|Publication number||US2471382 A|
|Publication date||May 24, 1949|
|Filing date||Apr 21, 1945|
|Priority date||Apr 21, 1945|
|Publication number||US 2471382 A, US 2471382A, US-A-2471382, US2471382 A, US2471382A|
|Inventors||Althouse Jr William S, Graham Jr Eugene|
|Original Assignee||Baker Oil Tools Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (9), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
May 24, 1949 w. s. AurHousE, JR., 1- AL r 2,471,382 i WELL CEMENTING DEVICE Y Original Filed March 16, 1942 2 Sheets-Sheet l azd W/'LL/AM SALT/40u55 de. juss/v5 GRAHAM Je., INVENIRS Wfl/'W ATTORNEY May 24 1949. w. s. ALTHoUsE, JR., TAL- 2,471,382
WELL CEMENTING DEVICE 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Original Filed March 16, 1942 BY i ATTORNEY Patented May 24, 1949 WELL CEMENTING DEVICE William S. Althouse, Jr., Alhambra, and Eugene Graham, Jr., Los Angeles, Calif., assignors to Baker Oil Tools, Inc., Vernon, Calif., a corporation of California Continuation of application Serial No. 434,912, March 16, 1942. This application April 21, 1945,
Serial No. 589,508
The present invention relates to apparatus that is especially useful in cementing casing in well bores.
This application is a continuation of our application for Well cementing devices, iled March 16, 1942, Serial No. 434,912, now abandoned.
It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved cementing apparatus employed in connection with the cementing of casings or other conduits in a well bore, which allows uid to pass through it in a downward direction to a point of discharge in the casing below the apparatus, and which allows discharge of cement slurry thereafter from the casing above such point while preventing return flow of the cement slurry into the casing.
'I'his invention has other objects which will become apparent from a consideration of several of its embodiments, shown in the drawings accompanying and forming part of the present specification. These embodiments will now be described in detail to illustrate the general principles of the invention, but it is to be understood that such detailed description is not to bel taken in a limited sense7 since the scope of the invention is best defined by the claims appended hereto.
Referring to the drawings:
Figure 1 is a longitudinal section through one form of an apparatus embodying the invention with some of its parts disclosed in one operative position;
Figure 2 is a view similar to Figure 1, with the parts disclosed in another operative position;
Figure 3 is a longitudinal view, partly in elevation and partly in section, of another form of the apparatus; and
Figure 4 is a view similar to Figure 3, with the parts disclosed in another operative position.
The embodiment of invention disclosed in Figures 1 and 2 includes a collar 'I0 forming part of a casing or similar string by being threaded or otherwise suitably coupled to adjoining casing sections II, I 2. A generally tubular body I3 is secured in the collar, as by means of threads I4 on an external body ange I5 screwed into cooperable threads on the collar positioned below its outlets or ports IB. The upper ported portion I'I of this body is generally cylindrical in shape and is spaced from the inner wall oi the collar to form an annular chamber I 8, in which a back pressure valve is located for preventing return flow of iiuids from the exterior of the casing through the collar ports I6 and body ports or outlets I9 to the interior of the casing string. As
disclosed in the drawings, such back pressure valve consists of a eXible sleeve 20 having one end anchored to the body in any suitable manner, as by clamping it between the upper body portion il' and a body head 2l threaded thereon. However, it is to be noted that the lower end of this sleeve 2i) of rubber or other suitable elastic material is free to flex outwardly for the purpose of allowing cement slurry or other fluids to flow from the interior of the body through its ports I9 and the collar ports er outlets I6 to the exterior of the casing string. For the purpose of preventing leakage of fluids in both directions between the body i3 and collar I0, suitable seals 22 may be provided in the body head 2l for cooperation with the wall of the collar.
The body ports I9 are initially closed by a sleeve valve 23 positioned in the body and held across the ports I9 by frangible means, such as shear screws 24 extending into both the body and sleeve. This sleeve valve 23 has an initially open bore which will permit fluid to pass downwardly through the apparatus for ejection from the casing at a point therebelow. A valve seat 25 is also provided in the sleeve for reception of a bridging ball 126 or similar member adapted to be sent down the casing. When the bridging or tripping ball 2o engages the valve seat 25, the passage through the sleeve is closed, which allows the pressure of the uid column above the sleeve valve 23 to be increased suciently for the purpose of shearing the screws 24 and moving the bridging ball 26 and sleeve valve 23 downwardly to a position in which the body ports or outlets I9 are open. The extent of this downward movement is limited by engagement of the sleeve valve with an inwardly extending body shoulder 21.
In view of the opening of the body ports I9, and the fact that the bridging ball 26 has now closed the longitudinal passage through the apparatus, the pressure of the uid in the casing string can expand the back pressure valve 2G in an outward direction and permit the uid to pass through the body ports I9, the annular chamber i8 and collar ports I6 to the exterior of the casing string, from where the fluids probably pass erly circulated or disposed around the lower or" perforated portion of the casing string, the bridging ball 26 is allowed to gravitate or is otherwise lowered through the fluid in the casing until it reaches its companion seat 25 on the sleeve valve 23. An increase in fluid pressure can then shi-ft the sleeve 23 clear of the body .ports 'II-9 into 'engagement 'with the stop shoulder 21. Circulation may thereafter be established down through the casing for outward passage through the body and collar ports i9, i5, and for upward movement through the `annulus around 'the casing. If the casing is to be cemented, cement slurry also ifotlows this path of movement, withits `return Aflow into the casing prevented by the back pressure valve 2u covering the body ports 19.
For the purpose of preventing .return 'ow `of cement slurry or other heavy fluids into the casing around its lower end or perforations positioned below the apparatus, it is preferred to incorporate a downwardly opening back pres- "sure valve in the apparatus. In vthe present iinstance, this back pressure valve 2cbilsists of a housing '29 formed as -a portion of 'the 'tubi-nar 'body i3 depending from the threaded -`iiange 1 5 'or shoulder 2"?. 4This housing contains a back *pressure ball 30, preferably buoyant mud 'r 'cement slurry, whose downward motion -is #lim-- i'ted 'by its engagement iwi-tn spaced radiaisto'p fingers 3i extending inwardly from the housing.
These fingers `may be welded to the 'fhusing for f;
integrally formed therewith, as desired. The A'back pressure valve Y'pe1'^'rr 1it's -downward passage fof fluids entirely through tl'e'body I-3, but-'prevents "return flow 'of vuids for upward flow of fluids through :the apparatus by engaging its 4'cooperable valve seat 32 formed in tlfie'l'i'ousirrg portion ofthe'body. l
The inclusion of lthe bfaek pressure device 30, l-32 for Closing 'the central Ipas's'a'geo'f theappatherethrough, but also vacts "as la `means 4for -en abling the casing string to be fioate'd finto the well. Any tendency for fcer'n'ent 'slurry dep'o'se ited in the vannulus around the -casing adjacent -and above the collar if@ 'to imove dwnwardly around the Casing string nand to `its ifnterior through casing perforatons would be rpreventedby the back pressure Eb'all3, since fonly'sligh't 'upward movement of iiuids inthe casing Lirrimediat'ely insures engagement of theball '-withfi'ts seat Q32 "to close the `casing Jagainst upward kflow of nui'osand in so-doi'n'g aisoprevent :downward flow around the casing.
The parts within ith e :`01lar are "all `preferabiy maso 'of reaiiiyfdrinaoie inatoriaito anni f Rsiidaloiy mounted in the ooiijar. ,litiis provides "f with oppositely vdirected seals '3l-5, s36 "s'lidably'se'aling with the -wall of vthe"collar landf i'riitiallyv positioned on opposite'sides L'off'the collar 'ports '.IG'a
by ineans of 4shear screws J"31 threaded 'through 'the ooiiar into 'the head *2m-bonnie vbody '|3a. when in ,this position, the bony 13a "engags fa shoulder 38 at the luppe'rferi'd f"`tl1"'e"fcollartorelieve the shear "screws 3"? f .upwardly directed forces imposed o'n the body.
The body isalsoprovidedwith a'pted cylin- .4 drical portion Ila extending upwardly from its flanged portion |5a carrying the opposed seals 35, 36 referred to. This ported portion Ha is spaced from the wall of the casing to form an annular chamber |80l in which a flexible back pressure v'alve 20a is positioned over the lateral body ports or outlets ISa with one end anchored "to the body and the other end free to flex outwardly in allowing fluid passage from the interior of the 'casing string to its exterior, as described 4rabove in connection with Figures 1 and 2.
Prior to shearing of the irangible screws 31,
are prevented from passing from the interlr of the vcasing and the annular chamber 18a through the collar ports Ilia by the upper 4sealing Vor packing ring 35. Fluids in the annuiar chamber are also prevented from passing upwardly between the body I 3a and collar Illa by'ia seal ring 22a at the upper end of the body sldably engageable with the wall of the casing.
The apparatus is run in the casing with the parts "positioned as vdisclosed viin Fig-ure f3, in which the lower two seals 35, 36 are disposed-fon opposite sides of the lcollar 'po'rts 'Ilia to prevent passage =oi1f1uids therethrough lfrom the interior of theeasinglstring. 'When it is desired to 'allow fluids to 'so pass, *a bridging ball 26a is allowed Ato `fg-'r-ai'lit'ate yor is 'pumped fdo'w-n the ieasing string until fit eng'age'sfa seat' 25'a inthe body `b'eloiiv its por-ts or outlets 19a, 'whereupon an Iincrease vin the pressure of'tl'ie y"-iiuidcol-urnn above the lball to ia sufficient degree sh'eaf'r-s the screws-'31 fand frce's *the body 13a downwardly `with .respect lto the 'fool-lar until the lower -end of lits flange V15a 'engages fa''s'uit'able stop, whichmay--be provided by the upper end of the lower casingsectin 42a. When in this position, the iup'per -seal 35 `is yEnelow the collar 'ports JFifa audit-he annular chamber fl`8afis-in communication "therewith, thus a1*- flcwing fluids pumped l'flown 4the casing vi'to @pass lthrough the body ports 19a, lurge the back pressure sleeve valve aca laterally to fone side, 'and pass through the fchainber ils'a fand :collar lports iilato'rthe l*exterior of fthe casing str-ing. AReturn now 'offsucn fluids tnrougn'ftheoouar ports 16a antibody ipo'rts mais -prevented by :sealing `ofthe flexible sleeve Za over the ported area of the body 13a. Similarly, the iupp'ermost seal l22a prevents leakage "of such fluids '.'in -an upward '-iitraction between the 'body Ia collar 40a 'into the casing string.
For the purpose of preventing cement slurry lor other heavy Tfluids 'disposed in H-th-e anriulus ar0und`thefcasing from ylowering ."andpassing finto -tl-i'e casin'githrough its flower end orfperforations, an 'upwardlyfseatingback pressure `vali/'e l'can also be incorporated in the embodimentrdisoiosed liiguresSandra As `ntlieiother form ofi'nvention, V'this#backpressure 'valve may 'consist of inwardly :extending fngers 3m I*orrwhinh a back pressure ball 30a 'may A'rest in f a `.downward ).dire'c tion, and a lvalvesea't32a inithe'body liaagainst gwhich the :ball-.can Eseal-whenever return ow .of `'fluids in an upward direction through the casing string --tends to "occur Ifrom a .point below l'the fap- .paratus described.
It fis therefore apparent -that'vcementing apspasatus Vhas --been `tprcvlded which enables the Acasingsstring fto :be floated -into the .well, allows =circulation todae established' belowthe apparatus for .aslong as desired, and then permitsthe, placeifnerit of Vcement slurrylateral-ly vthrough Athe ,apparatus, v.while preventing ...its .return .flow-.either through 'the la'te'ral i ports or through the lower ,portionof'tlie casingstriri-g. lInQthis connection,
nular chambers aords them protection while lowering the casing string in the well bore.
1. Apparatus of the character described, including a tubular member having ports and adapted to form part of a casing string, a shiftable tubular body having ports positioned within said member and provided with a medial portion of lesser external diameter than the diameter of the inner wall of said tubular member to form an annular chamber therewith, said medial portion containing said body ports, valve means Within said chamber for preventing return passage of fluids from said chamber through said body ports to the interior of said body, means initially retaining said body in such position within said member as to prevent passage of uids between said chamber and the ports of said tubular member, and means for shifting said body Within said member to a position permitting passage of fluids between said chamber and tubular member ports.
2. Apparatus of the character described, including a tubular member having ports and adapted to form part of a casing string, a shiftable tubular body having ports positioned within said member and provided with a medial portion of lesser external diameter than the diameter of the inner wall of said tubular member to form an annular chamber therewith, said medial portion containing said body ports, valve means on said body within said chamber for preventing passage of fluids between said chamber and body ports, means initially retaining said body in position within said member disposed over said tubular member ports so as to prevent passage of fluids from said chamber therethrough, and means for closing the bore through said body to enable its hydraulic shifting within said member to a position permitting passage of fluids between said chamber and tubular member ports.
3. Apparatus of the character described, including a tubular member having ports and adapted to form part of a casing string, a shiftable tubular body having ports positioned within said member and provided with a medial portion of lesser external diameter than the diameter of the inner wall of said tubular member to form an annular chamber therewith, said medial portion containing said body ports, valve means within said chamber for preventing passage of iiuids from said chamber through said body ports to the body interior, means initially retaining said body in such position within said member as to be disposed over said tubular member ports to prevent passage of fluids from said chamber therethrough, means for closing the bore through said body below its ports to enable its hydraulic shifting to a position permitting passage oi uids between said chamber and tubular member ports, and a back pressure valve for preventing upward passage of iluids through said body comprising a valve seat on said body and a valve member movable upwardly to engage said seat.
4. Apparatus of the character described, including a tubular member having ports and adapted to form part of a casing string, a shiftable tubular body having ports positioned within said member and provided with a medial portion of lesser externa1 diameter than the diameter of the inner wall of said tubular member to form an annular chamber therewith, said medial portion containing said body ports, valve means within said chamber for preventing return ow of uids from said chamber through said body ports to the interior of said body, frangible means initially securing said body to said tubular member in a position preventing passage of fluids between said chamber and the ports of said tubular member, and means for disrupting said fran-gible means and shifting said body within said member to a position permitting passage of uids between said chamber and tubular member ports.
WILLIAM S. ALTHOUSE, Jn. EUGENE GRAHAM, Je.
REFERENCES CITED 'The following references are of record in the le of this patent:
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|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
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|U.S. Classification||166/194, 137/38, 277/336, 137/853, 166/289, 137/512|
|International Classification||E21B33/13, E21B33/14|