|Publication number||US2479387 A|
|Publication date||Aug 16, 1949|
|Filing date||May 10, 1947|
|Priority date||May 10, 1947|
|Publication number||US 2479387 A, US 2479387A, US-A-2479387, US2479387 A, US2479387A|
|Inventors||Matthews Clarde L, Turner John L|
|Original Assignee||Matthews Specialty Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (8), Referenced by (13), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Aug. 16, 1949. c. L. MATTHEWS ETAL 2,479,387
APPARATUS FOR DRYING HAIR Filed May 10, 1947 PM Aug. 16, 1949 arraaarus ma name m SLIIIQIIQIIIIML undue Corporation, St. Louis, lo, a d
Amara, 1|, IH'LBCIIINQTQ'L.
This invention relates to apparatus for drying hair and, more particularly, to such apparatus for use in beauty shops.
Among the several objects of the invention may be noted the provision of an improved hair dryling apparatus, particularly for beauty 1 6. adaptedtodrythehairinlesstimethanheretofore possible; the provision of a hair apparatus of the class described which, in addition to drying the hair in les time, aflords comfort to the user by reducing ambient temperatures; and the provision of a hair drying apparatus of this class which is economical, safe and sanitary. Other objects will be in part apparcut and in part pointed out hereinafter.
The invention accordingly comprises the elements and combinations of elements, features of construction, and arr ngements of parts which will be exemplified in the structures hereinafter described, and the scope of the application of which will be indicated in the following claims. In the accompanying drawings, in which one of various possible embodiments of the invention is illustrated,
Fig. its a side elevation, partly in section, oi. the hair drying apparatus of this invention; a
Fig. 2 is an enlarged detail section taken on line 2-2 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a wiring diagram; and,
, Fig. 4 is an enlarged portion of the wiring diagram in an alternative setting.
Similar reference characters indicate corresponding parts throughout the several views of the drawings.
Prior conventional beauty shop hair driers each .comprise a drying hood mounted upon a floor stand and including in the hood a tan and heater for blowing a current of heated air upon the customers head. A primary objection to such driers is the high air temperatures involved and the considerable period of time required proper- 1y to dry the hair. This period generally is from forty-five to ninety minutes or more, depending uponthe quantity and thickness of the customers hair and the relative humidity of the air in the drying hood. This air, even at high temperatures, has a relative humidity which is so little below that of the room in which the drier is placed that long drying periods result. For the customer to remain seated with her head in a drying hood and with a current of heated air blowing on her head for such a considerable period of time is a matter of acute discomfort. particularly in warm weather. The considerable BCllima. (11H) 2 tomers which the beauty shop may accommodate in a given time and represents a loss of income. Another disadvantage of prior hair driers, from a the standpoint of customer comfort, is the noise of the fan in the drying hood, closely adjacent the customer's head. Such driers are also unsanitary, inasmuch as they generally reclrcuiatc unfiltered air over and over again, with the addition after each use of the moisture from the previous customer's hair. This, of course, also re duces the eiiectiveness of the current of heated air for drying purposes.
The present invention provides an improved hair ying apparatus wherein instead of relying for drying upon normally moist air heated to high temperature, with its attendant discomfort, provision is made for causing a flow of very dry air at a lower and comfortable eflective temperature upon the hair. with this invention, the period required for drying hair is very considerably reduced and there is no discomfort to the customer during this short period. The invention eliminates the fan in the drying hood and thereby eliminates discomfort due to noise.
It provides the sanitary and economic feature 01' using filtered dry air for every hair drying operation instead of using the same moist air over and over again. It is of such construction as to be incapable oi. harming the customer.
Referring now particularly to Fig. 1 of the drawing, the apparatus of the invention is shown generally to comprise a portable hair drier I having an air distributor 3 carried by a base 5. The latter is hollow and encloses parts of the apparatus to be described. It includes a pedestal 1 supported on casters 9, whereby the hair drier may be wheeled from place to place. The pedestal carries a vertical double-walled casing ll having an inner cylindric wall I! and an outer cylindric wall I I forming an annular cylindric chamher or receptacle l1 surrounding a compartment is. The lower end of the chamber and compartment are closed by bottom walls II and 23, respectively. The annular chamber I1 is open at its top. The inner wall II is provided with filterchainber l1 forming ports or outlets for flow 01' air from the chamber into the compartment l9.
.Theairdistributoriisfixedupontheupper endofahollowstandardflbelnginfluidcommunication therewith. The hollow standard slidesthroughacentralapertureinthetopofa dome 2! and also through a central aperture in thebasefl oisaiddome. Thebaseli i'ormsa drying period also reduces the number of cus- 56 closureiortbeupperendoithecompartmentll.
The dome is fixed to the upstanding peripheral rim 33 of an upper ring 35, the inner margin of the ring being secured to the closure 3I The lower margin of the dome is removably telescoped over the upper end or the outer casing wall I5. The air distributor 3, the hollow standard 27, the dome 29 and theclosure 3| are thus removable as a unit from the casing I I.
Below the rim 33, the dome 29 is formed with air intake louvers 31 through which air may flow only into the annular chamber I1. A motorblower assembly 39, comprising a motor-l9 and a blower 4| is carried by the hollow standard 21 within the compartment I9. The blower outlet 42 is in communication with the standard and the blower inlet 43 is in the compartment 19. As illustrated, the motor-blower assembly 39 is suspended from the lower end of the standard 21, the blower outlet 92 being connected to the lower end of a short length of flexible hose 45. The upper end of this hose is connected to the lower end of the. standard. 1' I The arrangement is such that upon air without liquefying or becoming non-porous. It is in small-lump form. This desiccant may be reactivated simply by heating to drive oil the adsorbed moisture. It may be reactivated an almost unlimited number of times without materially impairing its dehydrating emclency. Other suitabledesiccants having the desired properties, such as silica gel, may also be used.
Electrical resistance heating elements 83, in the form of strip heaters, are mounted on wall I3 within chamber ll. These heaters are adapted to he energized in a manner to be described to heat the desiccant ii to reactivate it. An annular air filter 55 is also provided in chamber I1 for operation of the blower, air is drawn through louvers 31, chamber I1 and ports into compartment I9, thence into the blower inlet 43, and is delivered through blower outlet 92, hose l5 and standard 21 to the air distributor 3. Leakage of air from the compartment I9 is prevented by packing rings 41 and 43 mounted adjacent the apertures in closure 3I' and dome 29. These are in slidable sealing engagement with the standard.
The standard 21 has a number of guide arms 5| fixed thereon adjacent its lower end within compartment |9.' These arms extend outward from the standard and slide'in the channels of channel-iron guides 53. The latter depend vertically withinthe compartment from closure 3i, so as to guide the standard for vertical movement. The assembly comprising the air distributor 3, sliding standard 21, and the motor-blower assembly 39 is suspended by the cables 55 of spring counterbalances 51. The latter are secured to the bottom of closure 3|, being located within compartment I9. The lower end of each cable is connected to a guide arm 5|, as indicated at 59. The arrangement is such that the air distributor 3 maybe adjusted vertically to any desired position by sliding standard 21 up or down within its range of movement. The motor-blower assembly 39 moves with the standard in the course of such adjustment. The weight of the air distributor 3, standard 21, motor-blower assembly 39 and arms 5I is counterbalanced in any adjusted position by the springs of counterbalances 51. The flexible hose suspension and connector 45 isolates from the remainder oi. the apparatus vibrations of the motor-blower assembly.
The chamber II forms a dehydration chamber for dehydrating air as it flows therethrough and contains suitable dehydrating means for this purpose. As illustrated herein, the chamber n is partially filled with a solid-particle desiccant 51 which will adsorb and hold moisture without substantial change in form or properties including resistance to airflow; that is, it will not liquefy.
or obstruct the flow or air therethrough. Between its solid particles are ample permanent voids. It
is also desirable that the desiccant be one which is adapted to be reactivated without impairing its dehydrating emciency so that it may be reused. A particularly suitable desiccant is activated alumina, essentially a porous form of aluminum oxide (A1203) which is capable of adfiltering the air prior to its'passage through the desiccant. This filter is inserted into the chamber after it has been loaded with the desiccant and is supported upon lugs 91.
The air distributor 3 includes a manifold 69 connected at its lower end II to and in communication with the upper end of standard 21. The manifold curves upward and outward away from the standard and carries a drying hood I5 at its upper end. Hood [5 is lined with a plurality of removable, flexible, air distributing tubes 11 which are in communication at their upper ends with the manifold through nipples I9. The lower ends of the tubes TI are closed. Each tube has a plurality of apertures BI therein through which streams of air may flow upon the hair.
Communication from the manifold to the drying hood may also be established through a gate valve 83. This valve comprises a gate which seats upon the wall 91 of the manifold and is slidable between a position wherein it closes a relatively large outlet port 89 in the wall and a position wherein the port is open. Port 89 opens into the top of the drying hood. The gate 85 is guided for sliding movement between open and closed positions by means of a stud 9! which extends through a guide slot 93 in the gate with its end fixed in wall 31. A valve stem 95, for operating the gate, is connected thereto at 9! and extends slidably through a packing 99 to the outside of the manifold. The stem has a knob I91 on its outer end by means of which it may either be pushed in to close valve 83 (Fig. 2)
or pulled out to open the valve.
A two-stage electrical resistance heater I93 comprising a pair of heating coils I95 and I91 (Figs. 3 and 4) is mounted in the manifold 69 adjacent its outlet end. This heater is for the purpose of warming the dehydrated air flowing through the manifold to a comfortable effective temperature prior to its emission through apertures II in tubes 11 (and through port 99 it open). A manually operable selector switch I99 for controlling the heater I93 ,is mounted on the drying hood in a readily accessible location. This switch may be set selectively to energize one heating coil for low heat, both heating coils for high heat, or to deenergize both coils completely, as will be made clear. The heater I93 is also under control of a thermostatic circuit breaker ill for deenerglzing the heater I93 upon excessive heating. Mounted in the dome 29 is a timecontrol switch or interval timer II3 for controlling the period of operation of desiccant heaters 33 and certain periods of operation of the motor 49. A main control switch H5 is mounted on the manifold 93. An extension cord I I! having a plug I19 for plugging into an electrical outlet extends into the base 5 of the hair drier for supplying current to the various electrical elements sorbing substantially all the moisture irom the 15 thereof.
Asillustratedinl'ig ithecxtcnsioncordlll comprises wires III and I23 connected across a two-phase powerline P when pl s, II! is inserted into an electrical outlet. Thwe wires lead to terminals III and III. The motor I. oi. the motor-blower assembly 3! is connected acres terminals I25 and I II in a motor circuit including lines III and I33. This connection B ahead oi the time-control switch I I3. The main control switch II! is connected in series with the motor in line I33. When switch II is closed. the motor circuit is energized and motor ll drives the blower 4|. The lines I3I and I33-include flexible leads to the motor to permit vertical movement thereof with the hollow standard 21.
The motor 40 also has a separate setot connections to terminals I25, I21 through the timecontrol switch II3. This is accomplished through an additional set of wires I I4.
, The air heater "3, selector switch I33 and circuit breaker III are connected in series across the motor circuit. As illustrated, a line I33 is connected at one end-to line I33 at a terminal I31 and at its other end to a fixed contact member I39 of the switch I. Terminal I3! is located between the main control switch II! and the motor. Switch I39 comprises the fixed contact member I33. a rotary conductive huh I carrying three angularlyspaced blades I, "3 and I", and a pair of tlxed contacts I" and I (note particularly Fig. 4). The hub is adaptedtoberotatedbyaknob IiI.(1='ig.1)toany one or three positions. In one position (Fig. 4)
blade I ll engages contact member I33, blade "3 engages contact I" and blade I engages contact I". In a second position (Fig. 3), blade I engages contact member I39, and blade I engages contact Ill, and electrical connection to contact I" is broken. In a third position (not shown), all three blades are in circuit-breaking position. Heating coils I I5 and I" have a common terminal at I52. The other terminal oi coils I and III are connected by lines II3 and ii! to contacts I41 and I, respectively. The terminals of circuit breaker III are connected by lines I" and IE3 to terminal I52 and line "I, respectively. Circuit breaker III, as illustrated herein. comprisesa pair of contacts, one of which is carried by a conductive thermostaticstrlp III and the otherby a control button III. ,When this strip overheats, the contacts separate and break the circuit for heater I 33, also opening a latch I. Otherwise this latch holds the contacts closed upon pushing in button I62.
The desiccant heaters 63 are connected in parallel in a desiccant heater circuit connected across terminals I25 and I21. This circuit includes lines I83 and it! connected through a plug I to the heaters and including the time-control switch 3 in series with the heaters. The timecontrol switch may be of any suitable type for maintaining the desiccant heater' circuit closed for the period required to reactivate the desiccant 3|. It has a'control knob I" (Fig. 1) for closing the desiccant heater circuit and for setting the length oftime for which the circuit is to remain closed. It also closes the circuit of motor 4| (through wires Ill) for a short interval of time included at the end of the dedccant heating period. This assures that the desiccant spaces will be swept clear of moist or stale air. Preferably, the time-control switch is oi the synchronous motor type. the motor being energised by LQInlinesINandISL-Wherethcpower also en air heater I33, IlltobeeitberintheFlg.3ortheFig.4position. The time-control switch 3 is open at this time. so that desiccant heaters 83 are not energized, nor does it supply the motor current.
Uponenergization of the blower motor ll, the blower II is driven and draws room air through louvers 31 into chamber I1, and through filter I, the desiccant I, and partment I3. The desiccant adsorbs almost all assuming switch dividual streams upon the customers hair. Valve 33 may be opened, if desired, to obtain a single concentrated stream of air.
The dry airflowing through manifold 39 -is warmed by heater I O3 to a comtortable eflfective temperature prior to its emission from tubes 11 (or through port 33) so that it is pleasantly warm upon the customer's head. This warming. of the air is most desirable. especially in the initial stage of the hair-drying period, as the flo'w of dry air upon the wet hair has a substantial cooling eil'ect. The temperature of the air may be manually controlled by means of selector switch I so that nected in parallel in the heater circuit-s0 that capacity of moisture,
energized for maximum heating effeet. with switch I in the Fig. 3 position, only coil Ili is energized, coil I 31 being disconnected, i'or low-stage heating. If, for some reason, heater "3 should become too hot, the thermostatic circuit breaker I II opens the circuit and deenergizes the heater I33 completely to prevent scorching or burning of the customer's hair or head.
when the supply of desiccant has adsorbed its it may be reactivated by closing the time-control switch to energize desiccant heater 63. The timer will be set to maintain these heaters energ' for the length of time required to dry the desiccant, say four hours. This time will vary in accordance with local relative humidity conditions. When the drying period is near completion, the time-control switch II 3 closes the motor circuit III for a short interval, say five minutes. This sweeps out any last vestlge of moist or stale air. Finally the desiccant heater circuit and the motor circuit are both automatically opened. No attendance is required. It is contemplated that, in practice, the beauty shop operator will set the timer just before leaving the shop at the close of business to maintain the desiccant heaters energized tor the desired several hours I The air distributor 3, standard 21, dome 2!,
ports 25 into the com accesstotheinteriorofthecasingiiortoparts 'normally within the casing. The dome 2Q'may be provided with'a handle I" for facilitating removal of this unit. and also for convenience in moving the hair drier from place to place.
From the above, it will be clear that dehydrated air at a comfortable effective temperature is discharged from the air distributor 3 upon the customer's hair for rapidly and comfortably drying it. The effective temperature (this term being used in its technical sense) ofthe air is dependent upon its dry and wet bulb temperatures and its rate of flow. The particular value of the effective temperature for comfort depends upon the degree of warmth or cold felt by the individual due to the flow of air upon her head. This invention provides for control of the effective temperature to a comfortable value while also providing for a supply of air which is. practically dry for quick drying. This is a prime advantage over prior hair driers which merely blow moist room air at an uncomfortable eilective temperature. With the present invention, the flow of practically dry air at a comfortable effective temperature dries an individuals hair in considerably less timethan heretofore without any discomfort due to excessive heat.
Certain points of advantage of the invention should be definitely noted as follows: Heretofore heating-was used only for the purp of reducing the relative humidity of the air coming out of the hood 15. The air ws not dried and this heating was the only means for conditioning the air to pick up moisture from the hair. Since it required a large increase in temperature to reduce the relative humidity to any substantial extent, there resulted the extreme discomfort above mentioned. Furthermore. the discomfort increased with the natural humidity of the air because such a condition required a higher tem perature rise for a given reduction in relative humidity. Thus upon the humid days when the apparatus should desirably have operated cooler, it operated hotter; hence with more discomfort. With the present invention, heating is not for the primary purpose of reducing the relative humidity since this is satisfactorily reduced by the desiccant. In fact, it is reduced to such an amount that the cooling effect due to fast evaporation upon fast drying is excessive and it is for that reason alone that the heater is used. Thus the only function of the heater is to prevent discomfort due to overcooling and for this Purpose the temperature needs onlybemadeequallto and no higher than that desired by the user. Not only is the user at a more comfortable temperature, but the waiting time for drying is reduced because the desiccant is much more efflcient in drying the air than was the old method of reducing relative hmnidity merely by heating.
Thus it maybesaid thatonefactorofthe invention is in the separation of the air drying and air heating functions, instead of simplyhaving a heater perform both of these functions.
An additional advantage is that in a beauty shop all moisture abstracted from the drying hairof the customer is not, as heretofore, injected into the room but is trapped in the desiccant of the driers. With former apparatus this moisture gradually increased the hmnidity, particularly on humid days, to an uncomfortable point. By using the present invention the humidityotashop'isnotincreasedandmay even bedecreasedbecausetbcdesiccantinthe driers tends ultimateiy'to abstract moisture from the air of the shop.
The invention is to be distinguished also from the mere former use of old driers in air-conditloned shops. It is not feasible by means of an ordinary air-conditioning system to dry the air suiiiciently to obtain the effect on the hair as obtained by the present invention. To gain this effect by such means would involve excessive cost and general over-all discomfort to occupants in a shop. due to excessively low humidity.
Also contributing to the comfort of the customer is the absence of immediate fan noise. In the present invention, the blower is in the base rather than in the drying hood. The suspension of the motor-blower assembly 39 from the lower end of the hollow standard 21 by means of the short length of flexible hose ll is advantageous in that it eliminates vibration. Also, therearenomovingpartsinthe dryinghoodto entangle hair and no possibility of harming the customer. Many beauty shop customers have a feeling of uneasiness toward prior hair driers due to the presence of the fan closely adjacent the head. There is no occasion for such a feeling with the present invention. Also. filtered air 'isusedineachhairdryingoperationasa-sanitary feature. 7
When the desiccant is heated to reactivate it the heaters bring the temperature up to over the boiling point of the water to turn it into steam. This action destroys all harmful germs and/or bacteria so that sterile air will be produced when themachineisputinuse afterdehydration.
In view of the above. it will be seen that the severalobiects of the invention are achieved and other advantageous results attained, V
Asmanycbanges couldbemade inthe above constructions without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
We claim: I
1. A hair drier comprising a portable base including a vertical double-walled-casing providing a chamber surrounding a compartment, said chamber being adapted to be filled with a porous,
solid desiccant and having an air inlet adjacent one end and an outlet to said compartment adiacent its other end. a hollow standard mounted for vertical sliding movement in said base with its lower end extending into said compartment, a drying hood carried by the upper end of said standard above said base and in communication with said standard, and a blower in said compartment adapted to draw air through said chamber into said compartment and to deliver it through said standard to said hood.
2. A hair drier as set forth in claim 1, further including a heater for warming the air to a comfortable effective temperature prior to its emission from said hood.
3. A hair drier as set forth in claim 2, further including a heater in said chamber for heating said desiccant to dehydrate it; V
4. A hair drier comprising a portable base including a vertical double-walled casing providing a chamber surrounding a compartment, said chamber being adapted to be filled with a porous, solid desiccant and having an air inlet adjacent one end and an outlet to said compartment adjacent its other end, a hollow standard mounted for vertical sliding movement in said base with its lower end extending into said compartment, a drying hood carried by the upper end of said standard above said base and in communication with said standard, and a motor-blower assembly carried by the lower endor said standard within said compartment with the blower inlet opening into the compartment and the blower outlet in communication with said standard.
5. A hair drier comprising an air distributor for distributing a flow of air upon a head of hair, means providing a space for desiccant, a motor blower adapted to force air through said desiccant space and to the distributor, heater means for the desiccant space, a circuit tor the heater means and the motor blower, a normally open interval timer switch in said circuit adapted to be closed to operate the heater means and the motor blower for predetermined intervals, the motor blower operating interval being less than and occurring at the end or the heater operating interval, means for operating the motor blower independently or the interval timer switch, and means for warming the air prior to its emission i'rom the distributor during the latter operation of the motor blower.
6. A hair drier comprising an air distributor for distributing a flow of air upon a head of hair, means providing a space for desiccant, a motor blower adapted to force air through said desiccant space and to the distributor, a dry-air heater between the motor blower and the distributor, heater means for the desiccant space. a circuit for the heater means, motor blower and the dry-air heater, an energizing circuit for both heaters and the motor blower, a manual switch in said circuit for controlling energization of the motor blower and the dry-air heater. and a normally open interval timer switch in said circuit adapted upon a setting thereof independently or the manual switch to energize the desiccant heater means for a predetermined interval and to energize the motor blower for a predetermined interval at the end oi. the desiccating interval.
7.Ahairdriercomprisingabaseincludinga vertical double-walled casing providing a desiccant chamber surrounding a compartment, the chamberbeingopenatitstopiorilowoi'airinto 'thechamberandtbencedownwardthroughthe 10 desiccant in the chamber. and having. an outlet at its lower end in communication with the compartment, a hollow standard mounted for vertical sliding movement in said base with its lower end extending into said compartment, a drying hood carried by the upper end of said standard above the base and in communication with said standard, and a blower associated with the base for causing a flow of air downward through the desiccant in the chamber to the compartment and thence through the standard to the hood.
8. A hair drier comprising a portable base including a vertical double-walled casing providing a desiccant chamber surrounding a compartment, the chamber being open at its top for flow of air into the chamber and thence downward through the desiccant in the chamber, and having an outlet at its lower end in communication with the compartment, a dome closing the upper end of the casing and having louvers for admitting air to the top 01' the chamber only, a hollow standard mounted for vertical sliding movement in said dome with its lower end extending into the compartment, a drying hood carried by the upper end of the standard above the base and in communication with the standard, and a blower associated with the base for causing a flow of air through the louvers and thence downward through the desiccant in the chamber to the compartment and thence through the standard to the hood.
CLAUDE L. MATTHEWS.
JOHN L; TURNER.
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|U.S. Classification||34/562, 34/99, 96/146, 34/80, 96/115|
|International Classification||A45D20/00, A45D20/44|