|Publication number||US247674 A|
|Publication date||Sep 27, 1881|
|Filing date||Jun 19, 1880|
|Publication number||US 247674 A, US 247674A, US-A-247674, US247674 A, US247674A|
|Inventors||Daniel K. Miller|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
(ModeL), 3 Sheets8heet 1.
D. K.-MILLER. PBRMUTATION PADLOOK.
No. 247,674. Patented Sept. 27,1881.
(Mode 1.) 3 Sheets-Sheet 2.
D. K.. MILLER. PERMUTATION PADLOOK. No. 247,674. Patented Sept. 27,1881.
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3 Sh.eets-.Sheet 3. D. K. MILLER. PERMUTATION PAD LOOK.
No. 247,674. Patented-Sept.- 27, 1881.
5 4) ii a 7 mm mpher. Wmhinglmn o. c.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
DANIEL K. MILLER, OF PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR TO D. K. MILLER LOOK COMPANY, OF SAME PLACE.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 247,674, dated September 27, 1881. I Application filed June 19,1880. (Mode1.)
following is a specification.
Myinvention relates to certainimprovements in the permutation-lock for which I obtained Letters Patentot'thcUnited States, No.167,( )08, August 24,1875; and the main objects of my present invention are to so construct the lock, ti1'st,that the dog or boltwill never be allowed to come into contactwith the peripheries of the permutation-wheels while they are in motion; second, that facilities for instant locking under one number of the combination for temporary use may be afforded; and, third, that the permutation-wheels may not be liable to get out of order and accidentally cause a change in the combination.
My invention further relates to details of construction, which will be morefully described hereinafter.
In the accompanying drawings I have illustrated my invention as applied to a padlock; but the improvements may be used in connection with, and constitute parts of, other kinds of locks-such as door-locks, bank-locks, and almost any of the various locks in which combination and permutation wheels or tumblers are employed.
Figure 1, Sheet 1, is a perspective view, partly in section, showing the principal parts ot' a padlock detached from each other in ortogether; Fig. 3, a transverse section on the v showing the tumblers andthe dog-elevator in line 1 2, Fig. 2; Fig. 4, a section, drawn to an enlarged scale, on the line 3 4, Fig. 3. of the principal parts of the lock detached from the casing; Fig. 5, Sheet 2, a similar section on the line 5 6, Figs. 3 and 4, the edge of the dog being shown as having entered the notches of the wheels; Fig. 6, a perspective view of the cylinder, disks, key, and other parts detached from each other; Fig. 7, a perspective view of the tumblers andthe device for elevatingthe dog o r bolt; Fig. 7", Sheet 3, a sectional perspective view of a modification; Figs. Sand 9, Sheet 2, sectional views on theline 7 8, Fig. 5,
different positions; Fig. 10, Sheet 3, a perspective view, illustrating one mode of making my improved permutation wheel; Figs. 11 to 16, inclusive, and Fig. ]8,views,of modifications of d ifterent parts of the lock Fig. 17,
a view of the spring for securing the knob-- spindle in its bearings.
Referring to Figs. 1, 2, and 3, Sheet 1, A is to be entirely withdrawn from the casing, but is adapted to turn or swivel on its longleg b, when the shackle has been so moved as to withdraw the short leg I) from the casing, as shown ,the casing of the padlock, and B the shackle. 6o which, in the present instance, is not adapted casing. A key, a Figs. 1, 2, and 3, is their slipped into a recess in the casing, through the opening for receiving the leg I) of the shackle, and, fitting against the free edge of one of the projections a, prevents the bearing -A from being turned until the key a is withdrawn. The bearing may be secured in the casing by other means-such as by a pin or screw, which is to be inserted in the shackle-opening in the casing; or the hearing may be provided with a spring-catch which can be released or operated through the shackle-openin g.
On the hearing A fits the cylinder D, which carries the permutation wheels and tumblers, and which can have a limited rotary motion on the said hearing, as more fully described hereinafter, so that when the dog D falls into the notches in the wheels the hook O on. the cylinder, Figs. 1 and 2, may be turned into or out of the corresponding notch on the short leg b of the shackle, so as to lock or release the latter. I prefer to so construct the shackle that it can descend into the casing only when the leg I) is brought directly opposite its openin g, and for this purpose a semicircular extension is formed on the end of the long, leg of the shackle, this extension fittingintoa corresponding recess between the cylinder D and disks due to the use of one rib only.
the casing when the leg I) of the shackle is brought opposite its opening; but when the shackle is elevated and the leg I) turned away from its opening a portion of the extension of the leg I) will rest on the top of the cylinder D and prevent the descent of the shackle. Arib or projection, Jr, is formed on the leg I) of the shackle, in order to prevent the entire withdrawal of the said shacklefrom the casing; and by adapting this rib to fit into a groove, y, in the casing, when its shackle is raised and its leg I) turned away from its opening in the easing, the said rib also serves the purpose of preventing the inward movement of the shackle when not in position.
On the cylinder D is a central pin, (1, which is adapted to an opening in the knob-spindle, and on which the key or carrier F can slide or turn when operated by the driver F, thelatter, as shown in Figs. 2 and 5, being recessed at one side, so as to form an inclined shoulder, h, and a series of steps, 2', and a projecting portion of the key F, being maintained in contact with the driver by a spiral spring, f, substantially as indicated in Figs. at and 5, and in the modification shown in Figs. 10 and 11 of my above-described patent.
The permutation-wheels G G G and tumblers H are independent of each other, and are operated by the carrier F in substantially the same manner as described in myaforesaid patent, the parts being so arranged that when the carrier is adjusted outwardly to its full extent it shall enter the notches (1 d of the whole of the tumblers, but when permitted to be moved inward by the spring it shall release one or more of the said tumblers, beginning withthe outermost tumbler, G In the present case the key F is provided with tworibs, f andf fitting into corresponding notches, (1 (1 on the interior of the tumblers and permutation-disks, Fig. 6, the object of this being to prevent the eccentric pull and friction on the In order, however, to prevent the possibility of opening the lock on a differentcombination by putting the key through the wheels with the ribs in the wrong notches, one rib,], and the corresponding series of notches, d, are of larger size than the other rib, f and the corresponding series of notches, d, in the tumblers and permutation-wheels, so that the key can fit in one way only; or the same object may be attained by placing the two ribs out of line with the center of the key. The ribs f andf fit the corresponding notches in the tumblers, but the notches in the permutation wheels are wider, so that there is some play between the ribs and the notches in the permutationwheels, for a purpose explained hereinafter. The permutation-wheels and tumblers fit snugly, so as to turn freely within the interior of the cylinder D, washers K being interposed between the permutation-disks, and between the latter and the tumblers, and these washers being held stationary inthe cylinder by projections 7c fitting into a recess, Z, in the easing, so that there can be no contact of the wheels with each other, or of the wheels with the tumblers. (See Fig. 6.) In this Fig. 6 only two permutation'wheels are shown,while in Figs. 4 and 5 three are illustrated. The number can be varied according to the number of combinations desired.
The dog D,which, by its entrance into and withdrawal from the notches c of the permutation-wheels and tumblers, determines the locking and releasing of the lock, is mounted in a recess in the edge of the cylinder D, as best illustrated in Figs. 5, 6, and 8. The rounded end at of the dog, instead of being mounted on a pivot-pin, fits accurately in a groove in the bottom of the recess, so that the bearing being stron er and truer the dog is not liable to tilt sid ewise, and so come into contact with the peripheries of the outer permutation-disks when they are in motion. At
the same time the dog is simpler and less expensive than one mounted on a pin, as no holes for the pin have to be drilled, and no side supports are required.
In order to prevent the dog, under the action of its spring 12, Figs. 5 and 13, from coming into contact with the edges of the wheels and tumblers when they are in motion, and at the same time prevent wear on the dog and wheels, I employ a device operated by frictional contact with some moving part of the look, so as to maintain the dog free from contact with the permutation-wheelsand tumblers. Thisdcvice consists, in the present instance, of a disk, 0, arranged between the two tumblers H H, and fitting freely on an annular shoulder, h, on one or both ot'said tumblers. The said disk, when the parts of the lock are in place, is so held by friction between the two tumblers, which always work together and act as one, that the disk will turn with them in either direction; but the extent of its movementis limited by a dovetailed teat,p, adapted to a slot, q, Figs. 6, S, and 9, in the inside of the cylinder 1). That portion of the edge of the disk 0 which its limited extent of movement brings beneath the dog D projects to a slight extent beyond the peripheries of the tumblers and permutation-wheels, Figs. 7, S, and 9, so that the dog, resting on this raised portion of the disk, does not touch the edges of the tumblers or wheels. The teat or projection p is made dovetailed, and the ends of the slot q are beveled accordingly, so that the pressure of the inclined edge of the teat against the end of the slot as the tumblers revolve, say, in the direction of the arrow, Fig. 8, will tend to lift the disk and relieve the friction on the shoulder h. Between the limits of the raised portion of the disk is a notch, 0, corresponding with the notches in the wheels, but at such apoint in the disk that it cannot come into position under the dog when the disk is at the extreme of either of its positions; but the notches e of the tumblers must first be brought to coincide with the notch 5 which willhave the efiect of releasing the key e of theelevating-disk away from the dog before all the-notches can be brought beneath the dog, to allow the latter to descend. This will be better explained in describing more fully the operation of the lock, as follows:
Suppose the lock to be unlocked and the dog D consequently in the notches e of the perm utation-wheels and tumblers and notch e ofthe elevating-disk O, and the parts in the positions shown in Fig. 5. To lock the lock the spindle, driver F. and key F, Fig. 5, are-turned by the knob in the direction of the arrow,Fi g. 6, so that the cylinder 1) will first be turned to cause its hook G to engage with the notch in theleg b of the shackle, The inclined edges of the notches e in the tumblers, as the latter move in the direction of the arrow, Fig. 6, will then raise the dog out of the notches in the wheels, tumblers, and disk, and as the motion of the tumblers is continued the elevator-disk 0 will be carried with them until the teat p reaches the end of its slot q, Fig. 8, the dog meanwhile riding on the raised portion ofthe disk 0 out of contact with the wheels and tumblers. If, now, the movement of the driver F be reversed, the tumblers H H, carrying with them the elevator-disk 0, will be moved in a direction opposite to that pointed out by the arrow in Fig. 5 until the teatyp on the disk comes into contact with the face of the dog; but as the notch in the disk has by this time passed the dog, and the notches in the tumblers been already thrown out of line with the notch in the disk,
the dog cannot fall back into its former posi-.
tion. The movement of the knob E in the direction of the arrow,-Fig. 5, being continued, will at length bring the ribs f f of the key opposite the corresponding notches in the first permutation-wheel Gr, when the inclined face It ofthe driver will force the key through the opening in the permutation-wheels, and so through the successive perm utation-wheels G G &c., and the knob is turned until the key is finally forced by the inclined face it of the driver into a corresponding recess, 1", in the bottom of the cylinder D, Figs. land 6, when the inner notches, d 61 will all bein linefand the outer notches, c, all out of line, so that all the wheels will have been distributedwhen the key enters-the recess 1', the position of this recess being such that when the key enters .it the notch in the outer edge of the last permutation-wheel, as well as the outer notches of all the other wheels, will be away from the edge of the dog. It the movement of the driver be now continuedthe key will simply ride on the fiat portion of the outer end of the driver, and the only result of the continued movement of theknob and driver in the direction of the ar row, Fig.5, will be to throw the key in and out through the tumblers and permutationwheels which have thus been distributed- To unlock the lock, the knob is first turned in the: direction of the arrow, Fig. 5, until-the key F .falls onto the first of the series of stepst',
from the recess 4 inthe cylinder D. The knob is then turned in the reverse direction until the notch c of the permutation-wheel-say G farthest from the knob is brought in line with the dog,as determined bythe positionofthefirst number of the combination on the knob or casing. Theknob is then again turned to theright, so as to allow the key to fall onto the next step i, and so release the adjusted permutationwheel G The knob is then so turned as to bringthe notch c of the next wheel, G, into line, and this wheel is then released, and so on .through the series, as described in my abovementioned patent. When the permutationwheels have all been adjusted, and the key F has fallen into the bottom of the recess in the driver, the knobvis turned in the direction of the arrow, Fig. 8, until the notches c in the tumblers are made to coincide (as determined by the last number of the combination) with the notch c in the elevator-disk 0, whose movement, with the tumblers, has been arrested by the teat 19 coming into contact with the end of its slot q. The movement is then reversed, the tumblers whose notches e have been made to coincide with the notch c of the disk 0 away from the (log, being now turned, with the friction-disk, in the direction of. the arrow, Fig. 9, until the dog falls into the line of notches, when the continued movement of the knob, driver,
key, and tumblers will cause the cylinder D to turn so as to throw the hook O away from the notch in the leg I) of the shackle, and so re lease the latter.-
Under no circumstances can the dog come into contact with the permutationwvheels when they are in motion, for, even when the frictiondisk is at the right-hand limit of its motion and the knob is then turned to the left, the notch in the disk 0 will have passed the dog, and the latter will have been again elevated before the permutation-wheels begin to move, owing 'to the lost motion between the key and wheels. Furthermore, the notches in the tumblers can never be made to coincide with the notch in the elevating device, except when the latter is at the limit of its movement and these notches consequently away from the dog, so that, owing to this and the fact that the dog cannot come into contact with the permutation-wheels when they are in motion, it is impossible to pick the look by trying to detect the positions of the notches with the dog, or other known means.
If ,it is desired to lock the safe, drawer, or
complished by turning the knob in the direction of the arrow, Fig. 6, and as the parts are in the position shown in Fig. 5, the key F being ,in the tumblers H H only, the inclined edges of the notches e of the tumblers will first turn the cylinder so as to close the hook into the shackle, and will then throw the dog out ofthe line of notches. As the movement of the tumblers, carrying the friction-disk O with them, is continued, the teat will come into contact with the end of the slot q and prevent the further turning of the disk 0 with the tumblers. As the dog is then supported on the elevated edge of the disk 0 the knob may be turned indefinitely in the direction of the arrow, Fig. 8, without affecting the dog or the permutation-wheels, as the key does not enter the latter. The lock can, however, be readily opened by turning the knob in the direction of the arrow, Fig. 8, until the notches c of the tumblers coincide with the notch e of the elevatondisk, as determined by the last num ber of the combination, and then reversing the movement, as in Fig. 9, until the notches are brought into line with the notches e of the permutation-wheels beneath the dog, when the cylinder and its hook will be turned away from the shackle. If, however, any one unacquainted with the combination should, in attempting to open the lock thus locked on the last num ber of the combination, turn the knob to the right until the keyhas entered one or more of the permutation-wheels, the lock can then be opened only on the whole combination, so that when the owner discovers this he will know that the lock has been tampered with.
I have spoken of the disks H H as tumblers, and the disksGG, &c., as permutation-wheels; but it will be evident that the disks H H may also be permutation-wheels, or that the improvements may be applied to a lock in which thedisksGG, ccc.,are plain tumblers. Again, instead of having two tumblers H H, between which the dog-elevating diskO is held by friction, one tumbler may suffice, the disk 0 being arranged between the washer K and the tumbler, or between a spring and the tumbler; or the elevating-disk maybe simply a stripot metal, as shown in Fig. 7*, adapted to an annular groove in the edge of a single tumbler.
It is a great desideratnm in the construction of permutation-wheels to have the outer adjustable ring as light as possible, for in permutation-wheels with heavy outer ringsaquick turn of the knob will sometimes cause the inner ring of a wheel to turn slightly on the outer one, and so accidentally change the combination. To obviate this difficulty I construct the permutation-wheel as illustrated in Figs. 10 and 11, a thin outer ring being secured to the inner ring or rings by lateral friction. The outer ring, g, Fig. 10, is cut out of a thin strip of sheet metal, and is provided with the requisite outer notch, 0, while its inner edge is notched so as to form a series of teeth, 9 which at e set successively in opposite directions, like the teeth of a saw. The inner ring is preferably composed of two pieces, g g, which are to be riveted together, and between which the inner edge of the outer ring is held, so that the teeth 1 forming so many springs, press laterally against the sides or faces of the ring 9 g, and maintain the two rings in any position to which they may be adjusted on each other, thus avoiding the necessity of employ ing cams, turn-buckles, or other devices for locking and releasing the two parts of the permutation-wheel as usually constructed.
It preferred, the spring-teeth may be formed on one or other of the parts of the inner ring, 91; or the teeth may be dispensed with, and the necessary lateral pressure obtained by cupping one or both of the two parts of the inner ring, 9, so that when the said two parts are riveted together they will press firmly against the faces or sides of the ring g, as illustrated in Fig. 11. Instead of making the ring g in two parts, it may be made in one, with a series of arms or teeth, which are first bent at right angles, then inserted through the open ing in the ring, and bent up against the other side ot'thelatter, so as to press laterally against and maintain it in firm frictional contact with the plain portion of the ring 9. Again, the inner edge of the outer ring may be provided with teeth or arms 9 which may be bent alternately on opposite sides of the inner ring, as illustrated in Fig. 12, to produce the lateral spring-pressure.
A permutation-wheel constructed as described is light and takes up little room, so that the lock can be made quite small.
The combination can be changed without taking the lock apart by inserting a pin, S, Fig. 4, through an opening, .9, in the cylinder, Fig. 1, and then adjusting the tumblers in the usual well-known manner. The opening sin the cylinder is so arranged with reference to the shackle-opening or other aperture in the casing that the changing-pin S can be inserted only when the parts of the lock arein the locked position. The object of this is to make it necessary for the operator, after changing or setting the combination, to unlock the look while the door, drawer, or shackle is still open, so that if he has made a mistake in so setting or changing the combination he will have to reset it before the door, drawer, or shackle can be closed and locked. In order to afl'ord a support for the changing-pin S in turning the permutation-wheels to change the combination, I form in the stationary washers K, immediately opposite the opening 8 in the cylinder, openings is, Fig. 6, through which the pin S passes, as shown in Fig. 4:.
The form or construction of the elevating device may be varied without departing from my invention, provided it is operated by frictional contact with some moving part of thevlock. The frictional elevating device may be combined with some other moving part of the lock than the tumblers. Forinstance, anotched friction-ringin the form of a short tube or cylinder may be slipped on the spindle or the driver, the proportions of the spindle or driver and hearing A being in that case changed somewhat, and the edge of the dog D being extended over the edge of the friction-ring on the spindle or the driver. This combination der D, the dog D may rest on the teatp, as
' illustrated in the modification, Fig.13, so as to support the dog out of contact with'the wheels when they are moved; but when the notches in the wheels, tumblers, and disk are moved into line the teat will enter a recess, q, in
the dog and allow the latter to descend into the notches.
In order to prevent the movement of the cylinder D on the bearing A so long as the dog is elevated out of the notches, and to limit that motion when the dog descends, a pin or projection, t, Figs. 1, 5, 6, and 8, is formed on the edge of the dog D, which pin, when the dog is elevated, fits into the narrowed portion of a recess, t, Fig. 1, in the bearing A, so as to lock the cylinder to the latter. When the dog falls into the notches of the wheels and tumblers the pin t enters the enlarged portion of the recess" if, so as to allow the cylinder D to turn sufti ciently to withdraw the hook G from the notch in the leg of the shackle.
. The edge of the cylinder may be cut away 'for the reception of the dog D, as illustrated in Fig. 14:; and the projection or rib t may be 7 'formed on the back of the dog, so as to enter a corresponding recess in the outer casing, A, when the dog is elevated.
When a detachable shackle is used, instead of the swiveled shackle shown, catches C may be formed on opposite sides of the cylinder,
will be on the flat face of the padlock and the one for each leg of the shackle; or the improvements may be applied to a flat padlock with a pivoted shackle, as illustrated by dotted lines in Fig. 15, in which case the knob book 0 formed on the periphery of the cylinder D.
The catching of the hook G into the leg of the shackle may be made automatic by beveling the striking-edges of the catch and hook and combining with the cylinder a spring, which tends to throw the cylinder into thclocking position.
In applying the invention to a bolt-lock, the bolt may be combined with a catch or pin on the cylinder D; or the periphery of the cylinder may be provided with teeth adapted to a rack on the edge of the bolt, so as to obtain a long throw of the latter with a small-sized look. This feature, however, will form the subject of a separate-application.
In locks where a short throw of the bolt will suffice, the dog D may be attached to or form part of the bolt, as in my patent of May 2,
1876, No. 176,876, and as shown in Fig. 18, D representing the bolt.
The key F, which operates the tumblers and permutation -wheels, instead of having ribs,
may be provided with pins, as illustrated in Fig. 16, adapted to corresponding openings in the tumblers and wheels, the pins,like the ribs, being of different sizes, as illustrated, or arranged out ofline with the center of the key.
By changing the form of the openings in my 7 improved permutation-wheel it may be adapt-v ed for use in various kinds of locks in which permutation-wheels are used.
The knob, spindle, and driver, which, in the present instance, are all formedin one piece, but may be separate and attached to each other, are held in the bearing A by a springring, E, Fig. 17, which fits into corresponding grooves in the bearing and driver or its spindle, as illustratedin Figs.2,4,and5,the springring E heingdepressed into the annular groove in the spindle, when the latter is to be inserted, and when it has reached its proper position the ring will expand into the groovein the bearing A and permanently retain the spindle tnents outward and maintain them in the grooves in a similar manner.
I claim as my invention- 1. The combination, in a lock, of a series of tumblers or permutation-wheels, an independent tumbler or tumblers, a dog and an elevating device for the said dog, with a key whereby the independent tumbler or wheel may be turned, the dog elevated and the rotation of the. key continuedin one direction without atfectiug the other wheels or tumblers or allowingthedogto descend,substantially as sett'orth.
2. A look having a dog and one or more tumblers or permutation-wheels, and provided with an elevating device operated by frictional contact with some moving part of thelock, substantially as described.
3. A lock having, a dog and one or more tumblers or permutation-wheels, and provided with'an elevatingdeviee in frictional contact with some moving part of the lock, and having a limited motion therewith, substantially as set forth.
4.. The combination, in a lock, of one or more tumblers or permutation-wheels,with a dog and an elevating device having a limited motion in conjunction with a moving part of the lock, the elevating device being provided with a notch to allow the dog to enter the notches of the wheels or tumblers, all substantially as described.
5. The combination, in a lock, of one or more tumblers or permutation-wheels, a dog, and a cylindercarrying the wheels and tumblers, with a notched elevating-disk in frictional contact with some moving part of the lock, and provided with a teat or projection adapted to a slot in the said cylinder, all substantially as specified.
6. Aseries of tumblers or permutation-wheels, an independent tumbler or tumblers, and a dog, in combination with an operatin g-key adapted to fit a corresponding opening in the said independent tumbler or tumblers, but allowing lost motion between the key and the other tumblers or wheels, all combined substantially as set forth.
7. The combination, in a lock,of one or more tumblers or permutation wheels, and a dog with a notched disk, having a limited motion in conjunction with some moving part of the lock, the disk having a notch arranged in respect to the extent of motion of the disk, substantially as described, whereby the notch in the said disk and the notch in one or other of the tumblers or wheels can be made to coincide only when the said notches are away from the edge of the do S. The combination, ina lock,of one or more tumblers or permutation-wheels, a cylinder or case containing the same, and a dog with a dog-elevating disk in frictional contact with a moving part of the lock, and having a dovetailed teat or projection adapted to a slot having beveled ends in the said cylinder or case, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
9. The combination of the wheels or tumblers of a lock and an operating-key passing through the said wheels or tumblers, with a cylinderorlock-casecontainin g said wheels ortumblers, and having a recess, 1", adapted for the reception of the end of said key, as and for the purpose set forth.
10. In a lock, the combination of the tumblers or wheels with akey having two or more ribs of different sizes, and adapted to correspondingnotches or openings in the said tumblers or wheels, substantially as set forth.
11. A permutation-wheel consisting of an inner and an outer ring, held together by lateral spring-pressure against the sides or faces of the rings, without the use of locking and releasing devices therefor, all substantially as set forth.
12. The combination of the outer casing of a permutation-lock provided with an opening for the combination-changing pin with an inner case or cylinder carrying the permutationwheels, and also having an opening for the pin, the said inner ease or cylinder having a movement within the outer casing to permit the two openings to be brought into or out of line, substantially as described.
13. The combination of the permutationwheels and the cylinder or case containing the wheels, and having an opening for the combination-changing pin, with a series of stationary washers having openings or notches in line with the said opening in the cylinder or case.
14. The eombination,in alock, ot'one or more permutation-wheels or tumblers, and a case or cylinder containing the same, with a dog having a rounded inner end adapted to a corresponding groove in the said cylinder or case.
15. The combination, in alock, ofone or more permutation-wheels or tumblers and washers with a cylinder or case containing the same, and a dog, the said cylinder, dog, tumblers, wheels, and washers having a movement together within the outer case, substantially as described.
16. The combination of the casing of a lock and a cylinder carrying perm utation-wheels or tumblers, with a dog adapted to a groove or recess in said cylinder, and having a pin or projection, 15', adapted to a recess in a part of said casing, substantially as described.
17. In a lock, the combination of a key, a knob, and a driver or spindle having an annular groove with a bearing for said driver or spindle, and having a corresponding annular groove and a spring-ring adapted to said grooves, as and for the purpose set forth.
18. The combination of the outer casing of a padlock and a detachable bearing carrying the inovableparts of thelock, with a retaining device independent of the shackle and adapted to be inserted or operated through the shackleopening.
In testimony whereofI have signed my name to this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
1). K. MILLER.
J AMES I Tonnv, .HARRY SMITH.