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Publication numberUS2475641 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 12, 1949
Filing dateOct 29, 1946
Priority dateOct 29, 1946
Publication numberUS 2475641 A, US 2475641A, US-A-2475641, US2475641 A, US2475641A
InventorsPaul Rosenberg
Original AssigneeJohn Archer Carter
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Prompting system
US 2475641 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

P. ROSENBERG July 12, 1949.

PROIPTING SYSTEI Filed 'Oct. 29, 1946 2 She ts-Shoet l m E R8 m P m m Wm w E WA N w a 4% W m July 12, 1949. P. ROSE NBERG 2,475,641

PROIPTING SYSTEM Filed Oct. 29,

2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR PAUL ROSENBERG ATTORNEYS a; 2.4 g a Patented July 12, 1949 PROMPTING SYSTEM Paul Rosenberg, Larchmont, N. Y., asslgnor to John Archer Carter, New York, N. Y.

Application October 29, 1946, Serial No. 708,328

This invention relates to means and methods for prompting actors, speakers, and the like, and comprises a system whereby one or more such persons may be prompted or receive instructions, selectively or in groups, without the knowledge of the audience.

The system, in accordance with the invention, includes radio transmitting and receiving apparatus of such nature, and so located and controlled, that the actors may hear the voice of a prompter, for example, whereas the audience can neither hear the prompter no be aware of the apparatus by which his voice is carried to the actors. The system and certain apparatus of the invention have a wide field of application, as will be seen from the more detailed description to follow.

In the staging of almost any kind of show, particularly the so-called drama-type, in which actors engage in dialogue, for an audience whether on the legitimate stage, in the movies, radio or television, it is customary to make provision for the prompting of the actors. In the case of radio, the actors are often free to read from their scripts, so that the matter of prompting is of concern on occasions when the use of scripts is not feasible. For the legitimate stage, the actors for the most part memorize their lines and rehearse their parts before appearing before the public, usually with the expectation of numerous repeat performances. This is thought to justify the labor and expense involved. However, this is nottrue of movie and television shows, which are often hastily prepared, rehearsed once or twice and performed for public consumption only once. Labor and time for memorizing lines and rehearsing parts are of primary economic importance.

In the past, placards, blown-up scripts, or other silent means containing the lines have been placed within view of the actors but outside the range of the movie camera or television camera" and hence outside the view of the audience. Such visual means for prompting have not proved Satisfactory for obvious reasons. The actors may look at the placards so intently for help that their acting appears unnatural. Their eyesight may be so defective as to make ready reading of 12 Claims. (Cl. 343-400) only occasional help, but is of course not satisfactory for radio or television because what is audible to the actors may be picked up, transmitted and made audible to the audience listening to the show. The movies present a special case when the sound is not recorded simultaneously with the taking of the pictures. In that case, the actors may be prompted and directed I just before a shot is taken with the camera, a sequence of such shots being taken to build up a continuity. Scenes are often repeated until a shot thought to be satisfactory has been taken. In addition, the shots may be pieced together, the whole picture may be edited, cut, have a sound track added thereto, etc., before being shown to the public. Such a practice is, of course, not feasible in the production of television shows because the actors on-stage are visible continuously to the audience. Television actors are in general therefore required to commit their lines to memory and to have a number of rehearsals, the practice being patterned after that followed in a legitimate stage production. This is laborious and costly because this effort and expense cannot be spread over a large number of performances, as in the theatre. Drama of this kind is so expensive that it is substantially prohibitive. The advertiser pays. the cost of time for memorizing a quarter hour, half hour or longer, television show. He pays again for long rehearsals. The high cost of producing television programs makes this medium too expensive for many advertisers, and has been an important brake on the progress of television broadcasting. This is seriously delaying the progress of a medium that could be highly entertaining and that could have very large sales possibilities.

Investigation confirms my discovery that a means of transmitting signals or speech may be employed which for the most part solves the prompting problem for actors engaged in producing television programs. These means are adapted for other uses as well. They can, for. example, be used for prompting actors in movie and radio programs; or conveying instructions, signals or lines to anyone appearing, for example, before an audience, such as a speaker, a master-oi-ceremonies, a band or orchestra leader, etc.

The invention can be more clearly understood by the following description taken together with the drawings in which I Fig. 1 illustrates, in perspective, a stage in a television studio, including the representation of actors and the apparatus included in the system of the invention;

Fig. 2 shows a radio receiver of compact type, suitable to be carried by an actor in accordance with the invention;

Fig. 3 is a perspective view of one form of combination radio receiver and earphone. in accordance with the invention;

Fig. 3a shows means supporting the radio receiver-earphone combination behind the ear in a substantially invisible manner;

Fig. 4 is a vertical cross-sectional view showing'the detailed construction of a radio receiverearphone unit, such as represented in Figs. 3 and 30;

Fig. 5 is a cross-sectional view taken through the line 5-4 of Fig. 4;

Fig. 6 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 66 of Fig. 4;

Fig. 7 is a vertical cross-sectional view of a modified and more compact form of radio receiver-earphone unit;

Fig. 8 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line 88 of Fig. '7;

Fig. 9 is a crosssectional view taken along the line 9-9 of Fig. 7;

Fig. 10 and Fig. 11 are circuit diagrams of alternative connections of the radio receiver-earphone unit of Figs. 4, 5 and 6; and

Fig. 12 is a circuit diagram of connections of the, radio receiver-earphone unit of Figs. '7, 8 and 9.

The nature of the invention will readily be understood by reference to Fig. l, which represents a stage upon which two actors, A and B, are shown. For purposes of explanation, it is assumed that this stage is set in a television transmitting studio. In accordance with the invention, the voice of the prompter is transmitted by a short-range radio transmitter, concealed from view, and the radio signals are received by the actors on compact radio receivers, the audio frequency output of which is reproduced by a substantially invisible earphone connected to each receiver. In Fig. 1, actor A carries in his inside coat pocket 9. pocket type orminiature radio receiver 8, such as is illustrated in Fig. 2, and from this receiver wires pass upwardly from the actors collar and connect to an earphone 9 of the hearing-aid type which may be of flesh color and is preferably inserted within the ear. such earphones are substantially invisible.

Actress B is represented as wearing a modified form of radio receiver-earphone unit, in accordance with the invention. This unit, later to be described, is completely contained within 8. casing at least as small as that commonly employed for hearing-aid telephone receivers of the bone conduction type. Such a unit, constructed in accordance with the invention, is illustrated in Fig. 3. The receiver-earphone may be attached to a headband which is concealed in the actress hair. Unit 2| may thus be held in place behind the ear. Since this unit is a complete radio receiver in itself, no wires other than the headband are attached to it.

If the headband of Fig. 3 is too conspicuous, a C-shaped clip may be substituted as in Fig. 3a. This clip 40 holds the unit 2i behind the ear by gripping the top and bottom of the ear from the rear. If neither device is feasible, the unit 21 itself may be secured to the skin behind the actors ear by suitable adhesive.

In the system illustrated in Fig. 1, two radio transmitters l2 and i3 are shown as concealed behind the backdrop of the stage. They may,

From a distance of a few feet 4 however, be located elsewhere within their transmitting range. These two transmitters I2 and it are represented as of the ultra-high-frequency type having di-pole antennas 34 and 35, mounted on top thereof in front of suitable reflectors l4 and IS. The radio beams emitted from such antennas may be directed to be intercepted by one or more actors on the stage, as desired.

A third radio transmitter 4 is shown attached to the television camera I. This camera is supported upon a rolling stand or dolly 2 by means of a universal mounting 3. Manipulation of universal mounting 3 permits the camera to be swung both vertically and horizontally and thus aimed" in any direction.

Radio transmitter 4 is also assumed to be of the ultra-high-frequency or micro-wave type. At the front of the casing of transmitter 4 a reflector 5 is secured. From the center of reflector 5 a suitable wave guide 6 extends in a hook shape so that, in a manner well known in the art, the radiations emitted from the wave guide are reflected by reflector 5 and propagated substantially in a beam from the reflector. Thus, it will be seen that radio waves from transmitter 4 will be radiated in the same direction in which the camera is pointed. If reflector 5 is turned at an angle with respect to the camera lens and secured in such position, the radiations will not emanate in the same direction in which the camera is pointed, but in another direction automatically determined by the direction in which the camera is pointed.

The three radio transmitters above referred to, and as shown in Fig. 1, are all of the highly directional type. However, it is contemplated that, under some circumstances, it may not be necessary to employ a greatly restricted radio field. Therefore, the invention may also be understood to include radio transmitters having generally non-directional radiating characteristics, such as might result, for example, from a vertical rod antenna or from a horizontal wire antenna. In either case, the transmitter may operate at any suitable frequency.

The radio transmitters 4, l2 and I3 are, as shown, connected by suitable cables to a control board l0 through which may pass the wires effecting the control of video signals from the television camera and the audio signals from the television sound pickup or stage microphone I. The prompter C may conveniently wear a microphone 36 of the breast type, leaving his hands free to hold the script and to gesture to the actors.

He may also wear earphones 38, 39a, in order to hear what the actors are saying, in which event his earphones would be connected to the studio microphone I. By means of suitable switches on switch box 31 and 31a (below referred to), the prompters headphones may be connectable to any of the microphone circuits to permit intercommunication, for example.

It is usually preferred that the prompter carry a small switch box 31 which may be strapped to his waist, or held in his hand. This switch box, which is connected to the control switch board I0, carries one or more switches, actuation of which connects the prompters microphone to any one or more of the mentioned radio transmitters, or changes the frequency of the transmitters, or both. The result is that the prompter may, by manipulating his switches, cause his microphone to modulate any one or more of the selected radio transmitters at any desired frequency, thus causing any one or more of the actors to hear the prompters voice. For example, if the radio receiver carried by actor A is tuned to frequency f1 and the transmitter I2 is also tuned to frequency f1, and the radio receiver carried by actress B is tuned to frequency f: and the transmitter I3 is also tuned to frequency is, then the prompter, by switching his microphone to either transmitter l2 or transmitter l3, may be heard by either actor a or actress B, respectively, but, in this case, not by both simultaneously.

Such selection of actors by frequency discrimination is especially applicable to a system wherein non-directional transmitters of not very high frequency are employed. On the other hand, if highly directional transmitters are employed, the necessary selection of actors may usually be effected by directional discrimination.

It is contemplated that the radio transmitters may include provision for changing the radiation frequency thereof, in which event manipulation of appropriate switches 31 will result in the transmission of signals at whatever'frequency is required to correspond to the frequency of the radio receiver carried by the actor or actors to whom transmission is desired. The necessary remote control of switching apparatus to effect this result can, in a well known manner, be directly controlled by switches on the prompters switch box 31 or can, at least in part, be controlled from the control panel of the switching mechanism in the control room. The control operators shown at the control desk III are intended to perform the usual functions of the control operators in television transmission and so are furnished with a television receiver H by which they can watch the scene which is picked up by camera I and can hear through a. loudspeaker or earphone the sounds picked up by microphone 1. Additionally,

it is contemplated, in accordance with the present invention, that the control lines between the prompters switch box 31 and the several radio transmitters will pass through the control operators panel in order to provide greater flexibility in the system. Thus, the prompters control box 31 may be limited to a small number of controls which, by supplemental selection at the control desk Hi, can be caused to place under the control of the prompter any preselected radio transmitters at any required frequencies. small installations the prompters switch box 31 may be. connected directly to the transmitters. Two prompters, C and D, are shown to illustrate the fact that according to the invention, as many prompters should be provided as are required to furnish lines to the actors. The number of prompters required will obviously depend on the number of speaking actors and the nature of their lines. One prompter is frequently sufllcient.

The radio receiver 8 illustrated in Fig. 2 is shown to comprise a detector [6 of the crystal type, or other desired type, to which a suitable inductance l1 and a shunt condenser l8 are connected. These elements together comprise the receiver circuit. For the reception of signals at short distances, as would normally be experienced in television or theatrical performances, the coil I! should pick up sufiicient signal energy to obviate the need for additional receiving antenna. However, should the signal strength as thus picked-up by coil H be insufiicient, additional antenna effect will result from connecting or coupling one end of coil I! to a part of the actors body or, in the alternative, an additional length of wire may be employed as an antenna. A few 1 turns of wire secured to a belt around the actors waist has been found feasible as an antenna, and likewise a strand of wire connected to the coil I! and running alongside the wires which carry the audio frequencies to the earphone has also proved successful. It may here be pointed out that the signal field intensity from a radio transmitter of the highly directional type is likely to be much greater than that from a transmitter of the non-directional type. Accordingly, a receiver of the type shown in Fig. 2 will usually be found to respond satisfactorily to either type of transmitter, whereas the ultra-small type of receiver as shown in Figs. 4 to 12, inclusive, is likely to respond better to the more intense field from a transmitter of the directional type.

The audio-frequency signals derived from the receiver circuit l6, l1, 18, may be amplified by a vacuum tube amplifier l9 energized by suitable batteries 20 also included in case 8. Likewise, radio-frequency amplification may be employed ahead of the detector, in well-known manner. The amplifier and batteries may conveniently be of the type commonly employed in hearing aids. The output of amplifier I9 is connected, as shown, to a suitable earphone of the hearing aid type. {in earphone of the acoustic type, fitted within the ear, or of the bone conduction type is suitable.

In some instances, the use of a pocket type radio receiver and a hearing-aid type of earphone with its connecting wires as in Fig. 2, is unsatisfactory because theycannot be hidden in the costume, or the earphone can be observed if the audience is very close to the actor, or if the television camera is moved close to the actor as in close-ups. In such event, it is desirable to employ a combined radio receiver-earphone unit as shown in Fig. 4, or Fig. '1. The unit illustrated in Figs. 4, 5, and 6 comprises a casing 29 which may preferably be of thin insulating material, such as a suitable plastic, which contains a complete radio receiver and earphone. The elements of this radio receiver comprise a crystal 23 having suitable detecting characteristics, such as provided by a silicon crystal and a contact spring or cat's-whisker 26 in contact with the crystal. These two detector elements are maintained rigidly inoperative relation to each other by embedding them in a suitable insulating compound, such as Wax 33, which preferably should also have some vibration-absorbing characteristics. Wound around the block of wax 33 is a compactly wound tuning coil 21, and positioned adjacent the detector and coil is a tuning condenser 28. The detector, coiland condenser just described together comprise a radio receiver which, electrically, corresponds to that shown in Fig. 2. It is assumed that the capacity of the condenser and the inductance of the coil are chosen to be resonant at the frequency to be received. Connected to this receiver is a piezo-electric crystal 22. This crystal is of the well-known type which vibrates at audio frequencies to produce sound waves when energized by electric current of audio frequency, and therefore would be placed adjacent the ear. Crystal 22 is interposed between two suitable metallic electrodes 3|, 32 which may comprise films of gold deposited on the surfaces of crystal 22 by electro-plating, or otherwise.

Figs. 10 and 11 comprise two alternative circuit diagrams of connections of the elements of the radio receiver-earphone unit above described. The circuit connections are generally similar, differing only in that in Fig. 10 the tuning elements 7 21, 28 are in series with each other, and in Fig. 11 these elements are connected in shunt with each other. The difference is one of expediency determined largely by the frequency of the signals to which it is desired the receiver should respond.

The capacity 30, shown in dotted lines, represents the inherent electrostatic capacity between the actors body and the surface of electrode 3!, it being presumed that this metallic surface is coated with a suitable insulating film such as a lacquer. This inherent capacity 30 provides an electric coupling between the body of the actor and the receiver proper, and normally passes sufficient high-frequency signal energy to actuate the receiver. If such insulating film be omitted, the electrode 3| will make electrical contact with the skin of the actor's body in which event capacity 30 would effectively be short-circuited. In either event, the actors body, in effect, con stitutes an antenna from which radio-frequency signals are connected to the radio receiver elements 23, 26, 21, and 28. The audio-frequency output signals from the receiver which actuate the piezo-electric crystal 22 cause it to vibrate and thus to reproduce speech frequencies in the ear of the actor. Thus, as here utilized. crystal 22 in its environment constitutes a substantially invisible earphone.

The radio receiver-earphone unit just described in connection with Figs. 4, 5, and 6 can be made so much smaller than any heretofore proposed that it has been found possible to reduce it to dimensions and conformation permitting the unit to be inserted within the ear, so as to be completely invisible. Alternatively, this receiver may suitably be worn in the manner of a bone conduction type of earphone directly behind the ear, as represented by actress B in Fig. 1. If the unit 2| is held in place by a. headband 38 comprising a wire loop, as in Fig. 3, it is possible to employ this loop as an antenna or as a substitute for, or as a supplement to, the inductance of coil 21, all depending upon the frequency of the radio signais employed. It may also be supported behind the car by a clip 40 as shown in Fig. 3a, or, as previously mentioned, the unit 2| may be aflixed by adhesive to the skin behind the ear.

The alternative embodiment shown in Figs. 7,

8. and 9 is, in general, similar to that shown in Figs. 4, 5, and 6, the difference being that the coil 21 and condenser 28 are omitted. For the reception of radio waves at ultra-high frequencies, it has been ascertained that an inductance coil 21 and condenser 20 are not always required. The elimination of these two components results in a further reduction in the size of the unit and, as a result, it is even easier to make the complete radio receiver-earphone of such dimensions and conformation that the entire unit may be inserted directly within the human ear. The circuit connections of the unit of Figs. 7. 8. 9 are shown in Fig. 12. It will be obvious that because of its extremely small dimensions, and light weight, this unit may be held in place by any of the means above referred to in connection with Figs. 3 to 6.

What is claimed is:

1. In a prompting system for television studios and the like, a radio receiver concealable on the body of an actor or the like, an earphone of substantially invisible type connected thereto, a television camera, a pickup microphone located in pickup relation to said actor, a radio transmitter, a prompters microphone connectible to the input of said transmitter, an antenna for transmitting signals to said receiver, said transmitter and antenna being of the highly directional type, said antenna being tractable with said camera so as to radiate predominately in a direction automatically determined by the direction in which the camera is pointed, whereby to televise said actor and simultaneously to prompt said actor in a manner invisible to said camera and inaudible to said pickup microphone.

2. In a prompting system for television studios and the like, a radio receiver conceaiable on the body of an actor or the like, an earphone of substantially invisible type connected thereto, a television camera, a pickup microphone located in pickup relation to said actor, a radio transmitter, a prompters microphone connectible to the input or said transmitter, an antenna for transmitting signals to said receiver, said transmitter and antenna being of the highly directional type, said antenna being secured to said camera so as automatically to radiate predominateiy in the direction in which the camera is pointed, whereby to televise said actor and simultaneously to prompt said actor in a manner invisible to said camera and inaudible to said pickup microphone.

3. In a system for individually and selectively prompting a plurality of actors by a single prompter, a concealable radio receiver for each actor, each receiver being tuned to a different frequency, an earphone of substantially invisible type connected to each receiver, a plurality of radio transmitters positioned to transmit to said actors, each transmitter being tuned to the frequency of one of said receivers, a prompter's microphone connectible to modulate any one of said transmitters, stage microphone means located in pickup relation to said actors, a telephone receiver for said prompter, switching means effectively operable by said prompter for selectively connecting said microphone to any one of said transmitters, and means connecting said telephone receiver to said stage microphone means whereby the prompter may hear the lines recited by the actor.

4. In a system for individually and selectively prompting a plurality of actors, a concealable radio receiver; for each actor, each receiver being tuned to a different frequency, an earphone of substantially invisible type connected to each receiver, a radio transmitter positioned to transmit to said receiver, said transmitter including means for selectively transmitting at a plurality of frequencies, a prompters microphone connected to modulate said transmitter, stage microphone means located in pickup relation to said actors, a telephone receiver for said prompter, means positioned at the location of said prompters microphone eiIectively operable by said prompter and connected to said transmitter for changing the frequency of transmission thereof in accordance with the actor to be prompted, and connections from said telephone receiver to said stage microphone means whereby the prompter may hear the lines recited by the actor. e

5. In a prompting system according to claim 1, prompter's apparatus including an earphone. said pickup microphone comprising a television sound pickup microphone located in pickup relation to said actor, and connections between the prompters earphone and the pickup microphone, whereby said prompter can hear the speech sounds of said actor through the prompters earphone and said actor can be prompted by said prompter through said actor's earphone.

6. In combination with a system according to claim 5, a second actor equipped with a concealable radio receiver and an earphone, a second radio transmitter suitable to transmit to said second actor, and a switching device operable by the prompter effectively to connect said prompters microphone to the input of either transmitter.

7. In combination with a system according to claim 5, a second actor equipped with a concealable earphone and a radio receiver tuned to a frequency (f2) which is different from the frequency (h) to which the radio receiver for the first-mentioned actor is tuned, and switching means actuated by a switching device operable by the prompter by which the prompter may eiIectively adjust the frequency transmitted by said radio transmitter to (in) or (f2) 8. In a prompting system for television studios and the like, a plurality oi radio receivers including earphones concealable on the bodies of as many actors or the like, a television camera, a television sound microphone located in pickup relation to said actors, a plurality of radio trans- 'mitters for transmitting radio signals to the receivers carried by said actors, prompters apparatus including a telephone receiver, a microphone and a switching device, a control board including switching means and a control operators telephone receiver, connecting lines from said television camera and sound microphone to said control board and connecting lines from said prompters apparatus to said control board, the switching means at said control board being operative at will to interconnect the prompter's microphone and the control operator's telephone receiver and to connect the prompter's microphone to any or all of said radio transmitters.

9. In a prompting system for television studios and the like, a plurality of shortwave radio transmitters for local transmission-to radio receivers carried by actors in the studio, a plurality of prompters' communication sets, each set comprisin a microphone, a telephone receiver and a switching device, and connections between said switching devices and between said switching devices and the inputs or said transmitters, said switching devices including means by which the prompters may interconnect their respective microphones and receivers for intercom'munication and alternatively may connect their microphones respectively to one of said radio transmitters whereby to prompt said actors.

10. A prompting system which comprises in combination, a stage adapted to accommodate a plurality of actors, microphone means located in pickup relation to actor locations on said stage, a plurality oi shortwave radio transmitters oi to transmit to a corresponding radio receiver carried by a given actor, a prompters station including a microphone, a telephone receiver and a switching device, said switching device bein arranged to connect the prompter's microphone selectively to the input oi any of said transmitters.

11. A prompting system which comprises in combination, a stage adapted to accommodate a plurality of actors, stage microphone means located in pickup relation to actor locations on said stage, a plurality of shortwave radio transmitters of range effectively restricted to the neighborhood of said stage, each transmitter being adapted to transmit to a corresponding radio receiver carried by a given actor, a prompters station including a microphone, a telephone receiver and a switching device, a control board and connections from said control board to said switching device, said radio transmitters and said stage microphone means, said switchin device including means for signalling said control board, and said control board including means for switching the microphone at said prompters station selectively to the input of any of said transmitters.

12. A prompting system which comprises in combination, a stage adapted to accommodate a plurality of actors, stage microphone means located in pickup relation to actor locations on said stage, a plurality of shortwave radio transmitters of range effectively restricted to the neighborhood of said stage, each transmitter being adapted to transmit to a corresponding radio receiver carried by a given actor, a prompters station including a microphone and a telephone receiver, a control board and connections from said control board to said radio transmitters, said prompters microphone and said stage microphone means, said control board including a telephone receiver and means for switching the microphone at said prompters station selectively to the input of any of said transmitters or to said control board telephone receiver, or both, and for connecting the telephone receiver at said prompter's station to said stage microphone means.

PAUL

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the iile of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,219,682 vansiae Mar. 20, 1917 1,384,014 Fessenden July 5, 1921 2,070,112 Bowles Feb. 9, 1937 2,101,785 Wilckens Dec. '7, 1937 2,319,627 Perlman May 18, 1943 2,363,583 Gilman Nov. 28, 1944 2,400,068 Beers -1 May 14, 1946

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2564425 *Jul 8, 1948Aug 14, 1951Bell Telephone Labor IncUnitary amplifier for hearing aids
US2615857 *Dec 23, 1949Oct 28, 1952Bell Telephone Labor IncPolyethylene-polyisobutylene composition
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US3845238 *Apr 5, 1973Oct 29, 1974Bosch FernsehanlagenPortable television camera with audio communication
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US7411559 *Jun 29, 2004Aug 12, 2008Nokia CorporationHeadset loop antenna
US8119898 *Mar 10, 2010Feb 21, 2012Sounds Like Fun, LlcMethod of instructing an audience to create spontaneous music
US8346060 *Mar 11, 2010Jan 1, 2013Screenfx Studios, LpAudiovisual production and editing system and method
US8487174 *Feb 17, 2012Jul 16, 2013Sounds Like Fun, LlcMethod of instructing an audience to create spontaneous music
US20110219939 *Mar 10, 2010Sep 15, 2011Brian BentsonMethod of instructing an audience to create spontaneous music
US20110222833 *Mar 11, 2010Sep 15, 2011Screenfx Studios, LpAudiovisual production and editing system and method
US20120210845 *Feb 17, 2012Aug 23, 2012Sounds Like Fun, LlcMethod of instructing an audience to create spontaneous music
Classifications
U.S. Classification348/722, 310/317, 248/156, 381/74, 455/508, 455/66.1, 343/720, 352/4, 381/77, 455/351, 381/378, 310/328, 381/182, 381/385, 348/E05.23, 455/100
International ClassificationH04B5/00, H04N5/222
Cooperative ClassificationH04N5/2222, H04B5/00
European ClassificationH04B5/00, H04N5/222P