US 2480430 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1949- J. N. WALTERS 2,480,430
FINGER-WEIGHT ARTERY COMPRESSOR Filed-July 12, 1945 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Aug. 30, 1949. J. N. WALTERS 2,480,430
' v FINGER-WEIGHT ARTERY COMPRESSOR v and Jui 12, 1945 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented Aug. 30, 194
UNITED 5S TAT ETS PATENT tween-Weider ART-111E? QMr iE QR John Nugentiwalters, New 932k, gN- Appl at on no i945, seria ,NQ- eels-7:
z Claims. 1
"lihis invention relates to the new and npvel ons ruct on a im evem nt i 'te miq y eonstriotors, and aims t n ov de a e a nel a pa atus .Q vne m a structu e. o desi e n novel ,p 'ine l ha only fin e -w P TQ sure, applied toanarteria p es u int l e ei en .to cont ol the eli1 tien,ofhl ed threugh the limbs .orextremities, t us to preven bleedin to d ath to admin te nt avenous blee ina eii s'ion or infusions of ,blood plasma; this invention isdesigned, further, to eliminate the hazard pf gangrene debridements and amputations here- ,toiore consequent and attributable to the bar- ;baric practiceoi applying jorcible and prolonged tourniquet constriction ,.to casualties involving arter ese r d w nds; and thi invent on li :thermo ais vs ,deeien dan c n ei to nable com r ses a (no e ombi ti n an r angem n C t e ily ob ain o con ruc ed ice ls itllent ele en s. ma eria and ren b asse d a reeted n ,on recipr ca y al ena ing by means of which to aeeem ishi h lnuene ee intended. No other apparatus heretofore on the market or-known to 'the inventor is so "feasibly and pos tively el -ap i abl e s doll seondlle t posit v s l ifilhipula-ti .selu an /e eelfesustentationyersoi st nt yan e rmittine vamin iive r ...e [gushin 10 lblQQ 1110 ny rieterml edr ne sea ycde ee, o rte camel telwere lr .su -te eh of ime; a w hou any ll sid :asslst ne Tourniquets as heretofore constructed and aiti zed a m lc u et :isel vee li ati na lselfsre u a ien y an ky b oed-eneh n altye ims:1suchprev e sly em leve -time..,. ar 9 o b fu value an alway areen ee el Hanato a d-l se a leqm t -nts nd we e n and bone structures, all primarily induced iby the total constriction forcibly applied by means .of
improvised or other barbaric types of tourniquets heretofore utilized; said total constriction completely shut off circulation of the nourishing and protective blood supply beyond the constricting instrument, thus causing withering mortification and gangrene of the extremities, and consequent surgical removal.
[First aid instructions :issued to :United States Armed Forces recommend and :prescribe improvisation of -atourniquet from a general issue belt or sock, which must then be excruciatingly twisted tight with -a bayonet 'scabbard. Other human aid is seldom at handwhen combatants tall wounded; -a -blood-g-ushing casualty victim under fire is *not able to construct, apply and manipulate such an improvised tourniquet, even if the materials are readily available. Combatant soldiers, particularly, are usually on their own under bombardment, and too often remain where they have -fa'llen wounded, alone for many :hours until the Medical Corps arrives to ilnd filhelll either needlessly dead, hey-0nd recovery from -'loss of flolood, or subjects for amputation because a Samaritan comrade hastily improvised an immobile tourniquet.
n11 tourniquets heretofore know-n and available --on' the market have been designed, constructed and manufactured to --function on the activating principle of total constriction" ofthe circulation, barbaricall-y and forcibly applied to an extremity and concentrated at a point-between the-heart and-the severed-artery. Said total constriction was accomplished by (-1) employing clamps -or 40106195 to squeeze the affected ex- +tremities or .to seal ofi the exposed arteries by direct application, and usually :held in place iby an.aide orabymeanssoisprings, ratchets, or other w contriva-ntes; s02) afilxing :a ,strap and pulling it tautuntilthe bleeding stopped, ,and usually 1 held in fixedconstriction aby means .of an attached biiolsl r other ,con-trivanc :3) -,impr0v.iein from straps rop s, :lbelts ..-or any oth r (workabl materia a and -,wh h l er affixedand twisted qeas ualty victims, and especially dangerq sinsights with a 1 17 1 121 i i he bleedin etonned 15 sually hela fix s zeenetrllatienimanea v 9mm 7 o a reentr wee va ableae ze telqlel alt ewa iae rresenta I t av ilable 1 .e lvie mtusuell ib edzte 1d .a hel arri ed- ;Im o t e a wyiaeter iie ter and e ist e lae thisne andnev in ent ae- ,Jt l e I that eei ,invent en i ef eake rile lie 55 am nable and rea -fe .eee in en -em ta nav Vgni 'iee av laqee reatmen h -it;
lee lllselrapplied, easily self-regulated and easily self-controlled to any determined degree for any determined period of time, by any aid-isolated casualty victim, all entirely without any assistance; that it substantially embodies principles heretofore non-existent, but essential as a safety factor, to prevent and eliminate necrosis and mortification of flesh, tissue and bone structures by making possible the application of controllable spot pressure focalized at an exact point in just sufficient degree to regulate or control the bleeding, and without harmfully overconstricting or stopping the circulation of blood through unaffected but surrounding capillaries and blood-vessels; that it assures an aid-isolated casualty victim of a safe apparatus to control blood circulation; and, that it provides a convenient and positive circulation control for intravenous blood transfusions, and blood plasma infusions. Thus my invention not only saves lives, it also saves limbs and extremities which might otherwise require amputation by reason of harmful over-constriction and/or necrosion of corollary but uninjured blood-vessels, fleshy tissues and/or bone structures.
It is within the province of my instant invention (1) to advance the utility and value of devices of the type to which this invention appertains, (2) to greatly improve over the usefulness and results given by other contrivances of similar purpose, (3) to simplify and assure the adequate control of hemorrhage from the extremities caused by artery-severed wounds, (4) to preserve and extend the usefulness of limbs and lives indefinitely, (5) to control the fiow of blood during transfusion, and (6) to regulate the administration of blood plasma into the circulatory system.
My instant novel invention is so constructed, arranged, conceived and designed in order to employ and utilize the manually actuated principle of leverage and counter-leverage to adequately generate suificient controllable power with which to direct, focaliz and/or maintain positive but releasable compression to a selective arterial pressure-point, and by means of which to retard, regulate, completely stop or otherwise control the circulation of blood in any limb orextremity, and to any desired degree for any desired period of time; said invention, further, is so compact and adjustable and practical, so easy to carry and utilize, so simple to self-affix and self-manipulate and self-regulate, and, so simple and inexpensive to construct, that a general issuance thereof to all United States Armed Forces is warranted.
General issue of my instant invention to United States Armed Forces, furthermore, would bring about the conservation of our limited supplies of blood plasma and precious whole blood, heretof ore necessarily administered to casualty victims who have lost great quantities of blood; bloodbank stocks would thus be released for and become available to the most grievously wounded. Additional embodiments and humane benefits which would inure to our fighting men may be here mentioned as (1) the relief or entire elimination of the excruciating pain attending employment of tourniquet procedures and the twisting to unbearabl constriction as heretofore practiced, and (2) the greatly increased probability of appropriate rehabilitative treatment to restore function and utility to limbs and extremities damaged by arterial wounds, but which heretofore became complicated because of over-constriction.
My instant invention, for the foregoing and other self-apparent reasons, should be included as a standard unit in every combatants personal casualty kit, as an essential to the conservation and preservation of valuable lives and limbs for future usefulness to humanity; and this invention, furthermore, should likewise be included in the casualty kits of every Medical Corps field aide, and also provided as an essential component of the equipment furnished to every casualty depot, and in every field and base hospital of our armed forces.
It is the principal object of this invention to provide an inexpensive artery compressor of novel structure conceived and designed for self-use, and employing the novel and peculiar principle of controllable pressure so that only a fingerweight is sufficient to positively and adequately control hemorrhage from arterial wounds, and to thus eliminate the dangers of necrosion and mortification heretofore primarily caused by barbaric, gangrene-inducing tourniquets which aid-isolated casualty victims could not by themselves apply or control, and, to thus eliminate the hazard of consequent and subsequent amputations; in place of said hazardous tourniquets, my instant invention provides a novel and practical finger-weight artery compressor for selfuse which is adequate for any emergency, which is safe and efficient to the highest degree, and which is minute enough to occupy only two loops of a regulation cartridge-belt, quickly available and easily detachable, ready, and simple enough to be instantly affixed, applied, manipulated and regulated by any aid-isolated casualty victim, and all without any assistance.
With the above and other valuable features, objects and embodiments in view, which will become apparent and obvious as the description proceeds, this invention resides in the peculiar construction of the elements, the preparation and processing of the parts involved, and the arrangement and assembly thereof, by means of which to produce controllable power through leverage and counter-leverage action, and the application of which, within the intent, spirit and scope of what is claimed and in accordance with the principles of my instant invention, consists in the following exemplified steps and operations, all as described and claimed.
Processing and assembling the elements and parts In order to illustrate the character and physical structure of my novel artery compressor which requires only a finger-weight of pressure and aims thereby, in accordance with the principles of this invention, to eliminate the hazards of necrosion and mortification, and the incident gangrene debridements and consequent amputations, the accompanying drawings are furnished, in which:
Figure 1 denotes a strap, an incidental but corollary compression element common to all tourniquets but which, here, provides only a collaborative function incidental to the application of desirable finger-weight pressure; in accordance with the principles of my instant invention said strap furnishes sufficient binding support evenly all around the limb, the primary source of power to achieve the desired amount of compression is attained by a manually actuated reciprocal leverage action; the strap is loosely applied to an injured limb or extremity and then tightened to any desired degree by a reciprocal reaction induced by a manual actuation which, as will be shown, makes possible the self-regulation and control of blood circulation by any aid-isolated casualty iiitiihiWith'oiit ariyassistsncet- As has shown said strap is} initially out? and processed Iro'm Strip of leather to at length suitable to fit anarm orleg or other XfifmiiI-y a tour n'ieiuet may bephysical-ly applicable;
Figure" 2 denotes a buckle; incidental but corollary controlling elementgNhut-fwhich, here, provides-the means by to adjust the length of the strap (Figure 1) to any suitable or'reduii'ed size, ai1d"-- also to furnish an auxiliary and-alterriative means by which t'oregulate the degree of compression desired tocumin-at 'nedlss iiiir constriction?" of an extremity to which artery compressor-is afiixed. Ashereshown said-buckle fs'of the type commom known ass-gripper slide buckle and is rivete'dto one end oi 'th'e strap, as-illustrated in Figure'aat' ae h Figure 3 denotes a compressor; the primary pressure element of my mventionand which is claimed herein, by means of which toappi -"fo- 'calize'd spot pressure to a'specific arterial pressure-point, which may be-regulated ih accordance with the principles of this; invention-to any de gree of compression'require'd to efiectu-ally con-- trol hemorrhage; incontrast to heretofore practi'ced barbaric and dangerous total constric ti'on, only a finger weig'ht of pressure exerted on theco'mpressor is suflicient; thus, applied and controlled without any assistance, the hazard of over-constriction is eliminated, as well as the consequent necrosis and mortification of surrouhding blood-vessels, capillaries, flesh tissues and bone structures. As here shown'said comp'ressor is initially processed from a block 'of Wood to the shape of afcynnder as illustrated c' w-ith an extending lever as illustrated b in Figure3.
Figure 4' denotes a lock, the fastening and sustaming element of' my invention and which is claimed herein, by means of which to accomplish and automatically maintain controllable compression. which is fixable and/or adjustable to any degree in accordance with the principles involved therein; said compression may belikewise Q instantly and wholly released by a simple reverse but which, here, are employed in suificient quantity to permanently fasten together the comprescooperating and collaborating unit'which, under manual actuation of thelever of theicompressor '(Figure 3,11) and .thus in accordance with. the
principles of my invention, becomes a fulcrum for reciprocal leverage action by means of which the strap is tightened; adequate power and compression is thus produced by means of which to accomplish the aims and purposes of myinverrtion in accordance with the principles: thereof. A's-here shown said nails are of the type common- 1y u'sedby carpenter s etc. 1
Figurev 6 denotes a detail: to illustrate the man'- ner of attachin the lock 4' by clamping: the
sharped end e to the strap I at a point approximately midway between the buokleZ andasthe compressor 3 to make onereciprocally acting co- "sor (Figure 3) and. the strap: (Figure. 1').1into one 15 fofui inches distant from the attached end of.
the buckle 2: this pointbecomes the fulcrum for: the reciprocal leverage action produced upon manually depressing the lever 3b and thus causing the-strap-l to tighten for the purpose of achieving" compression in accordance with the princi les of my invention, and which may be sustained at any degree merely by engaging the lever 31) by the lock 4.
Figure 8 denotes a detail to illustrate the approximate point at which to attach the compressor-cylinder 3c to the strap 5 and the manner of joining both into one collaborative unit by means "of the plurality of nails 5.-
Figure Siden'otes a detail of the completed finger-weight artery compressor as it appears when all of the corollary, constituent, component, cooperative, collaborative and reciprocal elements, materials and parts have been processedgarrang'ed and assembled into one'ihtegral imit; As here shown my invention comprises the strap! to one end of which the buckle 2 has been riveted (2a) and both ends of the strap buckled together; the lock l has been stapled to the strap and the compressor 3 likewise permanently at- .tached'by employing the plurality oi nails 5; all
as. related together in combination .and integral assembly thereof. The lever 322 has been slipped, into the loop of the lock id to be thus automatically held until voluntarily released. My instant invention is thus ready to be quickly .afiixed to a wounded extremity, and is fully adjustable in accordance with the principles invol-vedto any degree of controllable compression, as Well as the complete release thereof at will,
and all entirely without any assistance.
hemorrhage by finger-weight Controlling arterial compression In order to'illustrate the character, the steps, the operations, and the methods of preparation involved in the physical application, regulation and manipulation of my novel finger-weight 'arterycompressor to control hemorrhage, and to eliminate the hazards of necrosion and mortification, the accompanying drawingsare furnished, in which:
here shown the compressor 3 has been'leit free but may be slipped into the lock 4 before the strap l'has been affixed to the extremity to be- -treatedi the desired degree of compression may be achieved byfinger-manipulation oi the'slide of the buckle 2 which lengthens or shortens the circumference or the strap l and thus either tightens or loosens the strap to any degree desired, depending upon which direction in which vol'vedi in my invention, any aid-isolated victim may completely perform the functions and purposes thereof, without any assistance.
Figure 11 denotes a perspective which serves to illustrate the minute dimensions into which my finger-weight artery compressor may be rolled up, and into a compact kit small enough to fit into the space occupied by only two cartridge loops of a field service belt. As here shown the lever of the compressor had been slipped into the loop of the lock; the strap was then pressed parallel to the lever and rolled lengthwise completely around the compressor; a rubber-band, or a slideclip, or any other contrivance may be utilized to hold the kit in a compact. By pre-adjusting the length of the strap beforehand my instant invention is ready to be unrolled with one hand and immediateely slipped onto any involved extremity; gravity will do the unrolling if the loose end of the strap is grasped. The entire kit may then be clipped to the cartridge-belt for easy detachment, or carried in any other manner providing instant availability; it is thus ready to be self-affixed and self-manipulated without any assistance, and is fully capable of furnishing compression instantaneously when utilized in any emergency requiring tourniquet treatment.
Figure 12 denotes a transparency which serves to illustrate one of the various possible embodiments, characteristics and functions of my finger-weight artery compresser. The drawing represents a transparency of a human arm in which an artery has been severed and the need for tourniquet treatment thus indicated; the lever of the compressor element has been slipped into the lock, the cylinder has been aifixed directly over the main artery at a known pressure point, and is thus sustained at a hypothetically proper degree of compression; just sufficient pressure has been applied to retard and control the flowof blood through the artery, at the same time allowing a sufiiciency of blood to circulate through unaifected veins and capillaries to provide nourishment to other parts of the wounded extremity; thus obviating, in accordance with the principles of my invention, the hazards of necrosion and mortification usually following heretofore practiced tourniquet procedures based upon total constriction, which too often necessitated subsequent major gangrene debridements actually tantamount to amputations. As here shown in transparency, the letter F in the drawing represents the main artery and the letter G the veins, as they are assumed to appear during full and normal circulation. In the drawing my instant invention has been applied just below the elbow, actuated, fixed and functioning to retard the blood circulation; below the said focal point of compression, the main artery has ceased flowing and is thus to be construed in the illustration which is represented by the letter J; the letter g on the other hand indicates that circulation continues to flow through surrounding uninjured veins and capillaries, in reduced quantity but yet sufiicient to provide continuing nourishment which reduces or completely eliminates mortification of the unaffected parts of the wounded extremity. Only a finger-weight of compression focalized at a specific arterial pressure-point is sufiicient to control the circulation of blood through the main artery, represented by the letters Ff, which thus obviates the danger of necrosion at the point of compression. In the drawing, the letter H represents the hypotheticalpreviously practiced tourniquet procedures.
wound; and therletter J representsthe point at which the artery F---) has been severed.
Figure 13 serves to illustrate that only the pressure of a finger, when focalized over an arterial pressure-point, is sumcient to stop the blood circulation. As here shown the letter K represents finger functioning to stop and control the circulation of the blood through the main artery F and the veins G. I I
Figure 1e serves to illustrate by way of contrasts to Figure 13, how all heretofore practiced tourniquet procedures squeezed the entire ex-, tremity to a pulp at the point to which applied, thus imposing necrosive total constriction which completely stopped all circulation of the blood;=such tourniquet procedures too often resulted in complete mortification of the entire unnourished extremity thus necessitating gangrene debridements, and subsequent amputation. As here shown .by way of contrast to Figure 13, it becomes wholly obvious and apparent that my instant invention is capable of regulation, in accordance with the principles involved, to impart only a finger-weight of pressure to a focalized and specific spot and to thereby obviate the total constriction heretofore employed in the In the drawing, the letter L represents a tourniquet representative of the types heretofore employed, all of which were basically dependent upon total constriction to stop circulation of the blood; the letter M is intended to represent how terribly excruciating and barbaric is the total constriction of an extremity, the results of which too often require amputation due to the necrosion and mortification of squeezed tissues, flesh and the bone structures as well.
The foregoing specifications completely describe the preparation, construction, arrangement and assembly of the constituent and component elements, materials and parts, and the integral relation of each thereof to complete the whole thereof, and illustrate the methods of application and manipulation of my novel fingerweight artery compressor, all as involved, em-
braced and embodied therein in accordance with the principles of my instant invention. Corresponding identifying characters have been employed in the foregoing views to indicate the various parts and references thereto in the text of the descriptions thereof. Anyone who is able to read should likewise be thereby enabled to easily follow these simplified directions and to safety, effectively and positively control hemorrhage caused by arterial wounds until such time as competent aides arrive and/or hospitalization can be provided, all entirely without any assistance in the utilization of my instant invention.
Medical authorities recommend the release of tourniquets every 20 minutes to permit blood nourishment to circulate to all parts of a wounded extremtiy. In employing my instant invention as a tourniquet the compression produced thereby may be released instantly and at will; a simple side-wise finger-flicking action will unlock the lever of the compressor, thereby effecting completerelease of all pressure; a partial release of pressure may be instantly achieved by a simple fingers and palm technique of manipulation which will loosen the moveable tension-slide of the buckle. To resume full pressure it is only necessary to again depress the lever of the compressor and flick it back into the lock; pressure may be adjusted to any desired or required degree of compression by simply sliding back the buckle reference to my instant invention, in suchim.
stances and for such purposes for which they are essential to the aims and objectives and in accordance with the principles thereof as disclosed, described, illustrated and claimed.
Having reference to the claims I am aware that various possible changes and substitutions might be made in the construction, arrangement and assembly of the elements and parts without departing from the intent, spirit and scope of the claims hereinabove annexed, and in the methods, processes, procedures and sequences adopted to provide the execution and consumation of the embodiments involved, as well as in the employment and utilization of the component principles, elements, materials and parts embraced and involved in my invention as a whole.
Consequently it is to be understood that my claims are intended to be interpreted as illustrative and not to be limited in any sense to the exact and precise expressions given to the principles, elements, materials and parts therein embraced, embodied and involved.
n the contrary I deem my claims to specifically comprehend and to substantially involve, embrace, embody and include each and every principle, element and part disclosed and described, as well as each and every obvious apparent and contemplated purpose thereof.
My claims, further comprehend and include any and all possible variations of any of the circumscribed principles, elements and parts within the intent, spirit and scope of what is claimed, as well as any and all means, methods, processes, procedures and/or sequences of steps which may be employed, utilized and/or adopted to construct, arrange and assemble the embodiments involved in my invention as a whole.
Likewise my claims comprehend and include any and all possible contrivances within the intent, spirit and scope of what is claimed which may be employed individually, separately, together, collectively, integrally, cooperatively, reciprocally and/or collaboratively utilized in counterpart to perform the same functions of the principles, elements and parts disclosed and described, or in substitution thereof, to accomplish the aims, intents and purposes of my invention as a whole.
Specifically my claims comprehend, embrace, embody and include the construction, arrangement, assembly and integration of all the principles, elements and parts involved in the peculiar structure per se, as well as the applications, utilization, actuation and manipulation thereof in accordance with the purposes of my invention as a whole. It is intended that the employment and utilization of each of the component and integral principles, elements and parts shall be viewed and considered as a separate claim, as well as in the manner integrally related together in component, complemental, collaborative, corollary, cooperative and reciprocal combinations to achieve, attain, accomplish and consummate the aims, intents, objectives and purposes of my invention as a whole. Said peculiar structure may be constructed and/0r processed either as one complete unit, or in separate parts, or in any combinations or prefabrications of suitable elements and parts which may be assembled into an integral whole within the intent, spirit and scope of what is claimed. Said peculiar structure has been more specifically described elsewhere herein.
Specifically my claims comprehend, embrace,
embody and include the arrangement and integration of the principle and element of fulcrum per se, as involved and employed in my instant invention, as well as the principle and element of leverage and counter-leverage" thereby complementally and reciprocally created, generated and produced, by means of which to collaboratively accomplish and consummate the aims, intents, objectives and purposes of my invention as a whole. Said principles and elements of fulcrum and "leverage have been more specifically described elsewhere herein.
Furthermore my claims in general comprehend and substantially embrace, embody and include any and all elements and parts, as well as any principles involved and embodied therein which may be created and/or produced within the intent, spirit and scope of what is claimed by those skilled in the arts of design and construction, and which may be substituted subsequent inmyinstant application for Letters Patent to serve the purposes of any of the principles, elements and parts embraced and embodied or involved in my instant invention; and including as well, within the intent, spirit and scope of what is claimed, any and all obvious and apparent evasions of any of the component principles, elements and parts which may possibly contribute to the requirements involved and embodied in my invention and which, whether innocently or otherwise conceive, may suggest themselves to nullify or otherwise infringe on the aims of my invention and my rights therein to the whole thereof.
In testimony that I claim as my own the foregoing invention as set forth in the claims herein I have hereunto affixed my signature this 18th day of September, 1943. Said invention has not been in public use or on sale in the United States nor in any country foreign to the United States, to my knowledge; the date immediately above represents the date of conception.
1. In an artery compressor, the combination of a strap, a buckle permanently secured to said strap at one end of said strap, a rigid compressor element permanently attached to said strap, a rigid hook permanently attached to said strap, said compressor element being provided with an operating handle receivable in said hook, said hook being permanently attached to said strap at a point approximately midway between said buckle and said compressor element, said hook being adapted to receive said handle, said strap being adjustable as to effective length thereof by projecting an end thereof through said buckle and thereaftertightening said strap, the required compression being obtained by engaging said handle within the said hook preliminary to the adjusting of the effective length of said strap.
2. The combination set forth in claim 1, in which the compressor element is a cylinder and is attached to said strap along a generator of said cylinder, the said handle extending tangentially of said cylinder.
JOHN NU GENT WALTERS.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,218,313 Plummer Mar. 6, 1917 1,474,550 Philbrook Nov. 20, 1923 1,870,052 Jones Aug. 2, 1932