Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS2474786 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 28, 1949
Filing dateSep 9, 1946
Priority dateSep 9, 1946
Publication numberUS 2474786 A, US 2474786A, US-A-2474786, US2474786 A, US2474786A
InventorsHumphrey Harvey J
Original AssigneeHumphrey Harvey J
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Permeable breakwater
US 2474786 A
Images(2)
Previous page
Next page
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 2 H, J. HUMPHREY PERMEABLE BRE AKWATER Filed Sept. 9, 194's 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR. HARVEY JHUMPHREY BY I ATTORNEYS June 28, 1949.

PERMEABLE BREAKWATER Filed Sept. 9, 1946 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. HARVEY J HUMPHREY BY ZWi ATTORNEYJ H. J. HUMPHREY 2,474,786

Patented June 28. 1949 UNITED sTArss e'rNT OFFICE PERMIEABLE BREAKWATER Harvey J. Humphrey, Cleveland, Ohio Application September 9, 1946, Serial No. 695,703

9 Claims. 1

This invention relates to a breakwater and moreparticularly to a permeable breakwater so called because it is provided with openings through which the water may pass.

The broad object of the invention is to provide a breakwater which will prevent beach or bank erosion and will cause sand suspended in the water to be deposited therefrom upon the bottom and thus build up and maintain the beach or bank.

In moving water, such as waves, usually there are suspended particles of sand. Also the waves which have rolled on the beach and are receding therefrom carrying with them an appreciable amount of suspended beach sand.

A more particular object of the invention is to provide a breakwater which while allowing waves to pass therethrough slows down the movement of the waves to an extent such that the sand suspended in the water is dropped therefrom and deposited upon the bottom.

Another object is to provide a breakwater that is constructed of identical or substantially identi cal units and each of which is so formed as to be self-seating and anchored in its position in the breakwater.

A further object of the invention is to provide a breakwater which presents irregular surfaces to the action of the waves and thereby lessens the tendency of the waves to undermine the breakwater.

Further and additional objects and advantages not hereinbefore referred to will become apparent during the detailed description of several embodiments of the invention which is to follow.

Referring to the accompanying drawings:

Fig. 1 is a plan view of one form of breakwater embodying the invention and extending between two jetties or piers projecting outwardly from the beach or bank.

Fig. 2 is a perspective view of one of the identical units employed in building the breakwater.

Fig. 3 is a sectional view through the unit shown in Fig. 2 and is taken substantially on line 3-3 of Fig. 2 looking in the direction of the arrows.

Fig. .4 is a fragmentary sectional view of one corner of the unit shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 5 is a plan view similar to Fig. l but showing a modified form of breakwater and identical units used in its construction from those shown in Fig. 1, with the breakwater of Fig. 2 also embodying the invention, and

Fig. 6 is a perspective view of one of the identical units employed in the construction of the breakwater in Fig. 4.

In describing the breakwater illustrated in Fig. 1 the construction of the identical units forming the breakwater will first be set forth.

in this form of the invention the identical units forming the breakwater are indicated in their entirety by the numeral l0 and comprise substantially rectangular hollow blocks open at their tops and bottoms. The units 10 preferably are constructed of concrete poured into suitable forms as will be well understood in the art. The side walls H and the end walls l2 of the units are provided with a plurality of openings l3 extending completely through the walls. Embedded or cast in each corner of the units H] are pipes or tubes Ma of such length that their ends are fiush with the top and bottom ends of the units.

In constructing the breakwater of the units l0 said units may be floated or otherwise transported to the location of the breakwater and into their proper position. Then the tubes or pipes M of smaller diameter than the pipes or tubes Ma are inserted through the latter. As an example of the diameters of the tubes Ma and M, the former may be of five inch diameter and the latter of four inch diameter. The pipes I4 are substantially longer than the height of the unit for a purpose soon to be pointed out. After the tubes or pipes l4 have been inserted in the pipes Ma jets of water are injected into the pipes I4 and said jets cause the lower toothed ends Mb of the pipes M to be jetted down into the bottom a suitable depth. As an example, the lower ends of the pipes l4 may extend into the bottom of the body of water in which the breakwater is located a matter of about five feet. When the unit is installed the tubes or pipes M will project above the upper end of the unit and can be filled with concrete or cement if desired. Thus the unit is. securely anchored in position.

In Fig. 1 the units are shown as assembled into a breakwater which extends between the outer ends of two spaced jetties or piers l5 projecting outwardly from the beach or bank and which may or may not be of permeable type. The outer ends of the jetties l5 are shown (for illustrative purposes only) as of polygonal formation. The units are each arranged at an angle to the shortline and have the inner wall ll of one unit over lapping the outer wall II of the adjacent unit. It will also be noted that the end units of the breakwater contact the sides of the outer ends of the jetties or piers I5.

It will be observed that the offshore side of the breakwater from a direction perpendicular to the shore line or from a direction at an angle thereto, .the momentum and action pf the waveswill be decelerated by the plurality of rangiularity disposed relatively small surfaces presented throughout the length of the breakwater and hence the force of the waves will have a minimum tendency to undermine the breakwater.

In addition it will be noted that the breakwater does not present a solid obstruction in the path of the waves but due to the openings 13 in the walls of the units the waves can pass through the "breakwater. However, the momentum of the waves is substantially reducedin passing through the breakwater and hence particles of sand suspended in the water are caused to drop therefrom and be deposited on the -*bottom.

In actual practice it has been found that the major portion of the suspended sandparticles is not dropped or deposited until the waves have passed completely through the breakwater and hence the interiors of the-hollow units do notfill up with deposited sand. It has also been found in actual practice that the breakwater slows down "the recession-rate -*of the waves after they have struck'the beach and hence any sand which has become suspended in the water-rolling on the beach is dropped or deposited between the 'beach and the shore side of the "breakwater.

Therefore, a breakwater constructed inaccordance with' the present invention not only functions to prevent erosion -'ofthe' 'beach or bank, but also operates to build-upthe beach by the deposit of suspended sand particles from the water of incoming waves.

Another'important feature of the breakwater is that the irregular or saw tooth surfaces throughoutthe length of the breakwater possess great effectiveness-in withstanding the pressures of ice floes which so often cause -conventional breakwaters to be broken or "displaced;-

In Figs. 5 and "6 theidentical units F6 *of the breakwater are shown as having parallel side walls i-E extendingperpendicularly "to the rear end wall l8 and connected at their outer-ends to angularly disposed end walls 'I9,'*sa' id latter walls providing the irregular surface of the 1 offshore side-of the br-eakwaters The units -l6 when assembled into the breakwater"caneso positioned that the inner end walls I 8 thereof-will be substantially parallel to the shoreline pr the units4can be positioned in an are as indicated in Fig. I

It will be noted that the side walls if =of --adjacent units are arranged in con-tact with each other. 'The units I B can *be anchored and positioned in the breakwater in the same manner as referredto with respectto the units W and also it will be understood that the breakwaterof Fig. 5 possesses the same advantages and==utility as the breakwater of "Fig, 1.

Although several preferred embodiments of the invention have been illustrated anddescribed herein, it will be understood that the invention is susceptible of such modifications and adaptations as fall within the scope of the appended claims.

Having thus described my invention, I claim:

1. A breakwater comprising a series of polygonal hollow integrally formed blocks anchored with a wall of each block in contacting overlappingengagement with.,,a.wa1l.of an adjacent block, said lblccksbeing-loffset with, respect to each other to provide a serrated frontal surface, each of said blocks being provided in the walls thereof with a plurality of openings wherefore waves striking the: breakwater can pass therethrough but will havetheir momentum decelerated to cause suspended sand particles to be deposited on the. bottam rofrthe body of water in which the breakwater is located.

2. A "breakwater comprising a series of polygonal hollow integrally formed blocks anchored with a wall of each bl-ock'in contacting overlapping engagement with a wall of "an adjacent block, each-oi said blocks being provided in-the walls thereof with a plurality of openings wherefore waves striking-the breakwater canpass therethrough but w'ill have their momentum decelerated to causesuspended sand particles-in the water'to be deposited on the -bottom of "the 'body of'water in which the breakwater is located, said units being offset with respect to each other so that thexoffsh'ore side -ofthe breakwater presents an irregular or serrated surface.

3. --A breakwater oom-prising =a-series ofpol-ygonall hoilow irrteg rally formetl Fo'loeks anchored with a wall of each block in contacting'overlap ping engagement with a wall :of an adjacent block, :said. block-s ibeing \ofiset with respect to each zother i provide ia serra'ted trontall surface; each.:of.2said blocks :being provided in'the walls thereof smith .a lplunallrityaofuopeni-ngs wherefore waves striking the breakwater'zcan pass therethrough ibutawdil have theirxmomentu-m :dece'lerated '1l0= e (1alJSe .suspendedn'sand particles to be deposited ion ithe lbottommf the. body. lQf waterrin the;v breakwater sisolocated ieach of said blocks being provided in the corners thereof with pipes eXtending-belowthe bottom \end of: the block into the bottom of,th.e body of 'watemand filled with cement-tor similar, material after ithesblock has been/positioned in the :break-water 4. A breakwater comprising a SeI'iQSIxOf ;polygonal hollow integrally formed blocks anchored with ,a wall of each block in -.contacting engagement with a wall .ofv -,an,..ad jacent: block and spaced piers-projecting {outwardly from the shore and with the end blocks of. the :seriescontacting said piers and saidseries extendinglbetween said piers, said .b'locks being \offset with respect to each other to provide a serrated frontal surface, each of said blocks being provided in .thc'walls thereof with a plurality of openings wherefore waves striking the breakwater canpass therethrough but will" have their momentum decelerated'to cause suspended sand particles to 'be deposited on 'thefbottolm ofthe body of water in which the breakwater is located."

5. A breakwater comprising a series of rectangtilar hollowblocks anchored in "position and arranged with their long sides 'at an -angle ,less than "perpendicular *to "the shore "line :and --with theadjacent long sides-of the-blocks in partially overlapping contact with each other wherefore both the ofishore anddnshore sidesofthe breakwater present irregular *surfa'oesyeach :of said blocks" being pmvidedin the'wall's therecfwith a plurality of openings wherefore waves striking the breakwater can pass therethrough but will have their momentum decelerated to cause suspended sand particles to be deposited on the bottom of the body of water in which the breakwater is located.

6. A breakwater comprising a series of polygonal hollow integrally formed blocks anchored in contacting engagement with each other, said blocks having a straight end wall and a pointed end wall and being arranged with the latter located in the offshore direction to present an irregular surface, said blocks being provided in the walls thereof with a plurality of openings wherefore waves striking the breakwater can pass therethrough but will have their momentum decelerated to cause suspended sand particles to be deposited on the bottom of the body of water in which the breakwater is located.

7. A breakwater as defined in claim 6 and wherein the series of blocks extend between and are in contact with spaced jetties projecting from the shore with said series of blocks arranged in an arc.

8. A breakwater comprising a series of polygonal hollow integrally formed blocks arranged to have their adjacent walls in contacting overlapping engagement with each other, spaced piers or jetties projecting outwardly from the shore and with the end blocks of the series contacting the same and said series extending therebetween, said blocks having angularly disposed wall surfaces located outwardly of their overlapping engagement with each other and forming a continuous serrated frontal surface extending between said piers each of said blocks being provided in the walls thereof with a plurality of openings, each of said blocks being provided in the corners thereof with pipes extending below the bottom wall of the block 6 into the bottom of the body of water in which the breakwater is located and filled with cement or similar material after the block has been positioned in the breakwater.

9. A breakwater comprising a series of polygonal hollow integrally formed blocks arranged to have their adjacent walls in contacting overlapping engagement with each other, spaced piers or jetties projecting outwardly from the shore and with the and blocks of the series contacting the same and said series extending therebetween, said blocks having angularly disposed wall surfaces located outwardly of their overlapping engagement with each other and forming a continuous serrated frontal surface extending between said piers, each of said blocks being provided in the walls thereof with a plurality of openings wherefore surfaces striking the breakwater can pass therethrough but will have their momentum decelerated to cause suspended sand particles to be deposited on the bottom of the body of water in which the breakwater is located, and means for anchoring the blocks-in position in said series.

HARVEY J. HUMPHREY.

REFERENCES CITED The following referemces are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,893,003 Schlueter Jan. 3, 1933 2,009,249 Wood Nov. 16, 1937 2,191,924 Humphrey Feb. 27, 1940 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 224,799 Great Britain 1924 160.988 Switzerland M 1933

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1893003 *Jan 25, 1932Jan 3, 1933Schlueter Henry WSea wall
US2009249 *Apr 13, 1933Jul 23, 1935Castelli EmilioYarn twisting device
US2191924 *Dec 7, 1938Feb 27, 1940Dudley S HumphreyBreakwater
CH160988A * Title not available
GB224799A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2652692 *May 3, 1947Sep 22, 1953Beach & Shore IncBreakwater construction
US2683968 *Oct 28, 1952Jul 20, 1954William BuddSea wall
US2803437 *Jun 23, 1954Aug 20, 1957Borges Walter FSnow fence
US2886951 *Apr 9, 1953May 19, 1959Electricite De FranceApparatus for the utilization of the energy of waves
US3011316 *Dec 18, 1958Dec 5, 1961Wilson Allen BBreakwater and method of dissipating waves
US3091087 *Nov 10, 1959May 28, 1963Grenobloise Etude ApplBlocks for protecting hydraulic constructions
US3118282 *May 16, 1960Jan 21, 1964 Breakwater structures
US3176468 *Feb 27, 1962Apr 6, 1965Takashi TakadaBlock for absorbing water flow energy
US3252287 *Dec 10, 1962May 24, 1966Bunko SuzukiT-shaped concrete block
US3269125 *Nov 21, 1963Aug 30, 1966Moore George RHillside stabilizing construction
US3280569 *Feb 11, 1964Oct 25, 1966Permagroin Company IncGroin
US3387458 *Mar 10, 1965Jun 11, 1968Canadian Patents DevSeawall structures
US3653216 *Apr 9, 1970Apr 4, 1972Gray Tech Ind IncMethod and apparatus for preventing erosion
US3849990 *Jan 17, 1973Nov 26, 1974Co Gen Pour Les Dev OperationnAnti-heave protective system
US3878684 *Aug 24, 1973Apr 22, 1975Doris Dev Richesse Sous MarineDevices for protecting the bases of structures immersed in a volume of water, against undermining
US3894397 *Aug 5, 1974Jul 15, 1975Fair Samuel SBeach erosion control structure
US3969900 *Aug 29, 1974Jul 20, 1976Raymond International, Inc.Breakwater construction
US4367978 *Sep 15, 1980Jan 11, 1983Cecil SchaafDevice for preventing beach erosion
US4413924 *Jul 20, 1981Nov 8, 1983Iida Kensetsu Co., Ltd.Blocks for constructing a breakwater
US4479740 *May 6, 1982Oct 30, 1984Paul A. KakurisMethod of protecting a shoreline from erosion
US4824284 *Nov 10, 1986Apr 25, 1989Kazuaki AkaiPurifying system of water area
US4902166 *Dec 18, 1987Feb 20, 1990Bores Pedro SSystem for constituting breakwaters, jetties, with juxtaposed elements
US4978247 *Feb 27, 1987Dec 18, 1990Lenson Walter JErosion control device
US5071285 *Mar 26, 1990Dec 10, 1991Doren David A VanArtificial reef
US5803659 *Dec 8, 1995Sep 8, 1998Chattey; NigelModular caissons for use in constructing, expanding and modernizing ports and harbors.
US5823714 *May 21, 1993Oct 20, 1998Chattey; NigelUniversal, environmentally safe, modular caisson systems and caisson mudules for use therewith
US6017167 *Sep 8, 1998Jan 25, 2000Chattey; NigelModular caissons for use in constructing, expanding and modernizing ports and harbors
US6234714Jan 21, 2000May 22, 2001Nigel ChatteyPier and wharf structures having means for directly transferring cargo between two vessels or between a vessel and railcars
USRE42259 *Nov 26, 2008Mar 29, 2011Campbell Matthew DBiologically-dominated artificial reef
DE2344599A1 *Sep 5, 1973Mar 21, 1974Doris Dev Richesse Sous MarineVorrichtung zum schutz des sockels eines im wasser eingetauchten bauwerks gegen unterspuelungen
EP2110480A1Apr 16, 2008Oct 21, 2009Matthäi Bauunternehmen GmbH & Co. KGDevice for working particular on seals of floor surfaces submerged under water, in particular soles and slopes of waterways, in particular canals, method for constructing same, method for transporting same, method for sealing floor surfaces by means of same, etc.
Classifications
U.S. Classification405/30, 256/12.5
International ClassificationE02B3/06
Cooperative ClassificationE02B3/06
European ClassificationE02B3/06