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Publication numberUS2472819 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 14, 1949
Filing dateJan 26, 1945
Priority dateJan 26, 1945
Publication numberUS 2472819 A, US 2472819A, US-A-2472819, US2472819 A, US2472819A
InventorsGiesen Josef H
Original AssigneeGiesen Josef H
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Mechanical skeleton
US 2472819 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 14, 1949. J. H. GIESEN MECHANICAL SKELETON 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Jan. 26, 1945 June 14, 1949. J, GlESEN I 2,472,819

MECHANICAL SKELETON Filed Jan. 26, 1945 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 5 Shets-Sheet 3 Filed Jan. 26, 1945 June 14, 1949. J. H. GIESEN MECHANICAL SKELETON 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Jan. 26, 1945 June 14, 1949. J. H. GIESEN MECHANICAL SKELETON Filed Jan. 26, 1945 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Patented June 14, 1949 MEGHANICAL SKIEIIE'IYON" Inset. H, Glaser, ted sta savy.

Application January 26, 194-5, 1 Semi-ah N 0. 57 4,6 7

sfllaims. (01. 35-17) -(Granted-' under the act of march 3,. 1883, as. amended April 30, 1928; 370%). G.. 757) it has beenthe practice in hospitals orthopedic s ut s. nd m dioalso ools to, use human skeletons for instruction and'experiment purposes. There has always been .a .greatdemand for skeletons, not only for teachinganatomll,

but also for. experience and. practic ngpurposes inoorm otion witnthe us of o theimod r orthopedic and fracture. appliances andinstrue ments. T p peruse of man o t ese... devices demands a considerableamount f ner hcein their operation and. application before they-man be expected to beused withsatisfactoryresults. proper ma pulation in some .casesmaiirliove fatal or at least produce undesirable; results. and unnecessary pain and suffering, as well as.

extended. hospitalization. The importance of the demandfor. skeletons cannot. be over. emphasized, yet, human skeletons are difiicult to, obtain.

It was discovered that this need could be met to an immeasurable extent by supplying mechanical skeletons which would closely approximate the gross specifications of the human skeleton by simple substituteconstructions madefrorn wood or other common materials, without seen-- ficing the, essential joint movements and artieuof. ra u e a soin proper y v edu ed uos t qhs lations of an actual skeleton.

'The object of this invention is to provide cheap but sufliciently faithful reproductions; of the humanskeleton for use in teaching-anatomy and practicing the application technique of orthovention proceeds, having reference-to the accompanyi-ng drawings, wherein:

Fig. 1 illustrates awooden construction representing one of the lower" extremities of the human skeleton,

Figs. 2' to 4 are three views of the femur of the left leg simulating a fracture; in theshaft thereof,

Figs. 5 and 6. show two views-ofthe. wooden leg,

reproduction of the tibiaand fibula of the left Fig. '7 is a detail view partially in section of; the knee joint,

Figs. 8 and 9 are two views of the left foot showing an approximation ofthe construction 0t thetarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges,

Fig .1 0 is a perspective view; of the reproduction of the right arm and h'and'bone structure;

Figs. 11v and 12 are two'views of the humerus,

Fig, 13, is a. sectional view taken at lit-t3; of'

Figs. 14,110 16 "are three views of theconstruc tion representing the ulna of the right arm,

E' i g s ,1'? to 1,9- are three views showing; the construction representing the radius of the right arm,

Fig.2-0 is a dorsal'viewof the right handbones n lud ng. h Q% P .mQ H and p a sea Fig. 2; is a section taken along the line- 21 of Fig, 20,

Fig, 22] is a view of the structurerepresenting t e b n s. i? he r ht. t.

Fig/23 is asection taken along the line Q's-23 of Fig. 22,

s. 1am 25 a .v iew a ons ru i representing a fracture in redi ce a l position, having dowe s g n through th fragm nt to ho them. ther hen t s desired to thememr he as an ih- Fi szfi ndL T-ar wo v ews o ano h r typ with dowelsin place, and.

2 a 2.9 how. n th sim l em. Q r ur a so pr pe l educ d. h the o ic-- spondin dowels in place- 'l? he mechanical-skeleton, parts, herein show, a 5 1l' her parts ithe ke to s m larly made, should .proveof material. value in any hosi a or a y sure calia tiv tr and ei aq h res nd m ch n cal. ho ic. and r tu e 0 e uipmen f r thereason th t ar i ula ed human ske to s a e er expens v and ifll ul t btai an th oss s ec f cati s, gether W h thev essential i ht mo io t h man. Skeleon a au lioat di the d c s T ysh uld rov use ul. h h each n f ira t e firs id. pp i ations i lints. n trac ion paatus T es skeleton. ar c n h m u etu ed. an ordinarily. ui ed tter h bv vweli ra hecir pa tern. mak r Th se ar s havebeenproving their usefulness in the derngne tria ion oi a ew y f acture. r q qt h de ce which is the slated: r a Patent No. 23933982 issu ux ome Fe ru ry 5 l9 fi t m v ihewise be used in demonstration and practice in the use 5 of. the fra tur and, thor die ap l an es This substitute for the human articulated skeleton was especially intended for use in experimentation upon fractures by mechanical apparatus. Since the use of an articulated human skeleton is denied to most, some substitute was required. Specifications were arrived at with very close approximation to those of the human skeleton by a careful study of the authoritative anatomic texts. A system was worked out whereby the entire arm and leg bones, including the hand and the foot, could be made available. Furthermore, a system was developed, making possible the foot either articulated or in one piece, which obviously has many advantages if fracture apparatus and other orthopedic appliances are to be experimented with.

The specifications as regards length, circumference of the bones and etc., were taken from the skeleton of an adult male. The joints constructed are mechanical and allow the same limitations, ranges of motion, as do the human joints. Thus the normal ranges of fiexion and extension of the elbow, pronation and supination of the wrist, lateral movement of the hand,

the normal carrying angle of 20 at the elbow and etc. are duplicated. The dorsal projection of the carpal bones, those of the fingers, and the other small bones of the hand, such as the metacarpals, are plainly marked. The lower extremity was likewise patterned after the skeleton of an adult male. An angle of 125 between the neck and femoral shaft, ante-version of head and neck to frontal plane of the femoral shaft of 25, the anterior bowing, the lateral bowing, the line of the center of gravity, the range of motion of the knee joint except the rotation about its long axis, the normal ranges of the ankle joint, the anterior bowing of the tibia,

the medial and lateral arches of the foot, the

' 60, 6|, 62, 63, G4, 69, 10, II, and I2.

formed, as shown at 2 I, and has a narrow groove 2I all around it. The radius 22 is similarly formed at its upper end 24, the lower end 23 thereof being cylindrical but having flattened opposite sides through which a bore 29 passes for reception of a dowel 26. A slot 28 is formed across the middle of the end for the reception of the lug 30 on the wrist of the hand. This lu has a bore 3| for registry with the bore 29 the radius to permit insertion of the dowel 26. This permits the lateral motion of the wrist, the lower end 23 of the radius 22 also has two narrow bores I9 similar to those in the end I8 of the ulna. Cords 20 are passed around each of these grooves 2I and 24 at the lower end of the ulna and the upper end of the radius. their ends passing through the bores I9 in the adjacent members, respectively, and then tied, not too tightly, to permit the movement of the ulna and radius between the prone and supine positions. The bones of the hand shown in Fig. 10 are not articulated but are carved to a certain extent to show the general shape of the carpus and the combined phalanges and metacarpals. The hand bones may be made articulated, as shown in Figs. 20 and 21, the carpus being cut up into the several bones comprising that portion of the hand, as shown by the bones marked 32 to 38, the metacarpus comprising the metacarpals 39 to 43, and the phalanges comprising the several joints thereof including parts 44 to 58. Each part is bored through the joints. and cords are passed therethrough as shown having knots at the ends thereof shown at 59, Flexible sleeves 65, 66, 61, and 68 are mounted over a cord passing through the outer ends of the metacarpals between the adjacent fingers to provide the normal spacing therebetween. As shown in Fig. 21, these parts may be cut from plain boards.

Figs. 22 and 23 show a similar construction applied to the bones of the foot wherein the bones of the tarsus are cut separately, as indicated by the parts 73 to 78, the metatarsals being shown at '59 to 83, and the phalanges and their several 85 to 9'1. Bores are similarly provided through the joints for the cords passed thereat 3 for the purpose of simulating a fracture.

The tibia 6, and femur are joined by a flexible hinge portion 8 which is set into the tibia and dowelled therein by dowels 9 and II], and extends into the slot 4 in the femur wherein it is pivotally mounted on dowel 5 passing through the bore 4. ward portion of the slot 4 and limits the pivotal movement of the joint by acting as a stop for the flexible hinge portion 8. The fibula I is A spline .5 is fitted into the forjoined at the knee to the tibia and extends downseen in Fig. 10, are in a supine position. The

humerus I3 is dowelled by dowel I6 to the lug 21 attached to the end of the ulna I'I, this end being made cylindrical as shown at I8 and has two small bores I9 extending therethrough, for a purpose to be, described hereinafter. The lower end of the ulna I1 is also cylindrically through and knotted as shown at 98 to I09, III, H2, and H4. Flexible sleeves H8, and H3 are shown for spacing between the toes. As shown in 23, the bores for the phalanges may be cut out of plain board parts.

Referring to Figs. 24 to 29, any of the bones hereinbefore described may be broken as shown in these figures. If the break is formed as shown in 24 and 25, dowels H5 and HG may be passed through bones as shown to hold two of the fragments II! and H8 in place. Two other dowels H9 and I20 are passed between the fragment H8 and remaining fragment I2I. In Figs. 26 and 27 another arrangement of dowels I22 and i333 is shown. They are passed through the fragments I24 and I25 at different angles. The fracture represented in Fig. 28 is a plain diagonal real: composed of the fragments I26 and I2! dowelled together at I28, I29, and I30.

Other parts of the skeleton and other types of fractures may be simulated in a similar way as described above. In practicing the use of any orthopedicappliances on fractured bones, the use of this dowelled construction of the fragments is very useful in determining the proper reduction of the fracture. In this case of a fracture reducer, such as described in my patent previously referred to, the reducer is applied to the fragments with the dowels removed, and is then operated to move the fragments by the proper manipulation of the reducer controls until the fragments are properly reduced. When this is correctly done, the bores for the dowels are properly lined up so that the dowels may be readily inserted in place. With the dowels in place, on the other hand, the respective bone shafts may be used as units in connection with other appliances and for other purposes.

The practice of the proper insertion of bone screws and the application of bone plates, splints, etc., is made possible by the use of the above mechanical bone structures, so as to produce proficiency in such applications, and provide the necessary experience to the novice surgeon, so as to properly prepare him for actual operations. Various modifications in the form and structure of these devices may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of this invention, as defined in the appended claims.

The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government of the United States of America for governmental purposes without the payment of any royalties thereon or therefor.

What is claimed is:

1. A mechanical assembly simulating the bones of one of the extremities of the human body comprising an upper member having a slot, 9. lower member, a tongue removably secured to said lower member adapted to be engaged in the said slot, releasable means for securing said tongue in said slot adapted to allow relative movement of the said members in a single plane, and means for limiting the movement of the said members.

2. A mechanical assembly simulating the bones of one of the extremities of the human body comprising an upper member representing the upper limb of the extremity, a lower member representing the lower limb of the extremity composed of two substantially parallel elements attached to each other and adaptedfto be movably attached to a digitate member, and means including a removable pin and a tongue for releasably joining said members and adapted to allow said upper and lower members to be relatively movable in a single plane.

3. A mechanical assembly simulating the bones of one of the extremities of the human body comprising an upper member representing the upper limb of the extremity, a lower member representing the lower limb of the extremity composed of two substantially parallel elements each rotatably attached to a side of the other, means including a removable pin and agtongue for releasably joining one of said elements of said lower member to the upper member adapted to allow said upper and lower members to be relatively movable in a single plane, and movable means for attaching the other of said elements of the lower member to a digitate member.


' REFERENCES CITED The following referemces are of record in the filejof this :patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 88,432 Aylworth Mar. 30, 1869 760,943 Wright May 24, 1904 983,547 Fleck Feb. 17, 1911 1,494,872 Weber May 20, 1924 2,108,229 Metz Feb. 15, 1938 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 92,522 Austria. 1923 584,903 Germany 1933

Patent Citations
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US1494872 *Sep 28, 1923May 20, 1924August WeberEducational device
US2108229 *Jul 5, 1935Feb 15, 1938Metz Martha MAnatomical skeleton
AT92522B * Title not available
DE584903C *Sep 26, 1933Ludwig SorekAnschauungstafel mit kuenstlichem Knochengeruest eines menschlichen Fusses
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2988823 *Aug 12, 1959Jun 20, 1961Renwal Toy CorpTransparent anatomical model
US3188753 *Jun 13, 1963Jun 15, 1965Superior Plastics IncAnatomical device
US3213550 *Nov 13, 1962Oct 26, 1965Denoyer Geppert CompanyAnatomical model
US4238935 *Aug 16, 1978Dec 16, 1980Oudet Jean Marie PMethod for manufacturing a chain from the vertebra of an animal
US4850877 *Jan 20, 1987Jul 25, 1989Donjoy, Inc.Method of determining stress effects in components of the human knee and anthropomorphic leg device therefor
US5314499 *Apr 4, 1991May 24, 1994Collier Jr Milo SArtificial limb including a shin, ankle and foot
US5607311 *Oct 20, 1995Mar 4, 1997Browne-Wilkinson; OliverOrthopaedic human skeletal demonstration aids
US5800570 *Mar 14, 1996Sep 1, 1998Collier; Milo S.Lower extremity prosthetic device
US6206703 *Mar 1, 1999Mar 27, 2001Lear CorporationBiofidelic human seating surrogate apparatus
US6942488 *Mar 5, 2004Sep 13, 2005D. Barclay Slocum Trust AgreementApparatus for demonstrating a skeletal surgical technique
US7018212Jul 10, 2003Mar 28, 2006Medical Accessories & Research CorporationArtificial bone
US7748984 *Jul 6, 2010Mcallister Craig MApparatus and method for instruction in orthopedic surgery
US20040082997 *Jul 10, 2003Apr 29, 2004Mike ZeeffArtificial bone
US20050014114 *Mar 5, 2004Jan 20, 2005Slocum D. BarclayApparatus for demonstrating a skeletal surgical technique
US20070212672 *Feb 10, 2006Sep 13, 2007Mcallister Craig MApparatus and method for instruction in orthopedic surgery
US20110076661 *Mar 31, 2011John MitchellSelectively movable foot model with cords
WO2011038067A1 *Sep 23, 2010Mar 31, 2011Mitchell John RSelectively movable foot model with cords
U.S. Classification434/274, 623/54, 623/57, 623/33, 623/39, 623/61, 623/59
International ClassificationG09B23/32, G09B23/00
Cooperative ClassificationG09B23/32
European ClassificationG09B23/32