuating device for attachment to a puppet, and means connectin said devices so that movement by the actor is automatically transmitted from one device to the other for eiiecting corresponding movement of the puppet.

2. In a puppet structure, a device for attachment to, and actuation by, an actor, a puppet spaced from said device, and means connecting said device and puppet so that bodily movement of the actor from one location to another auto matically efiects corresponding bodily movement of the puppet.

3. Puppet structure as recited in claim 2, Which includes leverage for varying the extent of the puppet movement relatively to the extent of movement of the actor.

4. In a puppet structure, a pantographic apparatus, a puppet operatively connected to one end of said apparatus, and means at the other end of said apparatus for attaching the same to, and for actuation by, an actor so that movement of the actor from one location to another will effect substantial duplication of movement of the puppet from one location to another.

5. In a puppet structure, a stationary frame, a supporting bar mounted on the frame to rotate about its own axis and to swing in one plane about a pivot on the frame, a supported bar parallelling the supporting bar, linkage pivotally connecting said bars for maintaining the same in parallel relation and including a lever projecting from one end of the supported bar, means on the outer end of said lever for attaching the same to, and for actuation by, an actor, and a puppet carried by the other end of the supported bar, and automatically actuated on movements thereof.

6. In a puppet structure, a puppet having relatively movable parts, an apparatus including a device spaced from the puppet and arranged for attachment to, and for actuation by, relatively movable parts of an actor, and means connecting the device and puppet so that relative movements of the actor are substantially duplicated by corresponding parts of the puppet.

7. In a puppet structure, a puppet, means arranged for separate attachment to the body, and to relatively movable parts, of an actor, said means having connection With the puppet and being constructed and arranged so that bodily movement of the actor from one location to another automatically effects corresponding bodily movement of the puppet and relative movements of the parts of the actor automatically efiects similar relative movements of the corresponding parts of the puppet.

8. In a puppet structure, a puppet and an apparatus arranged for attachment at its opposite ends respectively to an actor and to the puppet so that bodily movement of the actor from one location to another automatically effects corre- .sponding bodily movement of the puppet, said apparatus including elements arranged for attachment to relatively movable part of the actor, and means connecting said elements to relatively movable parts of the puppet so that relative movements of the parts of the actor automatically effects similar relative movements of the corresponding parts of the puppet.

9. In a puppet structure, a pantographic apparatus comprising a stationary frame, a bar mounted on said frame to rotate about its axis and to swing about a vertical pivot on the frame, spaced links extending transversely of said bar and pivoted thereto to swing in the plane thereof, a supported bar parallelling said first-mentioned bar and pivotally connected to said links at equal distances from said first-mentioned bar, a puppet pivot-ally supported from said supported bar at a point spaced from said links, one of said spaced links forming lever extending from the bars, and means on the outer end of the lever for attachment to, and actuation by, an actor whereby movements of the latter will roduce similar movements in the puppet.

10. In combination with a puppet structure as recited in claim 9, a plurality of cords extending along the lever and the supported bar and over pulleys journalled at the pivots for said lever and bar and connected to relativey movable parts of the puppet, and a harness at the outer end of the lever having relatively movable elements arranged for attachment to relatively movable parts of the actor, said elements being secured to respective cords whereby relative movement of parts of the actor may be transmitted to and duplicated in the puppet irrespective of movements in the latter by the pantographic apparatus.

11. In a puppet structure, a harness arranged for attachment to an actor and including a main member for attachment to the body of the actor and a plurality of parts for attachment to the parts of the actor movable relatively to the body, a puppet having a body and other parts corresponding generally to the body and parts of the actor, a pantograp-hic device having a connection at one end to said main member and its other end to the body of the puppet, and a cord-andpulley arrangement including a plurality of cord members each of which is respectively attached at one end to a selected part of the harness and the other end of which is attached to the corresponding part of the puppet, the pantographic apparatus transmitting movement of the part of the body of the actor to which said main member is attached to the body of the puppet independently of relative movements of the other parts of the actor and the puppet, and the cordand-pulley arrangement transmitting relative movements of other parts of the actor to the said other parts of the puppet independently of movements of the first-mentioned part of the body of the actor and the puppet.

12. In a puppet structure, a harness for attachment to an actor, a puppet generally simulating the actor for which the harness is adapted and having relatively movable parts, an apparatus connecting the harness to the puppet so that movements of the actor to Whom the harness is attached are automatically transmitted to and substantially duplicated in the puppet, and means for actuating the relatively movable parts of the puppet by an operator independently of 9 the movement of the puppet by said apparatus and the actor to which the harness is attached.

13. In a puppet structure, a, harness having separate elements for attachment respectively to the head and relatively movable parts of an actor, a puppet generally simulating such actor and including a head and other parts movable relatively to each other, there being features in the head movable relatively thereto and to each other, an apparatus connecting the elements of the harness to corresponding parts of the puppet so that movements of the actor attached to the harness are automatically transmitted to and substantially duplicated in the puppet, and means attached to said puppet features and adapted to be actuated selectively by an operator independently of the actuation of said apparatus,

14. In a puppet structure, a puppet, a relatively stationary background for the puppet, a puppet carrier, means spaced from the puppet and the carrier for manual operation of the puppet, and a camera mounted on the carrier for photographing the puppet and the background, the carrier, puppet, and camera being movable about a common axis and relatively to said background.

15. In a puppet structure, a puppet, a relatively stationary background for the puppet, a puppet carrier, a pantographic apparatus for moving the puppet including an arm pivotally supporting the carrier, a cord-and-pulley arrangement associated with said apparatus for moving the parts of the puppet relatively to each other irrespective of movement of the puppet by said apparatus, and means for moving the carrier without affecting the action of said apparatus and cord-and-pulley arrangement.

16. In a puppet structure, a puppet, a relatively stationary background for the puppet, a puppet carrier, a pantographic apparatus for moving the puppet including an arm supporting the carrier, a cord-and-pulley arrangement associated with said apparatus for moving the parts of the puppet relatively to each other irrespective of movement of the puppet by said apparatus, there being a vertically disposed pivot connecting said arm and the carrier and the puppet being positioned in line with the axis of said pivot, a telescoping device having one element connected to the carrier by a horizontal pivot and having its other element arranged to mount a camera directed towards the puppet and background.

17. In a puppet structure, a stationary stage, a yoke-like carrier having a base beneath said stage and a member extending upwardly from said base at the back of said stage and then forwardly above the floor of the stage, a puppet supported by said member over the stage, a stationary upright, a pantographic device having a supporting arm swingably mounted on the upright and a movable supported arm extending under said stage and pivotally mounting said carrier base in substantial vertical alignment with the puppet, and means associated with the device for operating the same to shift the puppet relatively to the stage.

18. In a puppet structure, a puppet, a relatively stationary background for the puppet, a puppet carrier, means spaced from the puppet and the carrier for operation of the puppet, the carrier being movable relatively to said background irrespective of the operation of said means, a camera for visual reproduction of the puppet, and means connecting the camera and. the carrier for movement of the camera and carrier without effecting movement of the puppet relatively to the background.

CHARLES U. DEATON.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,732,197 Tadakuma Oct. 15, 1929 2,312,158 Garity Feb. 28, 1943

Patent Citations
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2570737 *Aug 15, 1949Oct 9, 1951Whitcomb Charles EMarionette actuating and controlling apparatus
US2615282 *Sep 16, 1949Oct 28, 1952Frank E UeltschiMechanically actuated marionette control mechanism
US2704417 *May 24, 1952Mar 22, 1955Evans Samuel HPuppet actuating apparatus
US2881559 *Sep 12, 1956Apr 14, 1959Glass Marvin IToy figure
US3070920 *Aug 4, 1960Jan 1, 1963Aniforms IncPuppet like figure and animation apparatus
US3329476 *Sep 21, 1966Jul 4, 1967Whitney John HAnimating apparatus
US3390481 *Apr 6, 1965Jul 2, 1968Boris RunaninPuppet and animation device
US3415524 *Jan 28, 1965Dec 10, 1968Robert M. VickersGolf swing training apparatus
US3510210 *Dec 15, 1967May 5, 1970Xerox CorpComputer process character animation
US3610745 *Aug 1, 1969Oct 5, 1971James Mark WilsonVisual effects combining motion pictures and three dimensional objects
US3893257 *Jul 12, 1974Jul 8, 1975Perfect LibertyPuppet head with movable eyes and lip and remote hand controls therefor
US3916562 *Nov 14, 1974Nov 4, 1975Burkhart RobertAnimated puppet
US4091563 *Nov 8, 1976May 30, 1978Sidney NobleFighting doll and fight ring with doll manipulator
US5980357 *Feb 11, 1998Nov 9, 1999Newby; Thomas O.Puppet controlled from above
US6827626Feb 27, 2003Dec 7, 2004Playstages, IncorporatedMarionette
DE1193846B *Feb 2, 1959May 26, 1965Markes & Co KgAuf einer Ebene frei bewegliche Roboterfigur
Classifications
U.S. Classification352/87, 352/54, 446/366
International ClassificationA63J19/00
Cooperative ClassificationA63J19/006
European ClassificationA63J19/00M