US 2479042 A
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Aug 16, 1949. R. l. GAMES 2,479,042
WATER HEATER Filed June 9, 1943 I l 3f Pfc/lara' ,I Ga/be.
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29 p ATToRNE Patented Aug. 16, 1949 UNITED STATES s PATENT OFFICE Richard I. Gaines, Port Arthur, Tex. Application June 9, 1943, Serial No. 490,128
6 Claims. (Cl. 122-17) This invention relates to water heaters and y has for its principal object to provide a heater structure in which the heat of a burner is applied to obtain substantially greater efciency from a given amount of fuel.
Other objects of the invention are to lprovide a heater structure having a relatively large surface heated by radiation and by direct contact of hot gases of combustion; to provide an improved burner structure having radiants for spreading the flame of the burner relatively to the heating surfaces of the heater tank; and to provide a water heater with an interior burner chamber completely contained within the tank of the heater and connecting with a flue extending through the heater tank.
In accomplishing these and other objects of the invention, I have provided improved details of structure, the preferred form of which is illustrated in the accompanying drawings, wherein:
Fig. 1 is a perspective section tl'iroughl a water heater embodying the features of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary perspective view of the lower portion of the burner chamber.
Fig. 3 is a perspective view of the refractory element of the burner.
Fig. 4 is a perspective View of the gas distributing element of the burner.
Referring more in detail to the drawings:
l designates a domestic type water heater constructed in accordance with the'present invention and which includes a tank 2 having a preferably cylindrical wall 3 closed at the ends by top and bottom heads 4 and 5 to form a water chamber 6. The top head 4 is preferably welded to the upper portion of the wall 3 or otherwise connected to provide a leak-tight joint capable of retaining water under pressure. The bottom head 5 is inset within the lower end of the wall 3 and has .an annular flange 1 welded to the inner face of the .fwall 3 to form a leak-tight joint.
Carried by the bottom head 5 and extending upwardly therefrom and inwardly of the tank is a burner compartment 8 that is formed by an annular wall 9 having a skirtv if! depending below the head 5. The wall 9 is of a diameter to provide a circulating space Il therearound and the upper end connects with a flue i2 that extends upwardly through the tank and projects from the top head 4 to form a collar i3 thereabove.
The collar I3 may be connected with -a vent pipe I4 leading to a chimney or the like (not shown) for carrying of spent products of combustion and to establish an inflow of combustion supporting air to the burner chamber.
The tank thus described may be covered with a suitable insulating material l5 and enclosed in a jacket I6 as in conventional water heater construction. Water is admitted to the tank through 2 a pipe l1 extending downwardly head 4 and terminating in the water space Il that surrounds the burner compartment. The upper end of the pipe il projects through the jacket and connects by a fitting i8 which in turn is connected by a pipe I9 with a source of water service supply. Hot water is discharged from the tank Vthrough a pipe 2l! that is connected by a fitting 2| with a nipple 22 attached to the top head 4.
The burner 23 includes a circular gas distributor 24 in the form of a hollow ring having a plurality of gas outlet orifices 25 in the upper face thereof. Formed on the top of the distributor and within the apertured portion of the ring is an annular ledge Z6 that Aseats a radiant refractory element 21, later described. A comthrough the top bustible mixture is supplied to the distributor through a duct-like arm 23 having connection through a venturi 29 with an air and gas mixer' 30, the mixer 30 being supplied with gas through a valve 3l under control of the usual thermostat 32, the specific form of which forms no part of the present invention.
The heat radiant element 2l includes a hollow cylindrical body 33 formed of refractory material and is closed at the upper end as at 35i and open at the bottom as shown at 35. TheV diameter of the body substantially conforms to that cf the ledge 26 and when seated thereon, the flames from the burning gas play upwardly upon the circumferential surface of the refractory. In order-to increase the eiiiciency of the refractory, the surface thereof has a plurality of projections 36 thereon which are contacted by the llames. These projections act to increase the height of the flames and cause'them to extend over a greater area. The radiant element .is supported in upright position concentrically of the burner chamber by legs 3l extending-radially and downwardly from the wall thereof to seat upon a plurality of lugs 38 of the burner ring, the lugs `:i8 being supported in seats 35 of substantially bayonet-shaped slots il in the skirt lll and through which the lugs are passed when removing or mounting the burner ring. When the burner is in operation, the flames play upwardly of the exterior surfaces of the refractory and raise the temperature of the projections to an intense heat, which heat assures complete ignif tion of all the gas before discharge into the flue duct. The hot gases resulting from combustion give up their heat to the surfaces of the burner compartment and flue duct, which surfaces conduct the heat to the water within the tank. The refractory element thus not only helps to burn the gas but it increases the height of the llames of the burner relatively to the heating surfaces and it also provides radiant surfaces from which heat is radiated to the wall of the heating through the flue so that substantially all of theY B. t. u.s resulting from combustion of the fuel is absorbed from the gases by the time they discharge into the vent pipe I4.
From the foregoing it is obvious that I have Iprovided a water heater having a substantially greater heating surface and which is heated ..by.
both radiant heat and direct heat of combustion to increase efiiciency of the water heater.
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A heater of the character described including, a tank containing a liquid to be heated, means forming an open Ibottom burner compartment within the tank adapted to be surrounded by liquid contained in the tank, a skirt depending from and encircling the open bottom of the burner compartment and having lug engaging slots therein, a burner within said compartment and having lugs engaged in said slots to maintain the burner coaxially of the compartment, and a refractory supported over the burner.
2. A heater of the character described including, a tank containing a liquid to be heated, means forming an open bottom burner compartment within the tank adapted to be surrounded by liquid contained in the tank, a skirt depending from and encircling the open bottoni of the burner compartment and having lug engaging slots therein, a burner having radial lugs engaged in said slots to support and space the burner from the skirt to provide an annular passageway for 'combustion supporting air, and a substantially cylindrical refractory above the burner and having legs seated upon said lugs, said refractory having projections extending into the path of flame from the burner.
3. A heater of the character described including, a tank containing a liquid to be heated,
means forming an open bottom burner compart- Y ment within the tank adapted to be surrounded by said liquid,` a skirt depending from the open bottom of the burner compartment and having lug engaging seats therein, a burner ring having radial lugs engaged in said seats to support the burner and having an annular refractory supporting ledge concentric with the burner compartment, and a substantially open bottom cylindrical refractory seated on said ledge and having legs seated upon said lugs, said burner having orifices arranged in circular series circumferentially of said ledge and said refractory having projections extending into the path of flame from the burner.
4, A heater of the character described including, means forming an open bottom burner compartment having a heating surface adapted to be surrounded by liquid to be heated, a skirt depending from the open bottom of the burner compartment and having lug engaging seats therein, a Iburner having radial lugs engaged in 4 said seats to support the burner and space the burner from said skirt to provide an annular air passageway therebetween, said burner having a refractory supporting ledge, and a substantially cylindrical refractory seated on said ledge and having legs seated upon the lugs, said burner having orices located outwardly from said ledge and said refractory having projections extending into the path of flame from the burner for radiating heattol the heating surface.
5. In a water heater of the character described including a tank having an inner annular wall open at. the bottom and projecting upwardly Within the tank to provide a burner chamber, a ilue extending upwardly within the tank and connected to the top of said wall, a burner ring spaced inwardly from said wall to provide an air passageway therebetween, radial lugs extending outwardly fro-m the burner ring, said wall carrying supportin-g means for said lugs to support the burner ring and maintain the burner ring concentrically of the burner chamber, an open bottom, cylindrical refractory concentrically of the burnerv ring and having a cylindrical surface spaced uniformlyv from said wall, and legs on said cylindrical refractory engaged with parts of the burner ring to maintain concentric position of said refractory.
6. A heater of the character described including a tank for containing a liquid to be heated, a substantially cylindrical wall forming a burner compartment within the tank and adapted to be surrounded by the liquid to be contained in the tank, a substantially ring-sha-ped burner including a refractory support concentrically disposed with respect to and inwardly of the inner circumference of said ring-shaped burner, means supporting the burner substantially coaxially within the burner compartment, a cylindrical refractory element carried on and in contact with said support throughout the circumference thereof and having a heat radiating surface spaced from said wall to provide a llame space therebetween, said, burner having jet'openings into said space to direct llames in contact with said radiating surface to raise the effective height of the flames and Yeffect direct radiation of heat of the ames on said cylindrical wall of the burner compartment.
RICHARD I. GAINES.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 368,332 Gillespie Aug. 16, 1887 717,214 Kemp Dec. 30, 1902 1,195,260 Palmer Aug. 22, 1916 1,494,499 O-Dowd May 20, 1924 1,529,871 Conroy et al Mar. 17, i925 1,706,416 Schwartz Mar. 26, 1929 1,735,945 Wollaston Nov. 19, 1929 1,852,154 Drake et al Apr. 5, 1932 1,910,711 Packer Mar. 23, 1933