US 2481019 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1 W49. J. A. JOYCE 2,481,019
ORNAMENTAL COLORED FLAME czmnm:
Filed Feb. 21, 1948 FIG. I
swzlwwa KNQKKKQKWR viii/1112111 mmxww vmoillllllllllgi \w J WiiWIiI/AIIIK wmmxwmwm INVENTOR JAMES A. JOYCE ATTORNEYS Patented Sept. 6, 1949 UNITED STATES PATENT 'OFFICE ORNAMENTAL COLORED FLAME CANDLE James A. Joyce, Gary, Ind.
Application February 21, 1948, Serial No. 9,972
6 Claims. 1
This invention relates to ornamental candles and particularly to such devices arranged to produce a flame of predetermined color.
The main objects of this invention are to provide an improved ornamental candle; to provide such a device that will produce a flame of uniform predetermined color; to provide such a device, having a replaceable burning element for producing a mono-chromatic flame; and to provide an ornamental candle, arranged to produce a mono-chromatic flame of predetermined color, in which the burning element is a unit of the cartridge type that can be quickly and easily changed or replaced.
Other important objects of this invention are to provide an improved burning element that will produce a, mono-chromatic flame; to provide an improved construction for a mono-chromatic flame candle unit; and to provide an improved candle or candle cartridge that will burn with a brilliant flame of uniform predetermined color.
-A specific embodiment of this invention is shown in the accompanyin drawings in which:
Figure l is a view in elevation and partly in section showing the construction of the improved ornamental candle.
Fig. 2 is a sectional view, in elevation, showing the candle unit or burning element and illustrating its construction, and
Fig. 3 is a perspective view showing an arrangement for mounting the candle Wick in the consumable candle body or burning element.
In the form shown in the drawing the improved ornamental candle comprises a main body 11, made of any suitable material, arranged to stand by itself on a plane surface, and having a recess or socket 2 in its top end, opening vertically upward, and adapted to receive a candle cartridge or burning element 3.
While the main body I is shown as of the usual form of an ornamental candle of large size, made wholly of candle wax or consumable material, it is to be understood that the body may be of any desired ornamental or novelty shape and that the socket 2 may be located in any suitable part of the body as long as the said socket opens vertically upward. Thus the ornamental body may be in the form of a Santa Claus figure, for example, with the socket located in a pack carried over the shoulder of the figure.
Also, it will be understood that the ornamental body may be made of any suitable material other than candle wax, such as plaster of Paris, wood, plastic, etc., since it is intended that only the burning element 3 contained in the socket 2 be consumed. Thus the ornamental candle body may be of a substantially permanent construction adapted for repeated use over a long period of time.
The burning element 3 is preferably of the cartridge type, that is it is a relatively small replaceable unit which can be set into the socket 2, and, as shown in Fig. 2, the burning element comprises a cup-like shell 4, made of metal or other suitable solid material that will not melt under the temperatures produced around the candle flame and in the body of consumable material which provides fuel forthe flame. A wick 5 is mounted in the cartridge shell or cup 4 and the fuel, or consumable material is formed around the wick 5 so as to fill the shell t, the wick 5 projecting above the body of consumable material as shown in Fig. 2 for lighting or igniting purposes.
Since the material to be used for producing a mono-chromatic flame is ordinarily of a fairly low melting point, the upper portion at least of the fuel body tends to liquefy and when the burning element is about half consumed, a substantial part of the body of fuel becomes liquefied due to the heat of the flame. For this reason it is necessary to provide other support for the wick 5 within the body of the fuel itself, and, for this purpose, I provide a disc-like base member 6 in which the wick is mounted and which will rest flatly at the bottom of the shell t so as to hold the wick substantially upright and in central position within the shell t.
One form of such a wick base or support is shown in Fig. 3 and comprises a metal disc centrally pierced to provide a toothed opening 1 through which the wick 5 is threaded. As shown in Fig. 3, the margins of the pierced opening 1 of the base disc 6 are formed as upwardly projecting teeth 9 which serve to engage the sides of the wick and hold it firmly in the base member 6. Thus, even though the body of fuel may become liquefied, the wick will remain centrally disposed within the shell 4 and in a substantially upright 7 or any other suitable nitrogenous material that will burn with a non-luminous or colorless flame; and in this respect a light blue flame is generally considered to be colorless or non-luminous.
The flame coloring materials, which are preferably metallic salts, are dissolved in the fuel substance and then a color intensifying and stabilizing material is added to the fuel substance and the mixture is cast or otherwise formed to provide the burning element body.
The metallic salts for coloring the flame are preferably metallic chlorides, which are soluble in the fuel or consumable body material, such as lithium chloride or strontium chloride'for a red flame, and copper chloride for a green flame.
The flame c0101 intensifying material, which is preferably ammonium chloride or mercurous chloride, is not soluble in the fuel or body material and tends to settle out when the fuel is in liquid form. However, it must be substantially uniformly distributed throughout the fuel body in order to be effective and the suspension of this intensifying material in the fuel body presents a problem which has not been heretofore satisfactorily solved.
My reason for using the particular non-soluble materials for increasing the intensity or brilliance of the flame color is that these materials readily supply the chloride necessary to increase the spectra of the color desired and will not decrease the melting point of the body or fuel substance appreciably and will result in a uniform color that is steady and non-fading.
In order to provide a substantially uniform dispersion of the color intensifying materials in the fuel body, I formed the candle body in the cup or shell 4, after the wick 5 had been positioned, by pouring first a relatively thin, quickcooling layer of the fuel material and then, as soon as the layer begins to solidify, distributing the intensifying material in powder form over the surface of the fuel material just poured. By spreading the intensifying material as the fuel material is turning from liquid tosolid form, the intensifying material is prevented from settling entirely to the bottom of the shell 4, but rather is trapped substantially in a position of suspension in the fuel material. After spreading the first layer of intensifying material, a second layer of the fuel material is poured and as that layer begins to solidify a second layer of intensifying material is spread. This process is repeated until the entire candle body has been completely built up to the desired height around the wick 5, and it will be seen that the process consists substantially in folding-in the intensifying materials into the fuel or consumable material so that the intensifying material is suspended uniformly throughout the body of the candle unit.
This dispersion or distribution of color intensifying material in the candle body is illustrated in Fig. 2 by showing the fuel or consumable material as alternating layers 9 and by showing by weight of the coloring salts added to the nitrogenous material of the consumable candle body will produce very satisfactory results.
The quantity of mercurous chloride or ammonium chloride, for flame color intensifying purposes, is also from one to two percent by weight of the fuel material; and where a mixture of ammonium chloride and mercurous chloride is used for flame intensifying purposes, the mixture may comprise equal parts of these substances.
In order to produce a flame of pure uniform color it is necessary that the wick be free from any substance that might tend to contaminate the color of the flame. Therefore, the wick must be purged of any sodium that it might contain, since sodium in even extremely small amounts will produce a brilliant yellow color that will effect the uniformity of the desired flame. I prefer to use ordinary cotton wicks and I purge these wicks of sodium by treating the wicks with a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid that is just acetic enough to dissolve out any sodium which might be present, and yet not weaken or burn the wick material. A wick so treated when used in my colored flame candle will produce a pure color that is brilliant and sharp.
Also, in order to provide a wick that is quite satisfactory in so far as producing the pure unlformly colored flame is concerned, the wick, purged of all sodium may be impregnated with a water solution of the color producing and flame color intensifying metallic salts used in making the fuel body. A suitable impregnating solution may be made by adding one percent of the coloring producing metallic salt to a saturated solution of water and mercurous chloride. The purged or cleaned wicks are then placed in this solution and the solution is boiled down toabout one-fourth of its original volume and the wicks are then removed and dried, and are ready for use in constructing the candle units.
The colored flame candle units or cartridges are preferably formed with a height that is only slightly larger than the diameter or cross-sectional distance, in order to keep the wick length relatively short, since the wick itself burns very little as the candle is consumed and it is desirable to avoid as much as possible any precipitation of the metallic solids on the wick which would tend to destroy its absorptiveness for the nitrogenous fuel. Thus, a cartridge or candle unit having a diameter of one and one-half inches would have a height or length of substantially two inches, and for a cartridge three inches high the diameter would be from one and one-half to two inches.
The purpose of the cartridge shell is to provide a stable retainer for the nitrogenous fuel which, due to its low melting point, tends to allow the melted fuel material adjacent the flame to channel through the solid portion of the burning element body, the channels running from adjacent the wick to the sides of the body in a downward direction. Thus, without the shell the melted fuel would tend to channel through the side wall of the body and drain off as fast as it was produced by the heat of the flame.
The main advantages of this invention reside in the provision of an ornamental candle having a translucent uniform flame of predetermined color; and in the arrangement whereby the color of the flame can be changed as desired, using the same ornamental body. Further advantages are to be found in the construction whereby a colored flame ornamental candle may be had at relatively low cost, using relatively cheap material for the ornamental body and confining the more expensive colored flame producing materials to the burning unit itself.
Other advantages reside in the construction of the burning unit cartridge whereby danger of loss or spillage of the fuel material is obviated,
and wherein adequate support for the wick is had as long as the fuel remains. And still further advantages lie in the improved combination of colored flame producing material utilized in the burning unit; in the improved utilization of materials for intensifying and stabilizing the colored flame; in the construction of the burning unit whereby the flame coloring materials and the flame color intensifying materials are substan- I tially uniformly distributed throughout the fuel body; andin the improved candle wick whereby quick starting and a pure colored flame are obtained.
The term flame color intensifying," as employed herein, is intended to mean rendering the flame translucent through the addition of a fogging or clouding gas to the flame whereby the flame density is increased and the predetermined flame color is caused to be more apparent. The term is not intended to mean intensifying the flame temperature and brightness by the intro flame coloring substance dissolved therein, and a suspended non-soluble flame color intensifying material substantially uniformly distributed throughout said body, said body being formed around said wick.
2. A candle comprising a wick and a solid body of volatile nitrogenous material containing a metallic salt dissolved therein and capable of producing a flame of predetermined color, and a suspended non-soluble flame color intensifying material substantially uniformly distributed throughout said body, said body being formed around said wick in alternate transverse layers of nitrogenous material and flame intensifying material.
3. A candle comprising a solid body of volatile nitrogenous material containing a metallic salt dissolved therein and capable of producing a flame of predetermined color, a flame color intensifying material comprising a chloride suspended in said body and distributed substantially uniformly throughout the same, and a wick extending through said body, said wick being purged of sodium and impregnated with the flame color intensifying material, and said body being formed of alternate layers of nitrogenous material and flame intensifying material.
4. A candle comprising a wick and a solid body of volatile nitrogenous material containing a flame coloring substance dissolved therein, and a name color intensifying material substantially uniformly distributed throughout said body and capable of decomposing when heated to form a chloride gas and render the flame translucent.
5. A candle comprising a wick and a solid body a of volatile nitrogenous material containing a metallic salt dissolved therein and capable of producing a flame of predetermined color, and a suspended non-soluble flame color intensifying material substantially uniformly distributed throughout said body, said body being formed around said wick in relatively thin alternate transverse layers of nitrogenous material and flame color intensifying material and having width substantially equal to its height.
6. A candle comprising a cup-like shell having a closed bottom and a central wick extending upwardly therefrom, said shell being filled with a solid nitrogenous material containing a flame coloring substance dissolved therein, and a nonsoluble flame color intensifying material substantially uniformly distributed throughout said nitrogenous material, said nitrogenous material and said flame color intensifying material being disposed in said shell in alternate transversely extending layers.
JAMES A. JOYCE.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 455,501 Baumer July 7, 1891 984,029 Scheuble Feb. 14, 1911 1,281,077 Schlepp Oct. 8, 1918 1,320,109 Wooster Oct. 28, 1919 1,360,387 Fisher Nov. 30, 1920 1,583,798 Rosenberg May 11, 1926 1,608,518 Minrath NOV. 30, 1926 1,908,044 Nelson May 9, 1933 2,310,019 Hamblet Feb. 2, 1943 2,354,343 Webber et a1. July 25, 1944 2,436,995 Hamilton Mar. 2, 1948 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 15,057 Great Britain 1890 3,488 Australia n 1901