US 2481958 A
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C. VIDEC H E FLUID HEATER Sept. 13, 1949.
Filed April 9, 1948 2 Sheets-Sheet l yall! INVENTOR. BY W0@ ATTURNEYS.
CQ JIECHE FLUID HEATER Sept. 13, 1949.
Filed April 1948 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 JNVENToR.
avavz/f auf 744k' /4ATT0RNEY5- Patented Sept. 13, 1949 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE FLUID HEATER Carlos Videche, San Jose, Costa Rica Application April 9, 1948, Serial No. 20,073
5 Claims. 1
My invention relates to fluid heaters and more particularly to iiuid heaters of the instantaneous type. Y y
One of the objects of my invention is the construction of a compact, simple, inexpensive fluid heater of the instantaneous type which is positive in operation and easy to use, there Ibeing no moving parts employed in the unit itself.
Another object of the invention is the provision of an instantaneous fluid heater in which the fluid is in circuit with an electrical current and more particularly employing the use of a plurality of closely spaced electrodes connected in an electrical circuit and causing the fluid to flow in circuit around and between said electrodes in a continuous tortuous path.
A further object of the invention resides in a construction by which the fluid to be heated is caused to contact substantially the entire electrode area of the device A further object of the invention is the provision of a device of this kind which by virtue of the iiuid to be heated being in circuit, renders the device substantially automatic in operation, that is, by causing the iiuid to flow in contact with the electrodes the electrical circuit is thereby established, and by terminating such flow the electrical circuit is broken. Y
A still further object of the invention is the provision of a fluid heater of the instantaneous type .by which the desired temperature of the heated iluid may be controlled by controlling the iiow of the fluid through a unit of given electrode area.
Another object consists in the provision of a fluid heater of the type described which can, if
desired, be placed in more or less continuous operation over long periods of time.
A still further object of the invention resides in a construction which is not only simple but which is sturdy and safe to use under operating condione form of my invention,
Figure 2 is an end view of the assembled unit shown in Figure 1,
Figure 3 is a section taken-.on line 3-3 of Figure 2,
Figure 4 is a section taken on line 4-4 of Figure 2,
Figure 5 is an end view of a modified form of my invention, Y A f Figure 6 is a transverse section taken on line 6 6 of Figure 5 :Figure '7 'is a plan view of a further modified form of my invention,
Figure 8 is a vertical longitudinal section of the form shown in Figure 7 and istaken on line 8-8 of Figure 9, and
Figure 9 is a transverse section taken on line 9-9 of Figure 8. Y
- Referring rst to Figures 1 to 4 inclusive I will proceed to descri-be the form of the invention disclosed therein. Y l
This embodiment of my invention comprises a type of fluid lheater-unit in which the fluid inlet and outlet are coaxlally arranged near the periphery of the device and in which the fluid is disbursed or guided over substantially the entire area of adjacent sides of adjacent electrodes and thence in contact with adjacent sides of successive adjacent electrodes in a series, alternate electrodes being Vconnected to the live side of a source of electrical energy, and the remaining alternate electrodes and the casing of the device being connected to ground.
More specifically, in referring to Figures 1 to 4v inclusive I have provided a casing I having a fluid inlet 2 anda uid outlet`3 co-axially arranged near the periphery of the casing. The inlet may be suitablyv threaded as shown for connection with a source of fluid Vto be heated, and likewise the'outle't may also be threaded as shown for connection with a pipe line whereby the heatedv fluid may be dispensed where desired.
Within the casing I are mounted a series of plates or discs 4 and 5, the .discs 4 being larger in diameter than the discs 5 and adapted to be secured in spaced relation within the casing I and in peripheral contact with the casing as shown in' Figure 3. The discs 4 may be anchored in place in the casing by means of soldering, brazing or the like so that all of the discs 4 will be connected' to ground.
The discs 5 being of less diameter than the discs 4- are supported in the casing I out of contact with the casing and with the adjacent discs 4 between which they are supported in spaced parallel relation.
The discs 4 are provided with a plurality of, openings 6 at substantially equally spaced intervals near their peripheries for receiving the rivets 1. The rivets 'I also extend through enlarged aligned openings 8 in the discs 5 in which are mounted the insulating washers 9, the headed end I of the rivets engaging the outer surface of the outermost disc 4 while the opposite end of the respective rivet passes through the end wall of the casing I and is peened over or headed as at I2, thus locking the respective alternate discs 4 and in a spaced series within the casing In addition vto the. insulating washers, .there may be provided spacing vwashers of insulating material I3 through which the rivets 1 pass and which are located between the adjacent respective discs 4 and 5 as shown.
The discs 4 are also provided with an enlarged opening I4 in axial alignment with the axes of the inlet and outlet 2 and 3 respectively when the said discs are mounted in the casing.. Thesee'm larged openings are for the purpose of conveying the iiuid from one side of the respective discs '4 to the opposite side thereof as will be explained L more fully hereinafter.
The discs 5 are each provided with. aligned threaded openings I5 for receiving a large screw or the like I6. These openings are lcated when the device is assembled, in substantial axial alignment with the openings I4; therefore the screw I6 in connecting the discs 5 will pass through the openings I4 of the several discs 4 out of engagement with 'the walls of the openings I4.
Each of the discs 5 is provided with -a plurality of ribs I'I of electrical insulating material on each of its opposite surfaces, these ribs extending substantially in a radial direction and diverging outwardly from near the respective openings I5 in these discs to a point near the peripherythereof as indicated in Figures 1 and 2, the intermediate rib |11 being interrupted near the opening 8 in each of the discs 5 as illustrated. Arranged at aplurality of places aroundtheperiplieries of the d isc's 5 are a plura'litr of spacingmembersIB ofinsulating material. These members are secured to the discs on opposite sides 'thereof as illustrated.
One of the discs 5 is'prOVided with a binding post I9 which extends outwardly through the ca 's7 ing I through an enlarged opening therein as illustrated in Figures 1 and 3, so thatthis binding post will be free of contact with any parte! the casing. To further insure i nsulation 'o fjthe binding postfrom thecasing an insulating washer 2| is provided to overlie "the casing `wallal'jliacent the opening 20., A lmetallic washer fa'n'd a nut areprovided for the binding post whereby an .electrical conductor connectedwith Ya ,source off electrical energy may be secured thereto. The Outer grounded disc 4, la portionbfwhicnlies adjacent the binding post 'I9,fis deformed. sofas to be spaced from the adjacent .surface of the binding postlB, as indicated in Figure. 3.
From the abovedescription itwill be seen. that thev assembled unit Iwill provide a. structure wherein a fluid to be heated will enter at 2 and pass through the opening I4 in theiirst grounded disc 4 (to the 1eft1n Figures 1 and 3) to theoppcsite side of this disc. The course then .Willbe betweenthe diverging ribs` I I and |11, and in .contact with theadjacent surfaces of ,the, 'f irs tjdisc. 5 andthe adjacent disc 4 contacting substantially the entire area of the adacent faces eff these two discs or electrodes, and then flowing vert'he peripheraledge of theiirstdisc 5 whereupon it will be causedtoow in contactwitnth'e adja cen`t ..surfaces ofthe disc 5 fan`d the 'secend disc 4, thence throughth opening. 4in the secf ond disc 4 and downwardly yin contact with sub- GII stantially the entire adjacent surfaces of the second disc 4 and the second disc 5, between and around the ribs I7 and |11 thereof, whereupon the fluid will flow over the peripheral edge of the second disc 5, thence out through the opening 24 which may be restricted as shown and then through the outlet 3. Since the alternate discs 4 are secured along these peripheral edges to the inner circumferential wall of the casing I, the fluid can only now past these discs through the opening I4.
While I have illustrated in Figure 1 a device having a limited number of alternate discs 4 and 5', I do not intend to be limited to the number Shown, inasmuch as under certain other conditions of use vit Amay be desired to employ a greater or lesser number of pairs of discs depending upon the volume of uid to be heated.
Referring now more particularly to Figures 5 and 6 of the drawings, I have illustrated therein another embodiment of this invention which in some respects is similar to the embodiment just described, but which differs primarily in that the inlet and outlet Lconnections for the uid, while in axial alignment, are arranged to be in substanial axial alignment also with the discs of the unit, as distinguished lfrom the arrangement shown in Figures 1 to y4 inclusive. Furthermore in the present embodiment I have provided a different type of means for causing the to contact substantially the entire surface area of the respectivedisc's.
The unit comprises a casingBI having inlet and outlet threaded coupling`s32 vand 33 respectively. The casing 3| comprises a receptacle which may be drawn from a lsheet ofmet'al 'and is provided with an outlet opening 34m its wall 35 Vcommuni-- catingwith the outlet 33. The cover plate 38 when assembled may be secured to and sealed in the casing by welding, Vbra'zng or by other suitablemeans along its .peripheral edges as at 31. 'Ihecover is provided witha central axial opening 3s ofv a diameter. substantially that 0f the ntting 32 with which it communicates. Contrasted to the lsize of the opening 38it will be noted that the opening 34, which lis'in substantial axial alignment therewith, is restricted.
Within the casing 3I are mounted a plurality of metal discs in alternative fashion and in spaced relation v'as indicated at 39 and 43 respectively, the alternate di s` c s. 39 .being supported axially on athreaded memb er '4l operatingV in 'threaded openings in these discs. The alternate discs 4' are of greater diameter and are providedwith Yenlargedaxijal openings 4215s 'permit the passage of uidaxially throughjthesefdiscs as will bedescribed more fully hereinafter, and to .permit pass age ofthe member 4 I out of contact with .the walls of these opening's. The peripheral edges ofthe discs 40 Aare secured to the inner peripheral wall of the casing `3I as shown, while the peripheral edgls of the discs 39 are spaced from this inner wa interposed between the. respective alternate discs 38 and 40 and betweenthe Iend disc` orplate 3 5 and the adjacent di sc 39 and also between the bottom Wall 35 and. t h e adjacentdlsc 39, are the spacer and fluid directing members 43. These members are formed of, electrical insulating material and may be a'ssembled 'and secured to the opposite faces ofeither. the discs 39 or 40 before assembly in the caslngf3'l`.
These members comprise aperipheral portion 43 from which the ribs 44 project radially inwardly from near the periphery of the member and terminate short of a 'substantially' circula!" portion 45 of the member which is arranged coaxially around the openings 42. lExtending substantially radially outward of the circular portion 45 but terminating short of the peripheral portion of the member 43 are a plurality of ribs 46. A rib 41 connects the circular portion 45 with the peripheral portion 43, while theperipheral portion 43 terminates short of the junction of the rib 41 with the opposite end of the peripheral portion 43 as indicated at 43.
Thus it will be seen'referring particularly to Figure 5, that' uid entering the inlet 32 will pass between'the end plate 36 and the adjacent disc 39 and thence through the opening 49` provided in the substantially circular portion of the insulating member 45. The fluid will thence flow in a counterclockwise direction flrst upwardly and thence around the successive ribs 46 and 44 respectively and will thereby be guided toward the opening 56 where it will be caused to spill or iiow over the peripheral edge I Vof the adjacent disc 39. In this circuitous travel of the fluid it will be seen that it -will be distributed over substantially the entire surface area of the adjacent walls of the end plate 36 and the adjacent disc 39.
In Figure 6 in which the device is illustrated in cross-section, the arrows indicate the direction of flow of the fluid between and around each of the successive discs in the series comprising the unit, in each stage being guided or directed over substantially the entire surface area of the respective adjacent discs. As further indicated by the arrows in Figure 6 the fluid will nd its exit through the restricted opening 34 in the bottom wall 35 of the casing and will thence be directed outwardly through the outlet 33.
In Figures '1, 8 and 9 I have illustrated a further embodiment of the present invention which comprises an outer casing 60 preferably in the form of an elongated tube having a fluid inlet 6| and a fluid outlet 62 connected therewith. Within this tube are mounted a plurality of alternate discs or electrodes 63 and 64, the electrodes 64 being of greater diameter than the discs 63 and contacting at their peripheral edges with the metal casing or tube 6U. Each of the discs 64 is provided with an enlarged central opening 65 through which a bolt 66 is adapted to pass. The alternate discs 63 are provided with axial openings for receiving the bolt 66 on which these discs are supported. The discs 63 are further supported at spaced intervals along their peripheries by means of insulating blocks 61 having suitable grooves 68 therein for receiving the outer edges of these discs. The insulating blocks 61 not only support the discs 63 radially within the tube 60, but further serve to properly space them from the adjacent discs 64.
The outer disc 641 is provided With an `open ing 69 whereby the fluid to be heated may enter the succession of spaced discs, whereas the end disc 1l! is provided with an outlet opening 1| which preferably is restricted as compared with the diameter of the opening 69. Th-e bolt 66 is insulated from the end plates 641 and by means of its insulating washers 12 and 13 respectively and is provided on one end with a nut 14 operating against the metallic washer 15 and against the insulating washer 12 whereby the respective discs may be clamped together in spaced relation and assembled as a unit. The bolt 66 also serves as a binding post for connecting a conductor 16 which leads from a binding post 11 mounted on but insulated from the tubular casing 60. A source 'oi.,e1ectrical` energy may be connected with the binding' post 11 while the casingf60 is preferably grounded as at 18.
In this form of the invention it will be seen that the mode of assembly of the unit may be somewhat simplified in that the `discs may beI assembled in proper relationship and then inserted in the open end of the tubular casing 60v to which subsequently may. be secured at its ends the respective inlet and outlet members 'I ll and 62, by means of Welding or the like as at '19.-
From the foregoing description 'ofthis invention .and its several modifications it will be seen that I have providedl a" relatively simple elec trically operated heating unit for fluids such-as.
water, in which there are provided :spaced electrodes between which the fluid is caused to travel and circulate incontact with these electrodes' in a somewhat circuitous path between the inlet andthe outlet of the devices. operation is substantially the same in each ofthe forms illustrated and described. By means of this invention these-devices lend themselves to economical manufacture and `provide means whereby water or other fluid may be heated to substantially any degree desired as it lflows through the unit, such-heating being substantially instantaneous in lits nature. It will also be seen that by terminating or shutting off the flow of fluid through the unit, the device becomes inactive electrically since the fluid must be present to complete the electrical circuit between the adjacent electrodes through the unit. Thus the device possesses a high safety factor in its operation.
Various changes may be made in the details of construction and arrangement of parts without departing from the spirit of the invention or the scope of the appended claims.
1. An electrical fluid heater of the fluid-incircuit type comprising a housing, a plurality of spaced apart plate electrodes in said housing, alternate plates being connected together to ground and the remaining plates adapted to be connected to a source of electrical energy, a fluid inlet in said housing, a fluid outlet therefor, and means intermediate adjacent plates for directing the iiuid to be heated therebetween and in contact with substantially the entire surface area of said plates, said means causing said fluid to move over the plate surfaces in a direction substantially radial to its initial point of contact with said surfaces.
2. In a fluid heater, a casing, a fluid inlet, a fluid outlet, a plurality of plate electrodes in said casing and spaced apart to permit the fluid to be heated to contact and flow over the adjacent surfaces of said plates, alternate plates having electrical connection with a source of electrical energy and the remaining plates being grounded to said casing, said fluid completing an electrical circuit between said plates, and means between each of the adjacent plates of the device and disposed in a direction substantially radial to the axis of the fluid inlet whereby to distribute the iiuid over substantially the entire surface area of said plates and toward the peripheries of certain of said plates.
3. In a fluid heater, a casing, a iiuid inlet, a fluid outlet, a plurality of plate electrodes in said casing and spaced apart to permit the fluid to be heated to contact and flow over the adjacent surfaces of said plates, alternate plates having electrical connection with a source of electrical The principle of msnm @EFERENGES GITED