US 2472065 A
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June 7, 1949. R. F. COTTINGHAM 2,472,055
GOLF. EXERCISING APPARATUS Filed Oct. a1, 1946 a Shee'ts-Sheet 1 June 7, 1949. R. F. COTTINGHAM GOLF EXERGISING APPARATUS 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Oct. 31.. 1.946
MWEn/TQ fz/Fms F COTT/NGHAM June 7, 1949. R. F. COTTINGHAM 6 GOLF EXERCISING APPARATUS Filed 001;. 51, 1946 3 Sheets-Sheet S Patented June 7, 1949 UNITED STATES ATENT OFFICE Application October 31, 1946, Serial No. 706,853 In Great Britain August 24, 1945 Section 1, Public Law 690, August 8, 1946 Patent expires August 24, 1965 Claims.
This invention relates to apparatus for practising golf and is a continuation-in-part of that described in my co-pending application Serial No. 641,885.
The primary object of the invention is to provide golf practising apparatus which enbles the user to obtain exercise and build up those muscles brought into use during that department of the game concerned with driving, 1. e. when the club is applied with a full swinging movement to hit the ball with considerable force to drive it comparatively long distances. In attaining this object the said apparatus is constructed to impose a resistance to the swing of the club, preferably only to the down swing or operative stroke, thus causing the user to exert a greater force than would normally be required in free natural play. As a consequence not only are the precise muscles necessary for driving developed, but they are developed in the correct way requisite for swinging.
A further object of the invention is to provide golf practising apparatus of the character referred to having means whereby the amount of resistance imposed may be adjusted; this not only provides for adapting the apparatus to different physiques, but enables it to be adjusted step by step for a progressive course of training and a gradual building up of the relevant muscles.
In its broadest aspect the invention comprises 7 a control element rotatably mounted at one end to a fixed structure, and provided with a club carrying device at its other end which can swing about the rotatable mounting as the club is gripped and swung by the player, and braking means associated with the rotatable mounting to impose a resistance to the turning of the control element in the said mounting and thus to the swinging of the club.
In a preferred embodiment the exercising dey vice according to the invention is preferably combined with means to keep the part of the club gripped by the hands in a predetermined plane and on a predetermined are lying in that plane as described in the specification of my co-pending patent application Serial No. 641,885, and such an embodiment will be described by Way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein- Figure 1 is a front view of such an exercising I device with the braking means of the present invention incorporated therein.
Figure 2 is a section taken through the braking means.
Figure 3 is a front view of the braking means, and
Figures 4*. and 5 illustrate the invention incorporated in a modification of the exercising device shown in Figure 1.
Referring to the drawings the apparatus comprises a. vertical post I on which is slidably mounted a rod-supporting bracket 2 which is adapted to be adjustably fixed in position on the post. The post I may be embedded in the ground and held rigid by guy ropes or other devices, or, for indoor work, it may be secured to a wall or other convenient fixed structure.
To the said bracket 2 is secured a hollow journal-bearing 3 the axis .A-A of which is directed approximately towards the position which is to be occupied by the player, and said axis AA can be varied from approximatel the horizontal to other positions inclined downwardly away from the bracket 2. One way of making such an adjustment is to mount the bearing 3 on a short platform 4.horizontally pivoted to the bracket 2 and to support said platform 4 by a hinged strut 5 extending upWa-rdsfrom the bracket 2 and having a pin-and-slot clamping connection 6 with the platform. By this device the angle AA of the axis of the bearing 3 can be varied, and consequentlyany element rotatable in the hearing 3 will itself turn about the axis so that the end of a member forming part of the element but oifset from the axis AA will describe a path in a plane normal to the axis. It will be seen therefore that by approximately adjusting the location of the axis AA a plane of the character described can be pre-set in a variety of positions from the vertical to various degrees of inclination therefrom.
In the said journal-bearing 3 is mounted a stub shaft 7 forming a journal, there being radial and/or thrust bearings interposed so that the journal normally turns smoothly and easily in the bearing 3, but as will be seen later may be braked to varying degrees. This journal 3 carries a device described later herein as the control element. In a Very simple form the control element may :be a plain straight rod secured to the journal in such a way that it may be inclined to the axis of the journal 3 to an adjusted degree. Such an arrangement, however, will serve only in cases where the free end of the rod is disposed in a plane intended to be unalterable during play, but it is preferred to give the player freedom of movement for bracing the body forward and to this end a parallel linkage is introduced between the rod (i. e. the control rod) and the journal so that a limited degree of controlled variation of the pre-set plane may take place during play.
This parallel linkage comprises a diamond assembly of links 8, 9a, 9b and I0, one, i. e. the basic link 8, being fixedly and adjustably mounted on the journal shaft 1 and projecting downwardly therefrom at an angle to its axis A-A. To the ends of said basic link 8 there are pivoted respectively a pair of upwardly directed side links 9a, 9b, and pivotally mounted between the free ends of said side links 9a., 9b is a control rod H] which has a continuation projecting forwardly and downwardly from the side links 911, 9b away from the direction of the journal. This control rod It] lies parallel with the basic link 8, and its free end carries the member to which the olf club shaft is secured. The contraction and/or expansion of the said parallel linkage (particularly the expansion) may be under the control of a suitable spring or springs l 2.
The basic link 8, and thus the whole parallel linkage and the control rod l forming part thereof, is fixed in requisite angular relationship with the journal axis A-A by a suitable device such as a slotted quadrant II on the basic link co-acting with a bolt and clamping nut carried by the journal shaft 1.
By adjusting the angular position of the parallel linkage in relation to the journal axis AA, the free end Illa of the projecting control rod can be brought closer or nearer to the said axis A-A and consequently the arc swept by the said free end of the control rod ID as the whole control element turns on the journal-bearing 3 may be varied in radius. Also, should the player press forward, the parallel linkage will permit the plane of the arc to move forward, within limits, but always parallel to the plane pre-set by the original adjustment of the inclination of the axis of the journal.
The control rod may be telescopically adjustable to displace the pre-set plane of swing nearer l to or further away from the journal anchorage point, and also to raise and lower the member carried by the free end of the rod to which the club shaft is attached, a clamping screw I 3 being provided to hold the rod ID in the telescopically adjusted position.
The club carrier l4 may take the form of a tubular body Ma to embrace the club shaft 5 with clearance and two end rings 14b mounted on the tubular body Ma with the interposition of thrust bearings 0, said end rings having set screws Md for clamping the shaft l5 thereto. The shaft l5 may thereby freely rotate on its longitudinal axis in the carrier l4 yet be fixed against axial sliding movement. The tubular body 14 is provided with an arm l6 extending upwardly at an acute angle to the axis of the body Ma, and it is connected to the control rod I0 at the upper extremity by a pivoted joint 18 on an element I1 rotatable in the control rod Ill and constituting a form of universal joint. The said joint will therefore be spaced away from the club shaft I5 mounted in the carrier M, and will not interfere with the grip on the club, whilst at the same time it can serve to position the universal joint centrally over the players gripping hands.
The club 15 is therefore capable of being clamped to the carrier M, in the region of the grip, and can be freely inclined at any requisite angle radiating from the universal joint l8, and twisted on its own axis to open and close the striking face of the club head l9.
Referring again to the hollow journal-bearing 3 the short stub axle I carrying the control element In extends through the hollow journal and at its end carries a brake assembly 20 which, as shown more particularly in Figures 2 and 3, comprises an element 2| which co-acts with an arcuate segmental brake member 22 pivoted at one end 23 to a plate 24 forming part of or fixed to the hollow journal 3. This brake member 22 (lined with appropriate brake lining) which is pivoted at one end 23 may be moved outwards by a spring 22a to an adjustable degree as determined by a set screw 25 bearing on the exterior of the segment 22. By this means the brake element 2|, which turns with the stub axle as the club (5 swings, may press against the drum segment 22 to an adjustable degree, and the resistance imposed is thereby capable of variation.
It is preferred that the action of the brake shall be uni-directional in order that its effect is only exerted during the down swing (leaving the back or up swing free). For this purpose the brake element 2| on the stub axle 1 is made to work in the manner of a jamming or wedging friction clutch. That is to say it is a pawl-like wedge member pivoted at 26 in a peripheral pocket 21 in a pawl block 28 fixed to the stub axle l, the walls of said pocket 2'! being so disposed in re lation to the pawl 2| and its pivot 26 that in one direction of rotation the pawl 21 swings to bring its operative end on to a minor radius clear of the braking element, Whilst in the other direction the pawl swings oppositely to bring its operative end on to a major radius and into braki?r:;g contact with the arcuate segmental member The pocket 2'! may be closed by a plate 29 and the parts of the assembly secured to rotate with the stub shaft 1 being fixed to the latter by a bolt 33, the brake plate 24 carrying the braking segment 22 being fixed to or formed as part of the journal bearing 3.
In the arrangement shown in Figures 4 and 5 the journal bearing 3 and the stub axle 7 are fitted respectively with the parts of the braking device as above described with reference to Figures 2 and 3. With this embodiment however, the link 8 of the parallel linkage of the construction shown in Figure 1 is replaced by a quadrant plate 3! with an extending arm 32 inclinded to the axis of the journal bearing 3 in an upward direction and the two links 9a, 3b are replaced respectively by a link 33 pivoted to the quadrant plate 3| at the centre of the radius of its slot H and by a link 34 pivoted to the outer end of the quadrant plate 3| at a point substantially in line with the axis of the journal bearing 3. Both links 33 and 34 are pivotally connected to the inner end of the control rod I 0, and the tension spring [2, extends between the outer ends of arm 32 and link 34. The quadrant plate 3| has secured to it a pair of arms 35 whereby the said plate 3| is clamped to a sector plate 36 pivoted. to the bearing journal 3 (see specially Figure 5) The clamp screw 37 passing through the arcuate slot 33 of the sector plate 3% enables the Whole of the control assembly to be inclined laterally in relation to the axis of the journal 3 and to be locked in the set position.
The platform 4 which supports the sleeve 3 of the bearing journal is carried by a second quadrant plate 40 which is hinged to the bridging portion which extends between two clampable collars 42 slidable on the post I The club mounting means are of the same construction as those shown in Figure 1 and like parts are given the same references as used in Figure l.
1. Apparatus for use in practising golf comprising a fixed structure, a stub shaft rotatably and angularly mounted on said fixed structure, a control device mounted by one end for rotation with said stub shaft, a combined swivel and pivot joint on the other end of said control device, club carrier means adapted to support a club with freedom to rotate about the longitudinal axis of its shaft, said carrier means being mounted by means of said swivel and pivot joint to said control device and adapted to swivel and pivot in relation thereto as the club supported in said carrier means is gripped and swung by the player and braking means adapted for co-operation with the stub shaft to resist the turning of the control device and the associated carrier means and club to impose restraint on the swing of the club during the operative down stroke thereof.
2. Apparatus according to claim 1, wherein a sleeve is secured to said fixed structure and the stub shaft is rotatable within said sleeve, the braking means having parts which are connected respectively with said sleeve and with said stub shaft.
3. Apparatus for use in practising golf comprising a height-adjustable supporting structure, an arcuate segmental brake shoe pivotally mounted on said supporting structure, a stub shaft rotatably and angularly mounted on said supporting structure, a braking element in the form of a pawl pivotally mounted on said stub shaft for swinging in a plane perpendicular to the shaft axis and adapted in one direction of swing to wedge against the inside of said brake shoe, a control device mounted by one end for rotation with said stub shaft, a combined swivel and pivot joint on the other end of said control device, club carrier means adapted to support a club with freedom to rotate about the longitudinal axis of its shaft, said carrier means being mounted by means of said swivel and pivot joint to said control device and adapted to swivel and pivot in relation thereto as the club supported in said carrier means is gripped and swung arcuately by the player, the said braking pawl and shoe cooperating to exert a retarding action on the rotation of the stub shaft and the associated control device, club carrier means and club during the downstroke of the club.
4. Apparatus for use in practising golf comprising a shaft supported for rotation and angular adjustment in relation to and above ground level, a carrier Within which a golf club is adapted to be supported for free rotation about its longitudinal axis, a control assembly mounted by one end to said shaft for rotation therewith and pivotally and swivelly connected by the other end to said carrier and incorporating an articulated linkage, and a braking device co-operating with said shaft in one direction of rotation to restrain its rotation, adjustment of the inclination of the axis of the shaft and of the setting of the linkage in relation to said shaft disposing the club for arcuate swinging in a desired plane of inclination in relation to the vertical, the braking means acting in one direction of rotation of said shaft to exert a retarding influence on the rotation of the shaft and the associated control assembly, carrier and club during the downstroke of the club.
5. Apparatus for use in practising golf comprising a supporting post adapted to be erected on the ground, a height-adjustable bracket on said post, a platform mounted on said bracket for adjustment of the angle of inclination of the platform toward the ground, a journal bearing on said platform, a segmental arcuate braking shoe pivoted by one end to said journal bearing, a, stub shaft freely rotatably mounted in said journal bearing, a braking element in the form of a pawl pivotally mounted on said stub shaft for swinging in a plane perpendicular to the shaft axis and adapted in one direction of rotation to wedge against the inside of the pivoted shoe, an articulated linkage of frame form attached to said shaft so as to rotate therewith and incorporating one limb constituting a control rod which extends beyond the linkage frame and one other limb which is directly swinga-ble on said shaft for adjustment of the linkage frame, clamp means for setting said swingably adjustable limb of the frame in a fixed position relatively to said shaft, spring means associated with said linkage frame and tending always to pull said control rod toward the swingably adjustable limb of the frame, a control arm swivelly and pivotally jointed to said control rod, and club carrier means mounted on said control arm and including a freely revoluble sleeve adapted to receive and grip the shaft of a golf club, the means for adjustment of the inclination of the axis of the shaft and of the setting of the articulated linkage frame in relation to said shaft permitting of the setting of the control rod in such a position as to dispose the club shaft for arcuate swinging in a desired plane of inclination in relation to the vertical, and the co-operating braking pawl and shoe acting in one direction of rotation to exert a retarding action on the rotation of the stub shaft and the associate linkage, control rod, club carrier means and club during the downstroke of the club.
RUFUS FRANK COT'I'JNGHAM.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 553,373 Webber Jan. 21, 1896 575,249 Koven Jan. 12, 1897 1,480,717 Fournier Jan. 15, 1924 1,983,920 Perin Dec. 11, 1934 2,328,408 Beil et a1. Aug. 31, 1943