US 2466451 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 5,, 1949. A. LXEBMAN MECHANICAL BINDER Filed NOV. 15, 1944 Patented Apr. 5, 1949 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE MECHANICAL BINDER Arthur Liebman, Brighton, Mass.
Application November 15, 1944, Serial No. 563,463
My present invention is a novel and improved mechanical binding device for permanently uniting and binding books, pamphlets, catalogs, magazines, notebooks, or the like in permanent position and in perfect alignment, which binding device can be instantly and simultaneously applied throughout the entire binding edge of the article to be bound.
Heretofore, in mechanical binding devices of this general type, it has been customary to provide spiral spring-like elements which must be threaded thru a series of holes previously punched along the binding edge of the article to be bound, and which operation required threading of the spiral element by hand. Or such prior mechanical binding devices had one or more flat prongs or fingers which entered slots in the binding edge and was also a hand operation, together with additional operations to complete the binding.
Both these prior methods and articles have been objectionable, the spiral type binder failing to give proper page or cover alignment, which is essential in most instances; and, of course, such a spiral fastener did not have any solid back portion to strengthen, reinforce, or rigidly hold the binding edge; and, of course, such a fastener could not carry any printing on the back when completed.
On the other hand, the use of a binder which required slots to be punched thru the binding edge of the pages necessarily weakened the same, such slots being relatively large, long, and close to the edge, so that the pages were easily torn or lost, while the space and clearance required in such slotted and comb-like devices resulted in looseness of the pages and lack of satisfactory alignment.
Nor did this type of binding device eliminate hand operations.
My present invention has for its object to overcome the difiiculties above briefly outlined, and to provide a firm, strong, inexpensive mechanical binder of metal, alloy, or suitable plastic, or the like, which will have the advantages of a firm and solid backing suitable to receive printing and to strengthen the binder, together with a series of thin holding elements or prongs adapted to be applied simultaneously thru relatively small holes adjacent the edge portion being bound, and to lock the prongs in permanent position when applied.
7 Thus, I obtain the important advantage of eliminating the slotted, weakening, and nonaligning binding feature of the present prior devices, and in their stead utilize the stronger con struction of fastening elements simultaneously applied thru a series of small holes in the leaves being bound. Preferably, also, I provide means to permanently interlock the prongs during the binding operation which are thus held in permanently bound position thru the interlocking. The prongs or elements are reinforced by a permanent continuous solid back member, which latter may bear the printing or title of the book or bound article.
Preferably, also, I perform this complete binder-applying action by a simple clamping machine, eliminating skilled labor and time-consuming hand operations.
. Referring to the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a plan view of a preferred form of my mechanical binder;
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the preliminary operation of applying the binder to the perforated binding edge of a book or article to bebound;
Fig. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary cross-sectional view showing a pair of the fastening elements to be applied to the holes or perforations in the binding edge; i Fig. 4 is a corresponding view illustrating the binding elements clamped or pressed into interlocking engagement;
Fig. 5 is a corresponding view illustrating the binding elements in circular form and interlocked in the binding edge of a book, which latter is shown in fragmentary cross-sectional view;
Fig. 6 is an enlarged detail of the interlocking ends of each pair of binding elements;
Fig. 7 illustrates the end portions in interlock ing engagement;
Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic view of a modified form of interlocking construction, and I Fig. 9 is a fragmentary view of a further modified form of interlocking end construction.
As shown in the drawings, a continuous back I of metal, plastic, or the like is formed of ap propriate width and suitable length for the article to be bound. Secured to or formed integral with. the back I are the fastening prongs, fingers, or elements which are intended to be fitted thru relatively small holes or perforations in the bind ing edge of the book. Such prongs may be formed separately and attached, welded, or otherwise secured to the back I or may be formed integral therewith and may be round, square, or otherwise in cross-section, and with an interlocking end construction so that the entire series of prongs may be clamped together with the ends interlocked when the binder is applied to the book.
As shown in Fig. 1, I have illustrated a typical form of such prongs comprising arms 2 and 3, here shown as round in cross-section and partially curved to facilitate the applying and clamping action, together with a central portion 4 which is flattened and welded to the back I. A series of such fastening prongs, elements, or fingers are attached to the back I at suitably spaced intervals throughout the length of the back I and extending crosswise thereof.
As herein shown, I have illustrated the diameter of these fastening prongs somewhat enlarged, as well as the holes or perforations thru the book being somewhat overdrawn for clearness, it being advisable to have a relatively close fitting between the diameter of these openings in the binding edge of the book and the diameter of the prongs.
Also such holes or perforations would correspond with the cross-section of the fastening prongs. Thus, prongs round in cross-section would have round holes or perforations; prongs square in cross-section would have square perforations; fiat prongs, flat perforations, etc. in order to give an appropriate fitting and to maintain the alignment of the pages and cover of the book being bound, as well as to facilitate the opening and turning of the leaves on the prongs constituting the mechanical binder.
'The round form of fastening prongs, as shown in Figs. 1 to '5, are readily formed with complemental end constructions which will readily enable the ends to be led into each other and interlock in a wedging action, all simultaneously of the entire set or series of prongs during the binding action by a simple clamping .or pressing of the pre-curved prongs 2 and 3 together. For this purpose I form on one end, for example, of the prong 2 a projecting pin 5 with a surrounding shoulder 6; and on the opposite prong3 I form a recess 1 of sufficient depth to receive the length of the pin 5 when the two ends are moved together in clamped position, as shown inFigs. 4 and 5. Preferably the pin 5 is tapered,.as shown in enlarged form in Figs. 6 and '7, so that as the opposite ends of the prongs 2 and 3 are pressed into alignment and, hence, together, the pin 5 will enterthe recess 1 and be firmly interlocked therein with a wedging action, the surrounding shoulder 6 on thepin 5 abutting against the end 8 of the complemental prong 3, thus giving a smooth and continuous surface on the prongs 2 and 3 for the leaves and cover of the book to slide after the binder has been clamped into .place.
Ihave shown in Fig. 2 .in prospective form a typical book to be bound, comprising a series of leaves and covers l2 and 13, having a series of perforations 15 .along the binding'edge. of appropriate diameter and size to fit the prongs 2 and 3 .to be utilized in fastening-the same. Thus the binder with-aseries orset of fastening prongs inpre-curved position .is assembled with a book to be bound, and with a set of prongs in alignment with the perforations l therein; and thereupon a simple clamping, binding, or pressing action will .unite the binder to the book by forcing the pre-curved .arms 2 and 3 into each adjacent perforation .from opposite surfaces, the interlocking ends meeting and interlocking in the interior-of the thickness of the book being bound, and being held both by the rigiditycof the curved arms .2 .and3, the strength accorded :by thecontinuous back, and the interlocking connection of the complemental ends of each prong.
The important feature of enabling the entire set or series of prongs to be thus aligned and fitted from opposite surfaces of the book being bound and to simultaneously apply the same and complete the binding action by a single and simple pressing operation is most important and greatly simplifies the operation as distinguished from the prior spiral mechanical fasteners which had to be threaded thru from one side only and delivered progressively along the binding edge or with separate flat strips curled around themselves, all entering from one edge and requiring highly skilled labor.
My invention thus enables a mechanical binder to be quickly, instantly, and securely applied with the entire set of leaves and covers held in correct alignment, and with a minimum of holes or perforations in the binding edge, and hence without materially weakening the edge portions of the leaves and cover being thus bound.
My mechanical binder can be made either with the continuous back I, as shown in Figs. 1 to 4,
and with the arms 2 and 3 precurved and pressed into straight alignment in each adjacent set of perforations I5, as best shown in Figs. 3 and 4; or I can form the back 20 and arms 2| and 22, as shown in Fig. 5, substantially in a circle, wherein the arms with the complemental interlocking ends will meet in the interior of the holes l5, giving a curved and circular binding prong construction where this type of binder is desired.
In Fig. 8 I have shown a still further modification wherein the back 25 has a set or series of fastening prongs 26 and 21 secured or formed integrally with the back I and with the interlocking end construction comprising a V type of end 28 on each arm 26, which fits into a socket 29 of corresponding or slightly narrower V type, so that a wedging and interlocking construction will result. This form of interlocking V type may be utilized with flat or square prongs, if desired, and in such case maybe readily stamped out in tegrally with the back 25.
A still further modificationof interlocking end construction is hown in Fig. 9, wherein a back 30 is shown with a series of fastening prongs 3| and32, each prong 3| having a projection 33 fitting into a complemental socket member 34 on the opposite prong-32. These also may be fitted for wedging and interlocking and will readily enable the entire set of prongs to be interlocked and wedged, as well as presentinga smooth outer urface over which the leaves and cover of the book being bound will slide.
It will thus be appreciated that my new mechanical binder enables the advantages of the binding operation to be performed quickly, easily, andsimultaneously throughout the entire length of the binding edge with a minimum of cutting away of the paper in the edge, and by simple pressing or clamping operations, which simultaneously apply the opposite ends of each fastening prong, finger, or element thru the book and interlock same in the interior, holding the entire book, cover, and pages in proper and correct alignment and insures ease'in the opening and sliding of the leaves on each fastener.
The advantages of a continuous backing on which the title or other information of the book is printed and the added strength given to the set of fastening prongs will also be appreciated, while the operation of extending the prongs from opposite surfaces into the binding edge of the completed book greatly facilitates this operation.
These prongs may be either separately attached to or project from the back, or as a continuous element fastened to the back in the shape of a pair of arms, the ends of each pair in alignment with each other having interlocking means. Also the back and projecting prongs may be, and preferably are, in a smooth, or substantially smooth, continuou outer surface, although, as shown in the drawings, the prongs being overdrawn in size and flattened where welded or united with the back, are somewhat distorted. In the case of the round prongs, they may be formed as light thin tubes with the interlocking projecting pin fitted in one end.
Various modifications will occur to those skilled in the art, the important characteristics being more fully set out in the appended claims,
1. A mechanical permanent binder of the kind described, having a rigid back member of substantial strength and width extending lengthwise of the article to be bound and capable of carrying printing thereon in simulation of a standard bound book, said back member having a plurality of relatively small narrow pairs of oppositely projecting prongs extending horizontally from the back member, said pairs of prongs being constructed and arranged to meet and interlock with complemental fastenings in the ends of each opposite pair, acting to hold the united pairs of prongs by a wedging action in the interior of the article being bound when bent into permanently rigid binding position, said back reinforcing said prongs and cooperating to hold the same in permanent interlocked and binding position.
2. A rigid permanent mechanical binder of the kind described, comprising a substantially inflexible back of substantial width extending lengthwise of the article to be bound, said back having a plurality of relatively small, narrow, oppositely extending pairs of projecting prongs, held in permanent position by the strength of said back, said prongs being adapted to enter a series of relatively small openings in the binding edge of the article to be bound in a position sufiiciently remote from the edge to prevent weakening of the binding edge, said oppositely extending prongs being adapted to interlock at their meeting ends within the article being bound, and to present smooth surfaces throughout the entire periphery of said prongs to permit the leaves and cover of the bound article to slide over said interlocked portion, said rigid back cooperating with the interlocking of the pronged ends to hold them in permanently bound position.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 877,634 Decker Jan. 28, 1908 1,257,982 Daugherty Mar. 5, 1918 1,998,977 Bidwell Apr. 23, 1935 2,099,881 Emmer Nov. 23, 1937 2,141,524 Emmer Dec. 27, 1938 2,229,936 Prache Jan. 28, 1941 2,363,848 Emmer Nov. 11, 1944