US 2482242 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sent. 20, 1949 J, BRUSTMAN 2,482,242
' cons SELECTOR Filed June 9, 1948 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 1. 7 [6 QOCOOO. 0.0000
OOOOOOO OOOOOOO INVENTOR. JOSEPH A. BRUSTMAN By M. W
Sept- 20, 1949- J. A. BRUSTMAN CODE SELECTOR 2 SheetsSheet 2 Filed June 9, 1948 mmmkddl 06 AJ g U RS B A A M H P E S 0% J INVENTOR.
Patented Sept. 20, 1949 UNITED STATES PAT ENT."OFFICE "2,482.24;
Joseph A. Brustman, Fairileld, Conn., assignor to Remington Band Inc New York, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware Application June s, 1948. Serial No. 31,999
4 Claims.- (cl. cam-219) 1 This inventionv relates to a system of coding film photographs and more. particularly relates to apparatus and means for selecting predetermined pictures by means of a code of black dots arranged on the film beside the picture. While the invention is subject to a wide range of applications, it is especially suited for use in projection machines using microfilm to show pictures and recorded data sheets and will be described in that application. I
Codes for sorting and selection purposes have been used extensively in the past, especially in the punched data card applications where the system. of punched holes is arranged in a coded pattern and may be used to select one card or a class of cards for accounting purposes. Punched telegraph tapes also use codes, some combinations of which are used to stop the tape. The above applications, however, all use mechanical or electrical sensing of holes which have been put in a tape. The present invention uses black dots on a photographic film which are developed at the same time the picture is developed and which may be scanned or sensed by a light beam without mechanical or electrical contact with the medium which carries the code.
There have been some applications in the prior art wherein data has been put on film in the form of coded dot arrangements. To use such data the film is scanned or sensed by a number of lightsensitive devices, generally one photoelectric. cell for each dot position. Such a scheme requires a great many light sensitive cells and so many amplifier stages as to make the device impractical. The present invention uses a single photoelectric cell and a single seriesof amplifier stages to achieve the required result.
"It is an object of the invention, therefore, to provide an improved code selector which avoids one or more of the'disadvantages and limitations oi prior art arrangements.
Another object of the invention is to enable anoperator to find a picture in a roll of film by inserting the corresponding code in a selector mechanism and running the film through the mechanism at a relatively high rate of speed. The mechanism of the selector stops-the film at the desired picture.
Another object of the invention is to provide a code selector which can be set to detect and. act one general classification of coded pictures.
Another object of the invention is to shorten the time of finding a desired picture in a large roll of film when the picture position is not known.
I One feature of the invention includes a code selector mechanism which produces an electrical impulse "whenever a predetermined arrangement of opaque areas is sensedon a light transparent tape and comprises a sensing chamberwhich supports and guides the tape while in motion. A source of light is employed for illuminating part of the sensing chamber and alight sensitive element is used to sense light from the source which has been directed through the sensing chamber and tape. A control mechanism stops the tape when the light sensitive element receives no light through the coded areas.
Another feature of the invention includes a sensing. chamber with retractable stops or gates.
The gates are set to agree with the desired code;
. gates corresponding to the black areas are left open; gates corresponding to the transparent areas are closed. Then when the corresponding code passes through thesensing chamber all the light will be cut ofl and the control unit will function.
For a better understanding of the present invention, together with other and further objects thereof, reference is made to the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings,
Fig. 1 is a plan view of a film or tape showing coded opaque areas in one of the arrangements used.
Fig. 2 is a plan view of a similar tape with the coded opaque areas arranged in alternate form.
Fig. '3 is a sectional view of the entire sensing system showing the light source, sensing chamher. and photoelectric cell.
Fig. 4 is a plan view of the sensing chamber with some parts broken away.
Fig. 5 is a schematic diagram of connections of an amplifier used to amplify the output of the photoelectric cell and operate a relay.
Referring now to Figs. 1 and 2, a transparent tape or film 6 is shown with indicated picture areas I where documents or book pages may be photographed or printed thereon. A series of small opaque dots 8 are arranged along the margin in one form (Fig. 1) and between picture areas in another form (Fi 2). The number of opaque dots and their position represents a predetermined code by which each document on the film may be indexed and selected. The total number .of combinations available from such a code depends upon the number of positions used and the manner of using them. For reasons which will appear hereinafter, fourteen areas are used when coding the pictures on a standard foot length of microfilm and of each fourteen areas, seven 3 always black and seven transparent. Such an arrangement produces over 6,000 combinations which is more than sufficient since the standard 100 foot length has space for approximately 2000 standard sized documents.
The process of code selection is performed in a sensing chamber 9 which may be mounted on a standard reading or projection machine. The sensing arrangement includes a lamp ID, a condensing lens I I which produces the equivalent of parallel light rays, an upper aperture plate It. a series of settable slides I1, and a lower aperture plate IS. The two aperture plates I5 and I8 contain aligned holes or apertures which correspond to the opaque area positions on the film. The slides H are arranged to act as light stops for opening or closing the path'of light through the apertures.
Below the sensing chamber 9 a field lens I4 is employed to gather the parallel light rays and focus them on a photoelectric cell I 5 or any other suitable form of light sensitive element. The photoelectric cell is connected to an amplifier (see Fig. 5) which controls a relay I8 with contacts 20 in series with a motor 2I andconnections for a source of electric power 22. The motor is geared to one of the spools 23'which holds the film 6 so that the film may be run through the sensing chamber during the selection operation.
The amplifier shown in Fig. 5 contains four stages and a power supply and is described by way of example only. Any good electronic coupling between the photoelectric cell I5 and the relay It may be used. The amplifier shown has a secnd stage 26 which is adjusted to pass no anode current as long as the photoelectric cell l receives light. When the photoelectric cell is dark there is no current through resistor 25 and the current is reduced in the anode branch thereby producing a positive pulse which is applied. to the next stage 25. Stage 26 is biased below the cutoif value by an adjustable voltage divider circuit and passes only the peak of the voltage pulse from stage 24. Stage 26 and the following stage 21 are the usual A. C. resistance coupled stages which are capable of receiving and amplifying a sharp pulse. The last stage 28 is provided with a'gase ous discharge device such as the 2-D-21 or equivalent andls adjusted to pass no anode current in its quiescent state. When a positive electric pulse is applied to the control electrode the device is changed to the conducting state and current will flow between the anode and cathode.
The anode current will continue until the anode circuit is broken regardless of the subsequent potential of the control electrode. For this reason the relay I8 has no locking circuit. A normalizing switch 30 is provided so that the operator may break the anode circuit, unlock the relay I8, and re-start the film motor.
In addition to the amplifier stages, above described, the amplifier system includes two rectifier tubes 3| ply and a step down transformer 33 to supply current to the lamp I0.
Operation Selection of individual pictures of documents is accomplished by first finding the corresponding code number. Codes are generally designated by numbering the available areas and listing the numbers that are opaque. For example, the left hand series of dots in Fig. 1 has the reference number 123578-12 and the arrangement in Fig. 2 is 13678940.
and 32 for the usual direct current sup- The next step consists in setting the slides or stops I? in conformity with the code. All steps having numbers present in the code are pushed in (see Fig. 4) thereby providing a clear aperture for the light to pass through h Sen-$1118 chamber. All other stops are left out, in a position which closes the apertures and cuts off the light. The setting shown in Fig. 4 is for the left hand code of Fig. 1.
Next, one end of the film is threaded over the sensing chamber position and the motor started by actuating switch 30. The switch breaks the anode current. the relay contacts 20 are made, and the motor 2I starts. It has been found that a. film speed of feet per minute is a satisfactory speed to use with this type of selector.
As the coded opaque areas pass under the lens II and over the sensing chamber 9, the light rays will be out 0113 from many of the open apertures but the photoelectric cell and amplifier are so adjusted as to remain in the unactuated state as long as one aperture is open. Only when the desired code combination is over the sensing chamber will the light be entirely out off and the photoelectric cell send a pulse through the amplifier to stop-the motor and film.
The film may now be examined or read without disturbing the sensing apparatus. If it is desired to select another picture the code is changed by resetting the stops I'I. Then the button 30 is pushed in thereby releasing the relay and starting the motor. If it is desired to reel in all the film in order to change spools, all the stops are pushed in to their open apertured position, and the motor started. Since none of the codes comprises an arrangement of fourteen opaque dots the film will not be stopped and may be wound up on one of the spools.
There may be an occasion wherein the operator desires to select a number of pictured documents belonging to a class rather than a single picture. This is made possible by including in a certain class all coded arrangements which have the same arrangement of opaque areas in a certain part of the code field. For example, let it be assumed that a certain classification of subjects is represented by four black areas in the first row of seven positions, namely 1367 (see Fig. 2, left hand row). There is now remaining a second row of seven positions which may have three opaque areas arranged in any of the positions. The combinations for the second row are thirty-five (seven positions taken three at a time). Document pictures in this class may be selected by setting the first seven stops IT in the usual manner and by pulling out all the remaining seven stops. Then whenever any coded arrangement appears over the sensing chamber having opaque areas in the 1-3-8- and 7 positions the light will be cut oil from the photo-cell and the film will be stopped.
While there have been described and illustrated, specific embodiments of the invention. it will be obvious that various changes and modifications may be made therein without departing from the field of the invention which should be limited only by the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. A code selector for stopping the motion of a moving transparent tape when a predetermined arrangement of opaque areas on the tape is sensed comprising; a sensing chamber which supports and guides the tape while in motion and contains apertures within the tape area; a plurality of settable stops for closing said apertures; a source of light for illuminating said apertures; a light sensitive element for sensing light from the source which has passed through the tape and the apertures in the sensing chamber, and a control mechanism for stopping the motion of the tape when the light sensitive element receives no light.
2. A code selector for stopping the motion of a transparent moving tape when a predetermined arrangement or opaque areas on the tape is sensed comprising; means for moving the tape; a sensing chamber which supports and guides the tape while in motion and contains apertures above and below the tape position; a plurality of settable stops for closing said apertures; a source of light for illuminating said apertures; a light sensitive element for sensing light from the source which has passed through the tape and the apertures in the sensing chamber, and a control mechanism for disabling the tape moving means when the light sensitive element receives no light,
3. A code selector for stopping the motion of a transparent moving tape when a predetermined arrangement of opaque areas on the tape issensed comprising; means for moving the tape; a sensing chamber which supports and guides the tape while in motion and contains apertures above and below the tape position; a plurality of settable stops for closing said apertures, said stops settable in predetermined array to close ofl those apertures corresponding to transparent areas on the tape; a source of light for illuminating said apertures; a light sensitive element for sensing light from the source which has passed through the tape and the apertures in the sensing chamber, and a control mechanism for disabling the tape moving means when the light sensitive element receives no light.
4. A code selector for stopping the motion of a transparent moving tape when a predetermined arrangement of opaque areas on the tape is sensed comprising; means for moving the tape; a sensing chamber which supports and guides the tape while in motion and contains apertures above and below the tape position; a plurality of settable stops forclosing said apertures, said stops settable in predetermined array to close off those apertures corresponding to transparent areas on the tape; a source of light for illuminating said apertures; a light sensitive element for sensing light from the source which has passed through the tape and the apertures in the sensing cham her, and an electron discharge device having input and output circuits connected between the light sensitive element anda disabling switch for disabling the tape moving means when the light sensitive element receives no light.
" JOSEPH A. BRUS'IMAN.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the flle of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS