|Publication number||US2473018 A|
|Publication date||Jun 14, 1949|
|Filing date||Jul 25, 1947|
|Priority date||Jul 25, 1947|
|Publication number||US 2473018 A, US 2473018A, US-A-2473018, US2473018 A, US2473018A|
|Inventors||Edwards Thomas J|
|Original Assignee||Burke H Critchfield|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (6), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
June 14, 1949. T. J. EDWARDS BUILDING STRUCTURE 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed July-25, 1947 Tho/14,45 J. Eon/A205 ATTOzNE-Yr June 14, 1949.
Filed July 25, 1947 T. J. EDWARDS BUILDING STRUCTURE 6 Shets-Sheet 2 A l/ENTOR H 8 7710/14/95 .7. fDWARDs 147'TARNE Y0 June 14, 1949. T. J. EDWARDS 2,473,018
BUILDING STRUCTURE Filed July 25, 1947 6 ShetS-Sheet 5 /6 4 G a '/8 l6 l7 F/e. 7
F/GJQ H6120 [VVENTO/Q 7/3 0MA5 [EDWARDS T. J. EDWARDS BUILDING STRUCTURE June 14, 1949.
6 Sheets-Sheet 5 lvvfiA/rae 7 75/0/1445 I EDWARDS flTTOB/VEYS Filed July 25, 1947 Patented June 14, 1949 BUILDING STRUCTURE Thomas J. Edwards Klamath Falls, 0reg., as-
signor to Burke H. Critchfield Application July 25, 1947, Serial No. 763,705
This invention relates to new and useful improvements in building structures and more particularly to such structures wherein the walls are composed of a plurality of prefabricated boards or panels having means whereby they may be as-,;
sembled in the erection of the walls without the use of nails, screws or other separable securing elements.
An object of the invention is to provide a building structure in which all of the parts may be,
prefabricated, the wall board or panels having their ends so constructed that the boards of one wall may have their ends interlocked with the boards of adjacent walls in such a manner that the wall boards cannot become disengaged from the upright walls of the building having their ends suitably notched at their ends to provide interlocking elements between the ends of the boards of adjacent walls without the use of metal or other connectors, and whereby the building may be quickly erected without the use of skilled labor.
A further object is to 'provide a plurality of wall boards or panels having their ends'so notched as to provide interlocking joints at the corners of the building which are substantially weather-' proof. and also whereby cross walls or partitions 1 may be provided in the building to divide it into two or more rooms or compartments, the boards or panels forming the cross walls or partitions being secured to the outside walls by interlocking engagement with the wall boards thereof and without the use of nails, screws or other separable connectors.
A further object of the invention is to provide a building board or panel having its opposed edges at each end transversely notched to provide a tenon or tongue, and a transverse groove being provided in one face of the board at each end thereof, which grooves are adapted to receive end portions of adjacent boards, whereby the boards of adjacent walls may be secured together at the corners of the building by interlocking engagement, and without the use of nails, bolts or other separable connectors, in such a manner that a very rugged and substantial structure is provided whose walls are capable of withstanding considerable outward pressure, as may result when the building is utilized for storing bulk grain or other bulk materials.
A further and more specific object is to provide an elongated building board or timber having a tongue on one edge and a groove in its opposite edge adapted to interfit with similar tongues and grooves in adjacent boards, and each board being formed at each end with opposed shoulders and a longitudinally extending tenon disposed centrally of the board, one of said tenons having a transverse groove in one side face thereof having a side wall located in the plane of the shoulders at that end of the board, and the tenon at the opposite end of the board having a relatively wider groove therein extending inwardly beyond the shoulders at that end of the board whereby a portion of said last mentioned groove extends the full width of the board.
A still more specific object of the invention is to provide a plurality of building timbers or panels each provided at each end with a longitudinally extending terminal tenon and a pair of opposed shoulders, and one face of each timber having spaced transverse grooves therein, one located adjacent to each tenon of each timber, and the grooves in certain of said timbers being of less width than others and adapted to receive correspondingly sized shoulders provided on others of said timbers, whereby when a series of said timbers are assembled in the erection of adjacent walls, the timbers are securely interlocked in fixed position at the corners of the building and labyrinth seals are provided in the joints between adjacent walls whereby said joints are rendered substantially weather-proof.
Other objects of the invention reside in the unique manner of notching and grooving the ends of each board to provide interlocking tenons and grooves, and whereby such notching and grooving may readily be performed on standard automatic machinery; in the provision of a plurality of prefabricated building boards or panels having their ends so notched and grooved that they may readily and quickly be assembled in the construction of a building :by unskilled labor, and without the use of nails, bolts, or other separable fastening elements, and also whereby multiple room buildings of various types and shapes may be quickly erected substantially without the use of a, hammer and saw, and whereby such a building may be erected in a comparatively short time; and in the unique shape and design of the tenons, grooves and shoulders provided at the ends of the timbers whereby all of the walls of said tenons,
grooves and shoulders are disposed in either right angular or parallel relation to the longitudinal centerline of the timber, whereby the operation of forming said tenons, grooves and shoulders is an extremely simple one and may be accomplished in quantity production at very low cost.
Other objects of the invention will appear from the following description and the accompanyingdrawings and will be pointed out in the annexed claims.
In the accompanying drawings there has been disclosed a structure designed to carry out the various objects of the invention, but it is. to be understood that the invention is not confined to the exact features shown, asv various changes may be made within the scope of the claims which follow:
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a face view showing one of my novel building timbers; Figure 2 .is atop viewot Figure 1;
..Figure 3 is a fragmentary detail sectional view in perspective showing adjacentends-of two of tithe building .ti'nibers-labout to be interlocked;
. Eigureeis a, similar, view showing the timbers of. Figure 3 completely, assembled;
.Figure 5 is3viewsimilar to Figure 3 showing the bpposite .ends. of the timbers about to be interlocked? Figure 6. is a..view showing the timbers. of Figure 5 interlocked;
,,-,.Figui'e 7 is a planvview of a building on a usmallernscalel showing the interlocking of the timbersatrthe corners of the building;
5 Fig. .7a. is an enlarged detail plan view of a Mc'or'nerijoint"showing the interlocking arrange- -mentc,of.two timber. ends, and showing by that Zlportioncf/each interlockingitimbei" which is in overlapped relation with the othermand at the outer.corner lot the joint and also the arrange- I ment lof, groovesv and, cooperating shoulders of ,Lthe. timbers .attheinside corner of the joint, the, tongues 10 not shown in this figure;
' Fi'gurebisanehlarged detail sectional view in,,perspective.showing the arrangement of the .l timbers atone corner; of lthebuilding;
Figure QTis asiniilar. view showing a portion of .,the. corner ,at I the opposite end: of thelbuilding;
Figure 10, is a. perspective. view of a building .iconstructedhin accordance with the invention :1
- herein disclosed, but .in which the side walls are L ;di'sposedi'at a. slight. incline;
Figure '11 is a plan view of a building showing aconstructioncomprising a plurality of rooms;
i-i-Figure 12iis a 'viewshowing the connection;
between one of thecross wallsior partitions with ..=.:the.ltimbers forming one of the outside walls;
:Figure 13 is a view showing the timbers of the cross-wall interlockedwith the timbers forming \.the sidewall;
\Fig'ure 14 .is an enlarged detail sectional view ,-in "perspective showing the construction of the wall structure illustratedinFigure 13;
.rFigure -15.is a. face ,view of a timber showing portions of the transverse grooves at the ends thereofrextendi'ngthev full width of the timber;
lFigure 16 is a top' view of Figure Figural? is a face View of a timber .in which 'the transverse grooves are.'entirely within .the body .of the. timber and extend the full width .therebf;
Figure18ris a top view of Figure-1'7; Figure :19 is aiview showing a timber having .relativelylonger tenons at-their ends and in -clwhichsthe .transverse...grooves are formed .inthe 4 tenons and are relatively smaller in width than those shown in Figures 15 and 17;
Figure 20 is a top view of Figure 19;
Figure 21 is a fragmentary detail sectional view in perspective showing the construction wherein four walls are joined together;
Figure 22 is a sectional plan view on the line 22-122 of Figure 21;
, Figure- 23 is a,v sectional plan View on the line 23- 23 of Figure Figure 24 is a view corresponding to the Figure 21 but showing an additional board;
-,Figure 25 is a view similar to Figure 24 but showing another board added;
Figure 26 is a view showing a multiple room 7 building I and showing the interlocking of the timbers at thecorners of the various rooms;
Figures 27 to 36, inclusive, illustrate various 1 forms of boards used in the construction of the building shown-in Figure 26. L'Ioilfacilitatethe erectionlof, buildings of variousesizesandshapes in accordance with the .present invention, a, plurality. of slightly variantly, shaped timbers, orpanels are utilized, all -of lwhichuembody the same general characteristicscnfeatures. .In Figures Land 2 I have shown aitimber. oripanel whichwillhereinafter be referred to by the reference character A. This --t timber .comprises abody 2 which is transversely notched at each end. as indicatedat 3, to provide a.pair, of shoulders 4 at oneend and a a pair. of.shoulders 5 at the opposite end. The i shoulders. ofleach. pair are. disposed in a comnmonnplan, or ..in other.words, are vertically alignedcwithoneanother, and are disposed at .right..angles .to theaxis a-a of the timber, as
. clearly illustrated in Figure 1. Tenons 6 and I ,areprovidedatrtheiendslof the timber and are preferably symmetrically disposed about its axis a.a,. asclearly illustrated in Figure 1.
. To securetogether the timbersat the corners of .thebui-ldingwithout the use of nails, screws,
bolts, on other separable securing elements, the
,tenon :6 is shown provided with a transverse or vertically disposed groove Swhich extends par- .tiallyintothebody of the timber. The width of .the,groove 8 is. substantially equal to the thick n ness. of, the. timber.
A. relatively smaller groove 9 is provided in the tenon I, one wall of which is aligned/with theishoulders 5. The width of the groove 9. is substantially equal to the width on. thickness 1ofthev shoulders 4 provided at the ,.opposite end of the timber.
To provide leakproof joints between adjacent timbers the upper edge of, each timber is preferably provided at its uppenedge with a tongue l0, and its lower edge tpreferablyuhas a .groove llof conventional de- 3 sign .adapted toreceive the tongue I0 of a contiguous timber.
Thetimbermshown in Figures 1 and 2, is designednfor use in most types of buildings, and particularly to buildings of the general type dis- .,,.closed.,in: Figure 7, wherein each corner is defined-.by joining together the timbers of adjacentwalls. :The labyrinth seal provided at each cornerias aresult of .the particular arrangement of thevertical recesses 8 and 9 is clearly shown t lHzFiEUIBS 8.. and 9, which seals are substantially weatherproof, .as will readily be understood.
l Figures 3 to 6,.inclusive, illustrate the manner .iotiinterlockingethe timbers at the'corners of the a building. CAsi here shown, the relatively wider shoulders 5 atone end of each timber are re- ,ceived .in.grooves- 8 of adjacent timbers, and
.therelaltively smallershoulders 4 are received in grooves 9. The width or up-and-down dimension of each tenon is substantially equal to one-half the width or up-and-down dimensions of its respective timber, whereby the tenons in a completed wall will be abuttingly engaged, as clearly illustrated in Figures 4, 6, 8 and 9, and also whereby the joints between adjacent timbers in one wall will be staggered with relation to the joints between adjacent timbers in another wall.
By way of further explanation in this connection, these corner joints as shown in Figure '7 for instance are formed by arranging a series of timbers in superimposed interlocked edgewise relation, and each timber having its interlocked ends shaped to provide a pair of opposed shoulders and a terminal tenon, said tenon extending beyond the joint at substantially the same thickness as the timber, but at only the height of the narrowest part of the tenon. A vertical groove 8 is cut in the face or" -the tenon at one end of one of the interlocked timbers, and this groove also extends for the same depth, into the body of said timber beyond the shoulders 4 formed on said timber, said groove so out being of a width sufiicient to receive the full width of the cross-sectional thickness of another timber interlocked with it, namely the shoulders 5 as formed on this last-mentioned interlocked timber. A vertical groove 9 is also formed in the tenon of said last-mentioned interlocked timber which groove is lesser in width than the aforementioned groove 8 in the first-mentioned interlocked timber by the depth of said groove, one side wall of groove 9 as formed in the tenon being located in the plane of the shoulders 5 of said last mentioned timber, and with said groove of such width as to receive the reduced cross-sectional shoulder width of the widest grooved timber. namely the shoulder 4 of said first mentioned timber. This interlocked joint between timber members formed in the manner as outlined herein, is clearly shown in Figure 7a, and upon reference to this figure. it will be clearly seen that the overlapping portions of the tenons of interlocking timbers are arranged only at the outs de corner of the joint, (as shown by crosshatching) and further, that the grooves and coacting shoulders of all timbers forming the corner joint are arranged at the inside corner of said joint.
In the building of a structure embodying corner joints of this character, a light-tight weatherproof joint is formed having the tenons overlying each other only on the outer corner of the joint, and with the timbers placed, one on top of another in intersecting and edgewise relation as set forth herein, and where the shoulders, tenons and transverse grooves of all of said timbers cooperate to lock the timbers together securely at the corners of the building structure, and with the grooves and cooperating shoulders of all timbers arranged at the inside corner of each building joint. Furthermore, and by particular reference to Figure 7a, it will be noted that with the timbers in overlapped relation and with the grooves and coacting shoulders of said overlapped timbers arranged, as set forth herein, there are three or more interior vertical contacting surfaces at right angles to each other between the ends of each of said timbers and its coacting groove, thereby providing an interlocked light-tight weatherproof corner joint of the character set forth herein.
Figures 8 and 9 illustrate the preferred manner of erecting the walls of a building. Suitable sills l2 and I3 are placed upon a suitable foundation or upon the ground, and upon these sills the walls of the building are erected. When starting the erection of the walls of a building a half timber I4 is placed upon one or more of the sills l2 and I 3, as shown in Figure 8, and has its ends interlocked with the ends of full width timbers A of the general type illustrated in Figures 1 and 2. By interlocking the ends of the timbers at the corners of the building as illustrated in Figures 3 to 9, inclusive, all of the walls of the building may be erected to any desired height without the use of nails, screws, bolts, or other separable securing elements and with the assurance that a very substantial and rugged structure is provided which will be substantially weatherproof in construction.
In Figure 11 I have shown a multiple room structure in which the corners at each end of the building are similar to the corners of the building shown in Figure 7. The four corners located in termediately of the ends of the building are each formed by joining together the ends of three walls. When three walls are thus jointed together the recessing at the ends of the timbers are some what difierently arranged in order to provit e the proper interlocking engagement between the timbers of the various walls at each corner of the building, and whereby each corner will be made weatherproof by a labyrinth seal, similar to the wall corners illustrated in the previous figures.
Figures 1 and 15 to 19, inclusive, illustrate the various timbers utilized in the construction of a building such as illustrated in Figure 11. As here shown diagonally opposed corners it of the building are constructed by joining together the ends of timbers A, similar to the ones utilized in the building shown in Figure 7. The timbers B, C, and D are used in the construction of other Walls of the building, including the cross-walls or partitions 29 which divide the building into a plurality of rooms.
Each timber B comprises a body 2 which is transversely notched at its ends to provide at each end a pair of shoulders d separated by terminal tenons 5 corresponding to the tenons 5 shown in Figures 1 and 2. Vertically disposed grooves 8 are provided in each tenon 5 and extend partially into the body of the timber in a manner similar to that shown at the left hand end of Figure 1. In other words, both ends of the timber B are identical in construction, and are identical to the left hand end of timber A.
Timber C difiers from timbers A and B in. that relatively shorter tenons IE are provided at the ends thereof. Aligned shoulders I? are also provided at each end of the timber C and a vertical groove I8 is cut in the face of the board at each end thereof. One side wall of each groove it is so coincident with its respective shoulders il and the width of each of said grooves is substantially equal to the thickness of the timber, whereby each. groove l8 may receive the face of one oi the tenons B, as clearly illustrated in Figure 13. Figure 13 illustrates one of the corners IQ of the building, and Figure 12 illustrates the relationship between the adjacent ends of timbers A, D and C before being interlocked together as shown in Figure 13.
As shown in Figure 19, the timbers D which constitute the cross-walls or partitions of the building shown in Figure 11, are notched their ends to provide a pair of vertically aligned shoulders 2| at each end of the timber. In the timbers D relatively longer tenons 22 are proisposed groove 2 i a are substantially; equal -to; the thickness .05, the shoulders 4 provided on timbers A and B.
. structed in accordance with the present invention, but in which the opposedside -walls, 24.are. in-
In each of timbers B, C and D thentencns at the ends of said timbers are disposed ,in;the, longitudinal axes a-aof their.respectivejimbers a illustrated inthe drawings.
Figure 10 illustrates a. portablabuilding. conwardly inclined, whereby the tenons 25 ,of the timbers forming the end walls ZGoi thebuildinE are disposed at an incline with respect .to the ages of their respective timbers, as will readily bepnderst ood by reference to Figure 10. The. timbers forming the side walls 24 of the buildingporrespond to-the timbers A shown in Figure-i. gIhe building shown in Figure ,10,; may be mounted upon suitable skids .21 whereby it; may rea dily,be moved about from place to place, as will readily be understood. The building: may be provided with any desired type of roof 28 suitableior the purpose.
In Figure 26 I have shown a building oi the. general type illustratedinFigure 11, but having" a laterally extending wing 29 to provide an additional room in the building. .To-construct. such a building it is necessary to slightly vary the notching and recessing at the ends of the timb.ers, .as shown in Figures 27 to 36, inclusive.
The timber E shown in Figures 27 and28 is- -provided at each end with apair of aligned-shoulders 2! similar to the shoulders ;2l ofv the timber D shown in Figure 19. The timber E is also providedwith terminal tenons 22 which are similarto the tenons 22 shown in Figure 19, and each tenonhas a vertically disposed groove. 23 in a facethereof. The widthsof the grooves 23 inthe-tenons22of timber E are relatively wider. than .the cone-,5:
sponding grooves in the tenon-oi timber D.
The left hand end of timber F shown. in Figure 29, is identical to the left hand endof timber A, and the right hand end of timber F corresponds .to the construction of the right hand end of timber C.
It will also be noted that the left hand end; of timber G, shown in Figure31, is similarin. construction to the right hand ends. or timbers C and F, and the various parts thereof will therefore bereferred to by like numbers.
The right hand-end oiv timber G- is similanin construction to the righthand end of timber A, and its opposite end is similar tothecorresponding end of timber C.
The left hand end of timber H correspondsto the left hand end of timber E, and the righthand end of timber H'corresponds to the righthand end of timber A.
Timber I has its left hand end constructed in a manner similar to the left hand ends oitimbers A and F, and the opposite end of timber I is similar to the corresponding endof timber F.
Figures 22 and 23 illustrate detail sectional views of the corners34 of the building: shown.v in Figure 26, and clearly illustrate the, interlocking engagement between the ends .of timbers 13. 0, F and H forming the corner. construction ,34 shown in Figure 26. Figures 21, 24' and 25 illustrate the various steps in the operationoi assemr bling the timbersat the corner of the buildin in the erection of the walls thereof.
While the drawings illustrate variant types of timbers used-in theconstruction of. thesvarious types of buildings herein disclosed, it,will be,
1 st uotural aw -th h ..genera ch raci r st find-c ber is formed with a symmetrically disposed londisposed shoulders gitudinally xtending tenon, a pair of vertically and a transverse orvertically disposed. groove. 'Ihe sizes. and shapesof the .tenons, shoulders and grooves vary somewhat,
depending upon the, typeof building to .be erected, but the same general constructional ieatures are -carried-through in the fabrication. of all of the tim r Thus byothe provision oi. a very limited-plurality .of slightly variant timbers, buildings of various designs and shapes may be economically erected in a comparatively short space of time without. the. use-of. nails,-. screws, bolts or other ,securing. elements for securing together the timbers at thevarious corners-of the building.
The no tching andgrooving at the ends of the timbers is such thatv the timbers maybe fabri- ..cated in quantity production on conventional ;automaticumachinery, whereby all of the timbers tobeutilized in a, given buildingmay be prefabricated and-tiedinto. small bundles. for convenient handling, in transit. It is also to be understood that. the various timbers will be definitely marked so-that theyv may be readily identified with theparticular type of building in which they are .to .be used.
,The.v particular manner of.. recessing .one. side faceof. each timber. is of utmost importance in that. it results in. the provision of a-labyrinth .seaLat each cornerof the building, whereby all corners are .renderedsubstantially weatherproof whereby the building ,provldesan ideal structure for storing bulk grain, ,and. various. other com- ;modities- .which..-require.. thorough. and. complete protection, from the elements.
It will be apparent to those skilled in theart that I have.accomplished at least-the principal objects -of. .my, invention, .and it. will also be apparent to-thoseskilled intheart that the em- .bodiments-,.herein.described ,may be variously changed and..,modified without departing from thespirit of. the invention, and that the inven- .tion is capablebf. uses and has advantages not herein specifically described; hence it will be-appreciated -thattheherein disclosed embodiments are illustrative only, and that my invention is not limited thereto.
.What I. claim as new and desire to secure by Letters: Patent is:
1. A building structure comprising a pair of walls joined togetherat the corner of the structure to provide a square corner, each wall being composed-of aplurality of horizontally disposed flat first and second wall members set on edge, oneontop of-another, and the adjacent ends of said wall members being formed with like terminal tenonswhereby the endof each wall member is provided with transversely aligned shoulders .---and--with; the tenons extending beyond the shoulders for the same width-throughout their length,
said first wall member having a transverse groove cutin oneface -of-its tenon adapted to receive :the fullcross-sectional thickness of-said second wall membensaid'groove extending partially into --the body of said first-wall memberbeyond-its shoulders -whereby the shoulders of said first Qwall member -areofless thickness than thethickness of. said member, said second wall member having a relatively mar-rower .transverse groove cut in one faceof its .tenomone side wall ofl which d smi s d: dep ete: Q re ss veshclflqs and whereby the width of the shoulders of the second wall member is equal to the full thickness of said member, the tenoned ends of said first and second wall members being disposed in overlapped relation at the outside corners of the structure with the relatively narrower shoulders of the first of said members being received in the relatively narrower roove of the second wall member, and the relatively wider shoulders of the second wall member being received in the relatively wider groove of the first wall member whereby the interfitting of said grooves and shoulders cooperate to provide an interlocked, light-tight, weather proof joint at the corner of the structure, and whereby corner joints are formed having tenons overlying each other only at the outer corners of the building structure and with the overlapping contacting portions of said tenons covering an area extending from the grooves to points in line with the outside vertical surfaces of the buildin structure at the corners, and with said contact surfaces of the overlapping tenons in substantial horizontal alignment with the upper and lower horizontal edge surfaces of adjacent tenons throughout their length, each of said corner joints comprising at least thre vertical contacting surfaces between the shoulder ends of said interlocked wall members and the coacting grooves all located inwardly from the overlapping area of the tenons, and with each pair of the contacting surfaces disposed at right angles to its adjacent pair of contacting surfaces.
2. A buildin structure having square corners and in which the walls are composed of horizontally disposed wall members set on edge, one on top of another, and having the ends of adjacent wall members overlapped at the corners of the structure, each overlap forming an interlocked light-tight, weatherproof joint characterized by having the interlocked ends of each wall member shaped to provide a pair of opposed shoulders and a terminal tenon extending beyond the shoulders of its respective wall member at substantially the same thickness of the wall member but at only the height of the narrowest 10 part of the tenon, a transverse groove cut in the face of the tenon of one wall member adapted to receive the full cross-sectional thickness of the other wall member interlocked with it, said groove extending for the same depth into the body of said wall member and beyond the shoulders thereof, and a vertical groove in the other interlocked member less in width than the groove in the first mentioned wall member by the depth of said groove to receive the reduced cross sectional shoulder width of the said first or widest grooved member, said narrow groove having one side wall thereof located in the plane of the shoulders of said narrow grooved wall member, the grooved face of each wall member'being that face of all wall members constituting the inside wall surfaces of the building structure, whereby corner joints are formed having tenons overlying each other only at the outer corners of the building structure and with the overlapping contacting portions of said tenons covering an area extending from the grooves to points in line with the outside vertical surfaces of the building structure at the corners, and with said contact surfaces of the overlapping tenons in substantial horizontal alignment with the upper and lower horizontal edge surfaces of adjacent tenons throughout their length, each of said corner joints comprising at least three vertical contacting surfaces between the shoulder ends of said interlocked wall members and the coacting grooves all located inwardly from the overlapping area of the tenons, and with each pair of the contacting surfaces disposed at right angles to its adjacent pair of contacting surfaces.
THOMAS J. EDWARDS.
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|U.S. Classification||52/284, 52/592.6|