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Publication numberUS2468967 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 3, 1949
Filing dateMay 31, 1945
Priority dateJun 6, 1944
Publication numberUS 2468967 A, US 2468967A, US-A-2468967, US2468967 A, US2468967A
InventorsSemple Fisher George Roweland
Original AssigneeSemple Fisher George Roweland
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Permutation lock
US 2468967 A
Abstract  available in
Images(7)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

May 3, 1949. G. R; s.

Filed May 5l, 1945 FISHER 2,468,967v

PERMUTATION LOCK 7 sheets-sheet 1 46 4896/: 45a na4 657/76 Inventor l Altprney/ May 3, 1949. G. R. L. s. FISHER 2,468,967

PERMUTATION LOCK Y 7 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed May 3l, 41945 4e 4,9@ H66. L

forge/ELS. ...A4-5f lr Inventor 7 VAttorney May 3, 1949. G. R. L. s. FISHER v 2,468,967

PERMUTATION LOCK Filed May 3l, 1945 A 7 SheetS--Sheefll 3 orney lMay 3, 1949. G. R. L. s. FISHER 2,468,967

PERMUTATION LOCK Atto ey May 3, 1949. G, R, L. S, FlSHER I 2,468,967

PERMUTATION LOCK Filed May 5l, 1945 l 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 BAL v 69a 9b M2 m A Harney May 3, 1949- G. R. s. FISHER l 2,468,967

PERMUTATION LOCK Filed May 3l, 1945 '7 Sheets-Sheet 6 I 'Altornjy/ May 3, 1949. G. R. s. r'lsH,r-:R v 2,468,967

l PERMUTATION LOCK Filed May 3l, 1945 '7 Sheets-Sheet '7 bv, ,K 1122257??- Patented May 3, 1949 PERMUTATION Loox George Roweland Lovelace Semple Fisher, Pendock, Staunton, England Application May 31, 1945, Serial No. 596,880 In Great Britain June 6, 1944 7 Claims.

This invention relates to permutation locks of the type wherein one or more rings bearing indicia are rotatable about an axis coincident with the axis of a bolt so that when said rings are turned into a predetermined position the bolt may be displaced axially to effect unlocking.

One object is to provide a permutation lock suitable for a variety of uses such as the securing oi a spare wheel to an automobile body, the locking of a manual control leverl such as a Vehicle hand brake, and the like.

Another object is the provision of a lock structure suitable for padlocks and the like.

A further object is to enable the unlocking permutation to be changed at will by the owner or authorised user of a permutation lock.

A still further object is to render the process of attempting to effect unlocking by feel or sound substantially impossible or highly wasteful of time.

According to the present invention, in a permutation lock of the type having a plurality of indicia bearing rings acting in conjunction with.

a plurality of members, in the form of balls to provide locking means for a bolt, a plunger is axially displaceable relative to the rings to move the balls clear of notches on the internal peripheries of the rings when the releasing permutation is selected so that said rings may be freely rotated to impart a new releasing permutation to the lock.

By providing a plunger displaceable axially to move the balls axially clear of notches on the internal peripheries of the indicia bearing rings and accommodating the balls in slots in a flange.

on said plunger or by providing a means for the bolt to be displaceable axially to cause radial disengagement of the balls from the notches and accommodating the balls in radial recesses, said rings may be displaced relative to the balls.

A dust cap is adapted to cooperate with an additional locking means whereby unlocking can only be eiected when Said indicia are covered.

By providing a spring loaded p-in adapted to be engageable in a radial bore in the bolt, the additional locking means may be constituted due to pressure from the dust cap on to said spring loaded pin. The said dust cap may be cylindrical and moving in guides coaxially with the bolt.

The invention will be more particularly described, with reference to the accompanying drawing showing automobile spare wheel and brake locks, by way of example.

v In the drawing-f- Figure 1 is a view in vertical section of one form 2 y. of lock constructed according to my invention an particularly suited to securing a wheel of an automobile to a bracket attached to the body of the automobile.

Figure l is a view in cross section of the lock shown in Fig. 1.

Figure 3 is a side elevation partly broken out and sectioned on the line AB of Fig. 2, designed to show details of a ratchet assembly.

Figure 4 is a view in end elevation of a bolt such as is used in the lock shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3.

b Figure 5 is a View in side elevation of the said Figure 6 is a view in end elevation of a front guide such as is used in the lock shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3.

Figure 7 is a view in vertical section of the said front guide.

Figure 8 is a view in vertical section of an outer guide such as is used in the lock shown in Figs. l, 2 and 3.

Figure 9 is a view in end elevation of the said outer guide.

Figure 10 is a view in end elevation of a spacer ring such as is used in the lock shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3.

Figure 11 is a View in vertical section of the said spacer ring.

Figure 12 is a view in side elevation of an indicia bearing ring such as is used in the lock shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3.

Figure 13 is a view in end elevation of the said indicia bearing ring.

Figure 14 is a View in vertical section of the said indicia bearing ring.

Figure 15 is a View in end elevation of a plunger such as is used in the lock shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3.

Figure 16 is a view in side elevation ofthe said plunger.

Figure 17 is a view in elevation of a case such as is used in the lock shown in Figs. l, 2 `and 3.

Figure 18 is a view in vertical section of the said case.

Figure 19 is' a view in elevation of a dust cap such as is used in the lock shown in Figs. 1, 2

and 3.

Figure 20 is a view in end elevation of the saidv Figure 22 is a plan View of the lock shown in Fig. 21.

Figure 23 is a View in end elevation of the lock shown in Fig. 21, partly broken out and sectioned.

Figure 24 is a view in vertical section of a case such as is used in the lock shown in Fig. 2l.

Figure 25 is a View in end elevation of the said case.

Figure 26 is a plan View of the said case.

Figure 27 is a View in elevation partly sectioned of a plunger bolt such as is used in the lock shown in Fig. 21.

Figure 28 is a View in end elevation of the said plunger bolt.

Figure 29 is a plan View of the said plunger bolt.

Figure 30 is a View in side elevation of an indicia bearing ring such as is used in the lock shown in Fig. 21.

Figure 3l is a view in end elevation of the said indicia bearing ring.

Figure 32 is a View in Vertical section of the said indicia bearing ring.

Figure 33 is a view in vertical section of an end guide such as is used in the lock shown in Fig. 21.

Fig-ure 34 is a View in end elevation of the said end guide.

Figure 35 is a View in vertical section of a spacer ring such as is used in the lock shown in Fig. 2,1.

Figure 36 is a view in end elevation of the said spacer ring.

Figure 37 is a View partly in vertical section showing details of the said lock attached to one particular form of brake control.

Figure 38 is a View partly in elevation of the assembly shown in Fig. 37.

Figure 39 is a View partly in vertical section showing details of the said lock attached to another particular form of brake control.

Figure 40 is a View partly in elevation and partly in section of the assembly shown inA Fig. 39.

The drawings show two forms of lock illustrative of my invention. Referring in the rst instance to the one lock shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 it may be seen that this lock comprises a case generally designatedA 4l to which is secured a front guide 42 and. an outer guide 43 thus forming a rigid casing to contain the lock mechanism. A slot 42a in the front guide and a slot 43a in the outer guide are in line when the casing is thus assembled. A dust cap 44 is disposed around the case 4I and moves in guides formed by lateral flanges 42h and 43h on the periphery of the front guide and outer guide respectively. This dust c aphas ends 44a and 44h.

Within the casing of the lock are positioned a spacer ring 45, two indicia bearing rings 46 and Handl a plunger 48' all coaxial with a bolt 49 which passes into the casing of the lock through an axial bore 42o in the front guide and an axial bore 45a in the spacer ring and which locates in a counterbore 43e in the outer guide. The spacer ring 45 is located intermediate the two indicia bearingrings 46 and 47. The bolt 49 is provided with an axial bore Maand longitudinally recessed to present a radial slot 49h. The plunger 48"is,positioned with plunger body 48a. within the bore 49a of the bolt 49 and is held normally with a shoulder 48h against the end'of the counterbore 43e` in the outer guide Vby means of a spring 50'1actingbetweenthe end of a counterbore 43d and the kunder suriacevof a domed cap l-which is screwed to the end of a-.shankc on 'the-*plunger passing through an axial bore 43e in the outer guide. A radial iiange 48d on the plunger passes through the radial slot 49D in the bolt 49 and engages in the slot 42a, the slot 43d and a Slot 45h in the spacer ring 45, this spacer ring and the bolt i9 thereby being prevented from rotating. It will be seen that depression of the cap 5l against the spring 5l) will cause an axial displace ment of the plunger 48, theV amount of displacement being governed by the length of the slot d20, in the front guide. This action is for a purpose later to be described.

The indicia bearing ring has lateral iianges 46a and 4Gb and these engage over a lateral ange 42d on the front guide and a lateral flange 45e on the spacer ring thereby enabling the indicia bearing ring to rotate coaxially with the bolt 49. The internal periphery of the indicia bearing ring has sixteen notches 45C and a ball 52 lies in a peripheral groove 45e on the bolt 49 and within one of these notches, being constrained from movement parallel to the bolt axis by face 42e of the front guide and the face 45d of thev spacer ring and occupying with a minimum of play the space between the groove in the bolt and the notch in the indicia bearing ring. It will be seen therefore that as the indicia bearing ring. 46 is rotated the ball 52 will be carried around the groove in the bolt 49, a slot 48e allowing the ball to pass through the flange 48d on the plunger.

Another ball 53 'is controlled in a like manner by the indicia bearing ring 41 rotating between the spacerring 45 and the outer guide 43.

It will be seen that when the indicia bearing rings 4t and il are rotated so as to bring the balls 52 and 53 into alignment-J opposite the slot 45h in the bolt, the position as shown in Fig. 1, the bolt may bewithdrawn axially from the lock. When either or both of the two balls are in any position other than opposite the slot in the boltv then it will be seen that the bolt may not be withdrawn from the lock.

A ratchet mechanism comprising a spring 54 and the balls 55 and 56 located in a slot 45e in the spacer ring 45', the two balls engaging inthe radial grooves 45d and 41d of the indicia bearing rings 45 and 47, is included in the lock for the primary reason of holding the two indicia bearing rings in position when the bolt is withdrawn thus keeping the two balls 52 and 53 constrained within the two slots 48e and 48j of theplunger flange.

The ratchet, however. fullls two further purposes. Should thelock be used under conditions wherein it is subject to vibration the indicia bearing rings will be prevented from rotating and thus possibly freeing the bolt. Further the clicks of the ratchet as the indicia bearing rings are rotated will tend to confuse any effort on the part of any person not. aware of the correct releasing permutation o the lock to release the lock by'rotating each indicia bearing ring in turn and listening for a possible'click as each ball comes opposite the slot in the bolt.

For the purpose of xing any required combination for theloclr the indicia bearing rings 45 and 'lare provided with indicia on their ex ternal periphery so arranged that when any indicium is opposite a mark which may be provided on the external periphery of the spacer ring 45 a corresponding notchv on the internal periphery. off' the indicia bearing ring 45 is opposite the slot 49h in the bol-t. rThese indicia are visible through an aperture 41a in theca'se' 4|; which aperturealso gives .access forV manipulating` the indicia bearing rings, manipulation being assisted by the grooves 46e parallel to the axis on the external periphery of the indicia bearing rings.

An additional locking device is incorporated in this lock as a further precaution against the lock being tampered with and opened by any person not fully .conversant with the mechanism and this device operates in conjunction with the dust cover d4. In order to manipulate the indicia bearing rings the dust cover must be rotated sokthat the gap between the ends 44a and 441) is located over the aperture 41a in the case. When in this position a locking pin 51 operating in a radial bore 45j and a counterbore 45g of the spacer ring is depressed against a light spring S by the dust cap bearing on a shank 51a which is located in a radial bore 4 tb in the case t I. When thus depressed the tip of the locking pin engages a radial bore 49d in the bolt. It will thus be seenl that even if the indicia bearing rings are manipulated to the correct releasing permutation the bolt may not be withdrawn until the dust cap has been closed, i. e. until either of the ends 44a or 54h has passed clear of the shank of the locking pin thus allowing the spring 58 to return the locking pin to its normal position with the tip withdrawn inside the bore 5f of the spacer ring. When the dust cap is again rotated in order to operate the lock the locking pin 51 is automatically depressed as one of the ends Mia or 44h of the dust cap passes over the shank 51a.

In order to alter the releasing permutation of the lock slots 42j and 45h are provided in the front guide and spacer ring respectively.

By depressing the cap 5| against the spring 56 as previously described the plunger i8 will be displaced axially, and if the lock is set at its releasing permutationthe balls 52 and 53, which will be located in the slots 56e and 48j of the plunger, will be carried into the slots 42j and 65h. With the cap 5l held depressed the indicia bearing rings 46 and 41 vmay then be rotated to any desired setting, and on releasing the cap the plunger i8 will be returned to its normal position by the spring 56 and the balls 52 and 5t will be repositioned in different notches in the two indicia bearing rings according to the releasing permutation chosen.

In Fig. 1 the lock is shown in this specific instance as securing the spare wheel of an automobile by the bolt passing through a hole in a bracket 59, which may be attached to the automobile body, and a hole 66 which may be in the wheel disc.

Referring now especially to Figs. 21, 22, 23, 37 and 38 the second lock may be seen to comprise a case generally designated 6l in which are positioned two indicia bearing rings 62 and 66, a spacer ring 64 intermediate the two indicia bearing rings, an end guide 65 which is secured to the case. It will be seen that the two indicia-bearing rings may rotate coaxially in a manner similar to that previously described for the lock shown in Fig. 1 against a ratchet comprising a spring 66 and two balls 61 and 68 located in an axial slot 65a in the spacer ring. The indicia bearing rings have grooves parallel to the axis on their external periphery and are visible through an aperture Gla in the lease. In this lock the spacer ring is provided with a flat 64b which affords easier manipulation of the indicia bearing rings.

A plunger bolt 69 operates in the coaxial bores SIb, 64e and counter bore 65a of the case, spacer ring and end guide respectively; two peripheral grooves 69a and 69h accommodating two balls 10 and 1l, located in notches on the internal periphery of the indicia bearing rings 62 and 63.

The plunger bolt is longitudinally recessed to present a groove 69e thereby permitting the plunger bolt to be'displaced axially when the two balls are brought into alignment opposite the groove. This groove also engages with a lug 6I'c in the bore 61h of the case 6| and a lug 64d in the bore 64o of the spacer ring 64 and thus prevents rotation of the plunger bolt and the spacer ring within the case.

The diametrical bore Bld of the case engages over a lever 12 of a hand brake control and the plunger bolt 69 locates in an aperture 12a. When the lock is closed the tip 69d of the plunger bolt engages a recess 13a in a lever 13 which operates the brake ratchet and so prevents the lever from being depressed in order to free the brake.`

If the indicia bearing rings of the lock are rotated to the releasing permutation the plunger bolt is free to move axially against a spring 14 and thus allow the rod 13 to be depressed and the brake released. The spring 14 ensures that the tip of the plunger bolt re-engages with the recess in the brake lever when the brake control has been set at any desired position and the brake ratchet released.

To provide means for altering the releasing permutation of the lock radial recesses 69e and 69j are provided in the axial groove 690 of the plunger bolt. When the lock is set at its releasing permutation and the ratchet rod 13 is depressed the plunger bolt will, as previously described, be displaced axially against spring 14. The radial flange 69g at the head of the shank 69h of the plunger bolt will now protrude outside the casing of the lock through the axial bore 5517 in the end guide 65. If the shank is now withdrawn still further by hand the balls 10 and il will fall into the recesses 69e and 69j and the indicia bearing rings may be rotated to any desired releasing permutation. On releasing the plunger bolt the balls will be forced back into normal position in notches in the indicia bearing IIIIgS.

Figs. 39 and 40 indicate the type of lock just described used in conjunction with another type or handbrake control.

In this application the lock case 6I is swingably connected to a lever 15 by means of a lug 65e. An extension 691' of the plunger bolt 69 is swingably connected to a control lever 16 which operates the brake ratchet through a rod 11. When the lock is closed the plunger bolt 69 and hence the extension 691' is fixed so prevents axial displacement thereof, which in turn prevents the brake from being released.

The releasing permutation may be altered by setting the lock at its releasing combination and axially displacing the plunger bolt against the spring 14 by means of the lever 16 until the balls 16 and 1l fall into the recesses 69e andgf then the indicia bearing rings may be rotated to any desired permutation. On releasing the lever 16 the plunger bolt will return to its normal position under the influence of the spring 14, and hence the balls will be forced back into normal position in notches in the indicia bearing rings. The recesses 69e and 69j may be placed in a position so that under normal operation of the brake the plunger bolt will not be axially moved to the extent required for altering the permutation.

The permutation lock of the two types described thus includes a -hollow body for case 4l or :6l 1an-d `at least two indicia bearing rings 46 and .41 -or 62 and 63 respectively, rotatably mounted in spaced relationship on the body and lnotohed, for example, at 46c and Mc; a bolt 119 or -69 adapted to be received within the body, the lbolt being peripherally grooved at 49e or 99a and 6917, one groove to each ring and longitudinally :recessedat 49h or 69o, the recess intersecting the .respective yperipheral grooves; means to support :the balls whenaligned With the recess independently of the bolt, the dimensions being such that the bolt can only be withdrawn when the rings ,have been rotated toa position wherein their infdicia present the selected releasing permutation `due `to at least one of the balls of the pairs 52 and 153 or it and 'll engaging against its corresponding groove in other positions of the ring. .The improveinentzW-hereby -reselection of the releasing permutation maybe effected consists in .means to accommodate the two balls each in a position Vclear oi its corresponding ring except `when `the two balls have been simultaneously :aligned to ypermit release of the bolt.

It is to be understood ythat the above described :embodiments of my invention are for the pur- ;poseof illustration only and various changes may :be `made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

I declare that-what I claim is:

1. `A permutation lock of the type referred to comprising a hollow body; a number of rings .bearing indicia and having their inner periphery notched, rotatable with respect to said body; a

.bolt peripherally grooved, one groove to each ring, and axially grooved, the axial groove running into each peripheral groove; a number of balls, one ball to each ring; spacing means be- -tween adjacent indicia bearing rings; a number of .means intermediate the rings and the bolt adapted each to constrain a single ball the diam- ,eter of which substantially occupies the full space .between the bottom of a groove inthe bolt and the bottom of one oi the notches in the rings;

,a dustcap mounted for rotation about said body tand having an opening through which part or" said rings may be exposed; and means displaceable'by said dust cap to effect additional locking when said rings are exposed.

2. A permutation lock of the type referred to r .comprising a hollow body; a number of rings A.bearing indicia and having their inner periphery .notchedL rotatable with respect to said body; a .bolt axially bored and peripherally grooved, one groove to each ring; and axially slotted, the axial slot intersectingeach peripheral groove and the iaxial bore; a number of balls, one ball to each ring; spacing means between adjacent indicia bearing rings; and an inner bolt slidable in the ,axial bore and having a radially and axially exftending `flange extending through said slot said ,flange ybeing recessed to constrain a single ball the diameter of which substantially occupies the full space between the bolt and each ring in the lunlocked position.

3. A ypermutation loci; of the type referred to comprising a hollow body; a number of rings bearing indicia and having their inner periphery notched, rotatable with respect to said body; a

bolt peripherally grooved, one groove to each ring, and axially grooved, an axial groove running into each peripheral groove; a number of balls, one ball to each ring; a number of means intermediate the rings and the bolt adapted-each tofconstrain a `single ball the diameter of which substantially occupies the full space between the bottom of a groove in the bolt and the bottom of one of the notches in the rings; and means to displace said ball constraining means axially of the bolt; spring means adapted to resist such displacement; and means to accommodate .each ball in an offset position relative to said rings to permit of reselection of a releasing permutation.

4. In a permutation lock of the kind which comprises a hollow body; a plurality of rings each bearing indicia and having a notched inner periphery, said rings being rotatably mounted Iin spaced relationship on said body; a number of balls, one ball to each ring; a bolt adapted to be received within said body, said bolt being `peripherally grooved, one groove to each ring, and longitudinally recessed, the recess intersecting said grooves; means to support the balls when with said recess independently of the bolt, the dimensions being such that the bolt can only be withdrawn when the rings have been rotated to a position wherein their indicia present the selected releasing permutation -due to at least one of the balls engaging against its corresponding groove in other positions of the rings; the improvement whereby reselection of the releasing permutation may be effected consisting in means to accommodate all the balls each in a position clear of its corresponding ring when said balls have been simultaneously aligned to permit release of the bolt.

5. A permutation lool: as set forth in claim 4 in which said last mentioned means is to accommodate each ball in an axially of set position relative to said rings to permit of reselection of a releasing permutation.

6. A permutation lock as set forth in claim 4 in which said last mentioned means is to accommodate each ball in a radially oli" set position relative to said rings to permit of reselection of a releasing permutation.

7. A permutation lock as set forth in cla-im 4 additionally comprising a dust cap mounted for rotation about said body and having an opening through which part of said rings may be exposed; and means displaceable by said dust cap to effect additional locking when said rings are exposed.

GEGRGE ROVELAND LOVELACE SEMPLE FISHER.

REFERENCES CTED The followin:r references are of record in the Frey Feb. 21, 1933

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1417340 *Nov 28, 1919May 23, 1922Litrem Andre PierrePermutation lock for automobiles
US1497793 *Nov 16, 1922Jun 17, 1924John L GuerrantPermutation lock
US1706994 *Nov 6, 1925Mar 26, 1929Heinrich BeckCombination lock
US1826235 *Mar 9, 1929Oct 6, 1931Beck HeinrichCombination lock
US1898947 *Jun 28, 1932Feb 21, 1933Frey John ECombination lock
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3256723 *Jul 6, 1965Jun 21, 1966Marie LehmanCombination lock
US6845643 *Jun 20, 2003Jan 25, 2005Cheng-Che TsaiCombination lock
US20040079122 *Jun 20, 2003Apr 29, 2004Cheng-Che TsaiCombination lock
Classifications
U.S. Classification70/295, 70/202, 70/312
International ClassificationE05B37/00
Cooperative ClassificationE05B37/00
European ClassificationE05B37/00