US 2472060 A
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June 1949. B. K. BEYLERIAN METHOD OF SIMULATING SURFACE STRUCTURES 2 Shee'ts-Sheet 1 Filed 001:. 22, 1945 INVENTOR If. BEYLER/AM 55mm: BY
ATToRA/Er June' 7, 1949. K, BEYLERIAN 2,472,060
METHOD OF SIMULATING SURFACE STRUCTURES Filed Oct. 22, 1 945 2 Shets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. .Bqwcs h. BEYLER/AN- A T TORNEK Patented June 7, 1949 UNITED STATES TENT OFFICE METHOD OF SIMULATING SURFACE STRUCTURES Claims.
The invention relates to a method of making artificial surfaces and has particular reference to a light-weight material capable of correctly simulatin any one of a wide variety of diiferent types of surfaces which can be applied to a foundation or frame-work in order to give a realistic appearance of the surface imitated.
While it is true that the best representation of a given type of surface is a surface comprising the material itself, there are occasions, such for example, as in motion picture sets and stage settings, where it is impractical on many occasions to-use the real material because of its weight or because of some other characteristic. On such occasions it is highly desirable to have a successful light-Weight imitation of the true surface which can be easily handled, erected in place and then quickly removed whenever the setting needs to be changed.
The most common expedient in the past has been to simulate a given type of surface by the use of plaster of Paris, cement and lumber products which are heavy, costly to install and likewise costly to remove when it is necessary to replace a setting. A better product is one characterized by its lightness in weight and ease of handling and its adaptability t use over and over again. In sound motion pictures a material capable of absorbing sounds and vibrations is likewise highly desirable.
It is accordingly among the objects of the invention to provide a new and improved method of making light-weight material adapted to simulate any type of surface and which is a true and correct representation of the surface, both as to configuration and to color.
Another object of the invention is to provide a new and improved method of making simulated surface material which is light in Weight and flexible, permitting it to be erected with ease, removed and then conveniently packed for storage.
Still another object of the invention is to provide a new and improved method of making material made thereby wherein any one of a wide variety of surface textures may be simulated resulting in a material which can be quickly applied to any surface, however rough, and then readily removed from the surface in order to provide a mold or form which can be used in the making of a casting serving as a true and correct reproduction of the original surface and incorporating all apparent surface projections and sub-surface cavities, cracks and interstices.
Another object still is to provide a method incorporating the use of a material capable of truly and correctly simulating any one of a wide variety of surface textures and which can be applied by means of a trowel, spray or other convenient mechanism but which can be sufiiciently cured to permit removal as a unit and use thereafter as a mold for making a complementary unit of equivalent size comprising a precise reproduction of the original.
A further object is to provide a method of making simulating surface material, the density of which can be altered at will so that regardless of how deep the recess and high spots may be upon a surface which is to be imitated or how varied may be the texture of different areas of the surface, the sheet of material forming the imitation surface will be substantially uniform and light in weight over the entire area, thus facilitating erection, removal and storage.
The aim in providing a material of the foregoing description is to be able to vary the density so that the weight per unit area may be kept the same whether the material is of maximum or minimum thickness.
It will be apparent from the accompanying drawings illustrating steps in the described method that while many of the elements incorporating both structure and method may be familiar to the art of making simulated materials, old elements and new have been marshalled together to produce a new and novel article and method of forming it entirely distinct from anythin heretofore produced, easy to fabricate and handle, more eflicient than previous products and methods, and having a usefulness which will continue indefinitely.
Figure 1 shows a wall structure which is to be imitated.
Figure 2 is a cross-sectional view on the line 2-2 of Figure 1 showing the material applied.
Figure 3 is a perspective view of a portion ofthe applied material after removal from the wall adapted to use as a mold.
Figure 3A is a magnified sectional view of interstices of particular configuration in a surface material.
Figure 4 is a perspective view of the material shown in Figure 3 when in use as a mold with a mass of material applied thereto.
Figure 5 is a perspective view of material in the mold of Figure 4 after a backing and ties have been applied.
Figure 6 is an enlarged sectional view showing the application of one of the ties.
Figure 7 is a perspective view showing a frame having a section of material applied to it.
Figure 8 is a fragmentary, perspective View showing the material simulating a shallow surface.
Figure 9 is a magnified, fragmentary, crosssectional view showing the interior of Figure 8.
Figure 10 is a fragmentary, perspective View showing the material simulating a relatively deep surface.
Figure 11 is a'magnified, fragmentary crosssectional view showing the interior of Figure 10.
Figure 12 is a fragmentary, perspective view showing a modified type of backing for the material.
Material which is to b used for motion picture sets, stage sets, etc., for example, must necessarily be light in weight and easy to handle if it is to be effective. Changes in settings are frequent, and the material when it comprises various sets must be shifted frequently. It should be light in weight so that it can be readily moved about from one position to another. It should also be of such a character that it can be quickly torn down, taken away and then packed for storage. It is also desirable that it be a material having sufficient body to permit efficient storage for frequent use on subsequent occasions without damage to the material or its simulated texture.
If the material is to represent the appearanceof abuilding wall, for example, it must be capable of being firmly applied to a suitable backing so that it presents the appearance of stability. It must also be of such a character that it cannot be detected as an imitation either because of its texture or its color. To accomplish this the material and the manner of application and reproduction must be such that it truly represents all of the details of the surface being represented and must be capable of being impregnated with pigments of the proper color so as to avoid giving the appearance of a painted surface.
The particular wall structure chosen for the purpose of illustration in- Figure 1 may be a. concrete, brick, wood, stone or practically any other surface'having'a backing Iil'and' a veneer or surface structure l l-, including recessedareas 52;
raised areas 13 and in some cases raised areas having definite configurations l4 upon them.
Thesurface texture illustratedimig-ht' readily be that ofbrick, stone or mortar. In order to successfully reproducethe surface shown in Figure- 1, material: of a particular sort: is: first appliedin-. order to form animpression or mold'of' all of the-surface characteristics. If the area islarge,
dividing strips [6 may. be: used: so; that the. entire 1 casions applied by meanslofa spray'gun. The
material .must .be-sufiicientlytacky. so that it" will stayvin: place: when once' applied; and capable of being cured so that it jells or congeals intoan integral mass= capable of being: removed without disturbing the impressionimad'e in:the 1 material by the surface. Molding. material this shown inzFigures 2,- 3 and .4.
Asuccessful materialhaszbeen foundto'be asubstance commonly known as foam ora sponge rubber, a suitablewformula for which is as follows:
Latex rubber 100 Sulfur 3 Accelerator, (ZDC) Mineral .oil Caustic potash Casein, Oleic. acid,
F'oam or sponge rubber comprisingthe foregoing-listedingredients is=one capable of being whipped to vary its consistency and density. So=- di-um-sllicofluoride is preferably added"asia50% dispersion 'to foamresulting from the I whipping;
in the order of .5 to 1.0%. When the material is thus whipped, the whipping or beating should continue for a few minutes prior to application of the material to the surface or mold which is to be reproduced. When using material of this kind it may be coagulated as by curing or jelling by the use of chemicals, heat or other accelerators, and by the application of heat alone. A whipped latex incorporating curing and jelling agents is likewise suitable Which when cured may aptly be described as foam rubber. In using a material of this kind it is applied as a mass in an uncoagulated state to the surface which is to be reproduced and then struck off to a level surface on the side remote from the surface to which it is applied. Sufficient material will be spread upon the surface so as to provide some depth of the material over the highest portions of the surface being reproduced.
The material which is applied to a surface structure such as that shown in Figures 1 and 2 may be of any convenient consistency since it is to be used as a mold or impression with which to cast other material which will actually comprise the simulated surface. Foam or sponge rubber" of the foregoing character is, however; very acceptable as a mold material. By'using' foam or' sponge rubber the rubber-like material will enter all kinds" of interstices in the surface of the wall structure even though the interior of the interstices may be larger than the opening at the surface. Be'- cause of the resiliency of thefoam or sponge rubber, it can be pulled out ofsuch interstices without damaging or changing its form since the orig-- in'al form will be regained after the material has been pulled loose.
3A. Material filling the irregular interstices 45 maybe readilyremo'ved because of its resilientthe piece, a lubricant dusted-or painted on the" surface, and then foam or sponge rubber of a suitable density or consistency is applied in q'ua'n tity sufficient to fill all of the hollows and provide a layer of sufiicient thickness over the highest points inthe mold. It'is usually most convenient to lay the pattern diet on a supporting surface and 7 spread thesponge rubber with atrowel orspray; The surface may be stricken off'with a screed or other appropriate means. Material 9cast in'the mold will form the simulatedsurface structure.
While the foam or sponge rubber substanceis still in an unjelled and uncured form, a reinforcing layer of fabric or in some cases heavy paper 20 may be applied. The fabric may have extend-' ing'therethrough a series of ties 2| and a loop 22 .on'the underside of the fabric. The loop '22 may belong or short depending upon whether or not it'is to extend into-the material or is'merely to be held by the fabric.
After the reinforcing layer has been applied orpressed into the exposed surface of the foam or sponge rubber composition, the composition is cured by the jelling and curing agents which are in" the mix. After jelling or curing, the composition together with the fabric-back may 'be peeled from .ithe' mold, and 'on the surface will' appear a An impression of a texture of the foregoing description is illustrated inFigu're substantially perfect reproduction of the texture and surface configurations of the original surface which is being imitated.
To use the material thus formed it is necessary only to apply it ,to a wire mesh 24 stretched over a frame 25 which may be supported in erect position by braces 26 having bases 21. The finished material can be held firmly in place by knotting the ties 2| at the rear of the mesh. Where ties are not incorporated, the material may be fastened to wire mesh by applying pieces of fabric or fiber strips which have been dipped into foam or sponge rubber solution of appropriate composition to the back of the mesh, pressing the dipped fabric against the mesh and the back of the material. The solution will quickly coagulate and adhere to the simulated material and the mesh. The material may also be spread fiat on a floor or other surface without use of ties.
Joints in material of this kind are readily made. They may either follow actual joints in the surface being imitated or may extend transverse thereto such as the joint 28 shown in Figure 7. A rubber cement or tack may be used in the joint in order to hold adjacent pieces of the sponge rubber-like material together. On other occasions it may be desirable to form joints only along natural joining lines such as along the line 29 of Figure 7.
One special feature of the device and method involved herein is the capacity of the foam or sponge rubber selected for forming on the mold contacting surface a thin skin 33 of relatively great density. It is this skin area which conforms strictly to the configurations of the surface texture of the object being imitated.
On occasions there may arise the necessity of molding in one piece areas of a surface, portions of which may have shallow configurations, and other portions of which may have deep configurations. If these two portions are to be joined, it is highly advisable that they be of approximately the same weight per unit area so that there will be no tendency to distort or tear the material when eventually formed by reason of some areas being much heavier than others.
Figure 8 shows a piece of material simulating flagstone. Figure shows a piece of material simulating cobblestone. Let us presume that a cobblestoned area adjoins a flagstone area and that it is desirable to have both portions in a. single piece for the provision of a set. Obviously Figure 8 is much thinner than Figure 10. Therefore, if the material comprising Figures 8 and 10 were of the same density, the material of Figure 10 would be many times heavier than the material of Figure 8. To compensate for this and to maintain the Weight equal per unit area of the two surfaces, the sponge rubber or like material, when it is to be used for the surface shown in Figure 10 is whipped to a lighter density. Figure 9 shows a fragmentary, cross-sectional view of material which we shall presume comprised the material of Figure 8. Relatively small air pockets 3| are formed and a skin 33 surrounds all exposed surfaces. These surfaces incorporate the surface configurations of the mold which in turn was formed from the actual wall which is to be imitated.
Figure 11 shows a cross-sectional view of the material when it is whipped to a lighter consistency for use in imitating cobblestones, for example, shown in Figure 10.
In the case of Figure 11 holes 35 which give to the material its sponge-like qualities are relatively larger or more numerous, or both, than the holes 3|. There will, however, be a skin 36 of substantially the same thickness. Where the same amount of material per unit area is used in Figure 10 as was used in Figure 8 and the new material whipped to a lighter density, the weight per unit of the same material, whether used in the form of Figure 8 or of Figure 10, will remain approximately the same. Thus, if two walls of vastly different texture appear side by side, a single sheet of material may be utilized to simulate both. For example the molds for parts shown in Figures 8 and 10 may either be made in one pouring or if made separately may be used side by side. Then the final sheet may be made integral, one part with respect to another by pouring into all mold parts in one operation. Care should be taken to whip the material to a lighter density, as shown in Figure 11 for the part shown in Figure 10. The density of the material of the part shown in Figure 8 will be greater, as is illustrated in Figure 9. Nevertheless all parts are poured and joined as a single sheet. To effect substantially the same result masses of the same material but whipped to different densities may be poured one upon top of another to lighten the weight of thick sections. The heavy density material may be made thinner at those areas and a more uniformly resistant sheet be produced wherein all areas are about th same weight regardless of thickness.
Material of lighter density may also be made possible by incorporating more or less of a spongifying ingredient in certain mixes depending upon the density required. This step may obviously be substituted for the whipping process. The material is sufiiciently sensitive so that it can imitate graining in Wood with facility equal to that displayed in molding a cobblestone structure. The material of Figures 8 and 10 will, of course, be material taken from patterns or models which initially serve to reproduce in negative the structure being imitated. The sections of widely varying depths may be satisfactorily incorporated in a single sheet by this method. Where this is not necessary thin sheets and thick sheets may be made separately.
Figure 12 illustrates a modified form of the device in that it discloses a sheet 40 of the material which may serve as an imitation of a grained wood surface. The sheet 40 is provided as usual with an embedded fabric back 4| to which is applied an adhesive 42 which remains sticky to the touch. To protect the adhesive until it is used a secon-' dary layer of protecting cloth or other material 43 may be applied which may be removed when desired. So long as the protecting material remains in place the sticky properties of the adhesive will be preserved. When the fabric is removed the adhesive material remains in place and then serves to assist in the sticking of the material to some appropriate surface. The last modified form is particularly useful when the sheet material is relatively thin and is used to simulate such surfaces as wood, fiagstone, tile, mats, etc. For this method of attachment the term tacking is frequently used.
Ingredients and means already known to the art of handling and treating rubber and foam or sponge rubber are readily applicable to the handling and treating of the foam or sponge rubber of this device. Accelerators and jelling agents of suitable kinds can be used. What is important, however, is that the same composition may be maintained for all types of surface structures,
aszaoeo but by whipping portions the same per unit weight may be maintained over the whole area. If such widely varying surface textures are encountered only in separate pieces, the whipping necessary to lighten the density may still be practiced so that a light-weight sheet is maintained even though it may be used to imitate an area of uniform characteristics featuring deep valleys between stones as in Figure 10.
After the simulated material has been completed, it may be painted with a rubber paint having the capacity of being absorbed in the surface. The color as well as the texture of the surface may thus be made true and correct, and the effect of an obviously painted surface is avoided. On other occasions the original material may be correctly tinted initially so that it embodies throughout the color of the substance being imitated. Being flexible, the material can be rolled up and put away in a small space until needed for use. When being made ready for use it can be unrolled, stretched over a wire mesh and there securely tied in place. If it should chance be applied to a floor or brick wall, the process of tacking described in connection with Figure 12 may be practiced. The foam or sponge rubber of the material which is applied within the mold is cured by jelling and curing agents incorporated in the mix.
There has thus been provided a simple and more economical means of producing surface textures which is realistic and accurate, which is exceptionally light in weight, sound absorbing and far superior to the present methods. The material is, moreover, so capable of deformation that it can be rolled up and stored with considerable ease after having been used.
The material and method thus described, although especially adapted to stage settings, is of such a character that a tough, resistant substance is assured which is suited to many and varied uses in building interiors, such as walk-ways, non-slip linings for pools and tubs and other similar applications.
Although the invention has been herein shown and described in what is conceived to be the most practical and preferred embodiment, it is recognized that departures may be made therefrom within the scope of the invention, which is not to be limited to the details disclosed herein but is to be accorded the full scope of the claims so as to embrace any and all equivalent structures and methods.
The invention having been herein described, what is claimed and sought to be secured by Letters Patent is:
1. A method of forming a surface structure simulating an original surface structure having areas wherein hollows and high spots are of different depths comprising the steps of making a mold of the original surface structure wherein the hollows and high spots are reversed, then applying to the areas of shallower depth in the mold a predetermined quantity of plastic rubber-like material having a predetermined density, applying to the areas of greater depth a quantity of said plastic material having a lesser density so that all portions of the original surface will be covered to substantially the same depth and provide a virtually flat reverse side, then applying a backing material to the reverse side before said material has jelled, causing the material applied to the mold to jell and a skin to form on the surface adjacent the mold, and removing the material from the mold.
2. A. method of formin a surface structure of it to a lighter density;
simulating an original surface structure having areas wherein hollows and high spots are of different depths comprising the steps of applying to.
the original surface a mass of uncoagulated foam or sponge material in quantity to fill th deepest hollows and cover the highest high spots, striking off the material to provide a substantially fiat area on the exposed side, coagulating the material and forming a skin on the side contacting said original surface, removing the material from the original surface, then using as a mold the side having reversely reproduced hollows and high spots, applying to the areas of shallower depth a predetermined quantity of uncoagulated springy rubber-like material per unit area having a predetermined density, applying to the areas of greater depth a quantity of said material wherein at least some portion has a lesser density so that all portions of the original surface will be covered to substantially the same depth and provide a virtually flat reverse side, then applying a fabric backing to the reverse side before said material has jelled, coagulating the material applied to the mold and forming a skin on the surface adjacent the mold, and removing the material from the mold.
3. A method of forming a surface structure simulating an original surface structure having areas wherein hollows and high spots are of different depths comprising the steps of applying to the original surfacea mass of uncoagulated foam or sponge rubber-like material in quantity to fill the deepest hollows and cover the highest high spots, striking ofi the material to provide a substantially fiat area on the exposed side, coagulating the material and forming a skin on the side contacting said original surface, removing the material from the original surface, then using as a mold the side having reversely reproduced hollows and high spots, applying to the areas of shallower depth a predetermined quantity of uncoagulated springy rubber-like material per unit area and beaten to a predetermined density, applying to the areas of proportionately greater depth masses of said material in equal weights per unit area and beaten to lesser densities so that all portions of the original surface will be covered to substantially the same depth and with material of the same weight per unit area and provide a virtually level reverse side, then applying a fabric backing to the reverse side, coagulating the material applied to the mold forming a skin on the surface adjacent the mold, and finally removing the material from the mold.
4. A method of forming a surface structure simulating an original surface structure of varying contour comprising mixing a quantity of uncoagulated foam or sponge material with a coagulating agent and foaming or spongifying portions of the material to one degree to give a heavy foam or spongy result for a deep contoured surface and foaming or spongifying other portions of the ma-. terial to give a light foam or spongy result for a shallow contoured surface, applying the uncoagulated material to corresponding portions of the surface structure in the absence of built up pressures, removing the material after coagulation, laying said material reverse side out on a supporting surface, applying thereto in the absence of built up pressures additional material corresponding in heavy and light foam or spongy char.- acter to the material first applied over contours of corresponding depth and finally removing the material last applied for us as a surface structure simulating the original surface structure.
5. A method of forming a surface structure simulating an original surface structure of varying contour comprising mixing a quantity of uncoagulated foam or sponge material with a coagulating agent and with a foaming or spongifying ingredient selected as to quantity and activity to give a heavy foam or spongy result for a deep contoured surface and a light foam or spongy result for a shallow contoured surface, applying the uncoagulated material of varied light and heavy density to the deep and shallow contoured surfaces respectively of the surface structure, removing the material after coagulation, laying said material reverse side out on a supporting surface, applying thereto additional material corresponding in heavy and light foam or spongy character to the material first applied over contours of corresponding depth and then removing the material last applied for use as a surface structure simulating the original surface structure.
BERDGE K. BEYLERIAN.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
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