US 2483377 A
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c. E. YOUNG AIR CHANGER Sept. 27, 1949.
2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Jan. 14, 1947 p 1949- c. E. YOUNG 2,483,377
AIR CHANGER Filed Jan. 14, 1947 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 r J w kan. 55
openings. This apparatus is adapted primarily to be- Patented Sept. 27,1949
" UNITED STATES PATENT oFrlca am cnanona Charles E. Young, Cincinnati, Ohio, a'ssignor to The Eagle-richer Com 1 corp ration of Ohio pany, Cincinnati, Ohio,
mutation January 14,4947, Serial no. meat 1 This invention relates to ventilating apparatus and is particularly directed tov a power driven air changer of improved design for installation in the attic or basement of a residential building to induce av controlled flow of fresh air through the building. Operating as an induction blower, the
utilized during the summer months to induce ventilation through the building by developing a slight pressure differential between the living 1y. The system provides efllcient positive ventilation, and permits fresh air to be inducted into the rooms desired, while those rooms requiring no ventilation may be closed oil.
Although designed primarily for summer use, the system may also be utilized during the winter months to induce r'resh air into the building for installation wherever a large volume of air is to be moved quietly and at low pressure.
The principal objective of this invention has been to provide a centrifugal type blower which is of better operating efiiciency than centrifugal blowers heretofore available but which, at the same time operates quietly so as to be adapted for residential usage adjacent sleeping quarters.
The invention briefly is based upon the discovery that these improvements in performance are obtained in a drum type blower having tandum sets of impeller blades in which one set is disposed slightly in angular relationship to the other set. In this manner, a more uniform air flow is produced which noticeably increases the eificiency of the unit and facilitates its operation without noise or flutter.
It has been a further object to provide a blower having vanes which are constructed and arranged to absorb vibration incident to air flow and thereby lower the noise level to produce substantially silent operation. I
Further objects and advantages of the invention will be more fully disclosed in the drawings and in the following detailed description in which 10 Claims. ((51. 98-43) a typical embodiment of the improved structure is illustrated.
Figure 1 is aside view of an installed air changerunit partially broken away to more clearly disclose the several features of the invention.
Figure 2 is a' top plan view or the unit: with parts broken away to further illustrate the strucure.
Figure 3 is an enlarged sectional view taken on line 3-3, Figure 1, illustrating the impeller drive shaft and bearings therefor.
Figure 4 is' a fragmentary enlarged side view of. a portion of the impeller wheel illustrating the angular relationship of one 'set of: the vanes with respect to the other set. Figure 5 is a face view of one of the impeller vanes as removed from the impeller-wheel.
Figure 6 is a sectional view taken on line S -6,
Figure 5, disclosing the sound deadening construction of the vanes.
Figure 7 is a longitudinal sectional view taken on line 'l.l, Figure 5, further illustrating the construction of the vane.
Figure 8 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view showing details of the construction shown in Figure '7.
Referring to Figure 1 0f the drawings, the blower unit comprisesessentially a frame indicated generally at In, an impeller unit I l and an electrical drive motor l2 mounted on the frame. The impeller wheel II is keyed upon the lower end of a vertical shaft I 3 sustained in bearings 14 which are mounted upon the frame Ill. The
upper end of the shaft I3 carries a pulley l5 whichis driven from pulley I 8 0f the motor I! bymeans of a V-belt I1.
' Frame l0 preferably is fabricated from channel iron members and is in the form of an inverted U-shaped hanger having a pair of vertical limbs I8-l8, and a pair of spaced horizontal cross members l9-l9. The horizontal members l9-l9 are spaced from each other a sufilcient distance to properly stabilize the shaft I3 which is iournaled in the bearings ll-ll carried by the cross members l9-I9. Cross members l9--l9 likewise provide a mount for the drive motor 12 which is disposed to one side of the impeller unit.
1 Vertical side members It of frame III are sui ably secured to a base plate 2| preferably by bolting the lower ends of the members to the base plate and to the vertical flange 22 surrounding it;
This permits the unit to be shipped in knock down 3 condition making handling and installation easier. As shown, base plate 2| may be mounted directly upon the joists 23 of the building, for which purpose the flooring may be removed or omitted. Alternatively, the unit may be mount ed directly upon the floorin which case a suitable opening is formed through the flooring to provide an air intake into the funnel 25 which communicates through the ceiling 26 to the room below. In either installation the joists supporting the blower are preferably reinforced by framing the opening in an appropriate manner. For basement installations, the arrangement of the building permits, the unit may be mounted beneath the joists with the funnel 25 opening in to the floor above. For other installation conditions, the blower unit may be mounted vertically for discharge from a plenum chamber.
An inlet funnel 25 is provided at the entrance to the wheel, and the upper end of the funnel may be secured to the base plate 2i in any approved manner for example by a beaded joint, or as shown, by a flange 21 secured to the underside of the base plate by welding or riveting. The base plate 2| includes an opening 20 matching the upperend of the funnel for admitting air into the open lower end of impeller wheel ii. The lower end of the funnel 25 has a circumferential flange 32, similar to flange 21, forming a marginal band flush with the lower surface of the ceiling as indicated at 33. The lower end-of the funnel opening into the ceiling preferably includes an ornamental grill 35 to conceal the opening and provide a neat and finished appearance.
As shown in Figures 1 and 3 the impeller unit ii is suspended for rotation on a vertical axis by the drive shaft I3, shaft i3 being secured against vertical displacement by means of collars 36-36 respectively adjacent the upper and lower bearing blocks ll. These collars are secured to shaft l3 by means of set screws, screw threaded in the collars and engaged against shaft i3. Each bearing block ll includes ball bearings 38 having an inner race 40 engaged on shaft l3 and an outer race ll seated in a recess formed in the bearing blocks. The respective bearin blocks are secured to the cross members 19 by means of bolts 43 in screw threaded engagement in the bearing blocks or if desired the bolts may be extended through the flanges of the bearing blocks and nuts applied to the ends of the bolts.
Pulley l5, which drives the impeller, includes a hub 45 non-rotatably secured to shaft II by means of key 46. The pulley hub is maintained in position on the endof shaft i3 preferably by a friction or pressed fit of the hub on the shaft.
The impeller drum l l is carried upon the lower end of shaft i3 by means of a flanged sleeve 41 keyed as at 46 to shaft l3. Additionally a pressed fit may be provided for which purpose the end of shaft l3 and the base may be tapered slightly. In order properly to reinforce and stabilize the rotor with reference to the drive shaft IS, a concave or dished reinforcing plate 50 is utilized, this plate being of circular configuration, and having its outer periphery secured by welding or other means to the top closure plate 5| of the impeller. Plate 51 is secured to the upper end of sleeve 41 by means of bolts 52 through plate 51 and flange 53 of sleeve 41, and the reinforcing plate 50 is secured by a bolt 54 screwthreaded into the end of shaft l3 to engage a washer 55 which in tin-n bears against reinforcing plate 50. This arrangement prevents angular displacement or springing of rotor with respect to shaft [3 75 hers I5 therebetween.
. '4 and the opposite or lower end of the impeller therefore need not be supported.
The impeller unit II as shown in the drawings includes respective upper and lower sets of vanes divided by an intermediate shroud ring 60, each set of vanes being provided with a pair of lateral end flanges 6|. The flanges of the upper set of vanes are secured respectively to the closure plate 5| and the shroud ring 60, and those of the lower set are secured to the shroud ring and to the intake ring 58 at the bottom of the impeller. As viewed in Figure 2 the vanes 62 and 63 are tangent to a circle concentric to the axis of the impeller. It is to be noted that the lower set of vanes 62 is in horizontal alignment with the upper set 63, butthat the lower set is disposed atan angle vertically with respect to the upper set.
An intake ring 58 is disposed immediately above the discharge end 01. funnel 25 to provide an opening 64 in alignment with the opening 20 of the base plate 2|. .Intake ring '58 is spaced slightly above the base plate 2! to clear with the plate 2| although the two members are -sufficiently close to prevent any substantial inefflcient passage of air between the ring and plate.
It will be noted that the opening defined by the shroud ring is proportionately smaller than the opening defined by the lower intake ring 58. Experiment has indicated that the shroud ring-60 improves the air flow characteristics, improves performance and increases the capacity of the unit. 7
Figure 4 diagrammatically illustrates the angular displacement of vanes 62 with respect to vanes 63 as indicated by the angle "A disposes the lower or forward edge of the vane in advance of its rearward edge relative to the direction of impeller rotation. The vanes 63 are preferably set at 90 to the plane of the shroud ring 60 and closure plate ii is indicated by the angle B. This relationship creates a differential air flow of the upper section of the impeller relative to the lower section. In the preferred embodiment, by way of example, the vanes of the lower set are set 3Y2 relative to the upper set based upon impeller velocity and displacement, although this angle may be varied according to the design of the impeller. The precise flow path is not known but the turbulence is reduced, a smooth and even' air flow is produced and the efllciency of the ally increased.
Each vane is formed of sheet metal and constitutes in eflect, a sheet metal envelope enclosing a layer of sound deadening material such as felt, soft fibreboard or the like. For this purpose the vane is formed of two panels, one overlying the other, with the marginal edges of the panels overlapped to enclose the sound deadening layer therebetween.
As shown in Figure 5, the vane is made up of sheet metal panels 68 and 89. Panel 59 inof plate 59 include flanges 12, which as shown in Figures '7 and 8 are formed to overlie the plate 68 on the opposite side of the vane. The opposite transverse edges of plate 58 include doubledover or intumed flanges 13 which serveas. spacers to hold the plates apart a suiflcient distance to -provide space for the sound-dampening blower is materimem- In the preferred construction the vanes are formed from light gauge sheet metal,'for ex-- eases-r:
the tendency of the vanes to vibrate hum or flutter when acted upon by the air stream,
thereby reducing substantially'the noise level of the blower.
In operation, the directive effects of the inclined vanes or blades, combined with th centrif'ugal action of all vanes, causes the air to be discharged radially about the entire circumference of the impeller. The pressure thus established causes an air flow to be induced through the funnel 25 to the interior of the impeller, for circumferential discharge from the unit. From the attic the air is discharged into the atmosphere through suitable openings. As noted, the entry of air is controlled by adjusting the window openings in the building so that a desired amount of air is drawn into the building from the outside.
The motor l2 drives the impeller at a constant rate of speed. However, when the intakeof air is reduced by closing the windows or other ventilating openings, the back pressure against the blower increases, or in other words the intake of air into the impeller is restricted. It is intrinsic in the design of the present structure that under this condition the motor load decreases with no appreciable increase in speed. Therefore the unit compensates automatically for abnormal conditions of operationto prevent over loads which might otherwise lead to damage or motor failure. Moreover the unit may be operated without over load control or speed change apparatus to compensate for changing conditions. The improved design further eliminates the necessity of providing a blower housing.
Having described my invention, I claim:
1. An air changer unit comprising, a frame, a rotary impeller disposed within said frame, said impeller having an end closure plate and an open opposite end forming an air intake, a series of vanes in said impeller, said vanes arranged in tandem sets, the vanes of one of the sets being disposed in alignment with the longitudinal axis of the impeller and the vanes of the other set being disposed at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the impeller.
2. An air changer unit comprising, a frame, a rotary impeller disposed withinsaid frame, said impeller having an end closure plate on one end, the opposite end being open to form an air intake, a series of vanes in said impeller, each of said vanes being formed of a pair of metal plates having a layer of sound deadening material disposed therebetween to absorb vibrations caused by a flow of air relative to the vanes.
3. An air changer comprising, a frame, an impeller wheel disposed within said frame, a drive duct and discharge the air radially abou-t the circumference of the impeller.
4. An air changer unit comprising, a frame, a rotary impeller wheel disposed on a vertical axis within said frame, said impeller wheel having a top closure plate and an open lower end forming an air intake, 9. series of vanes in said impeller:
wheel, said vanes arranged in tiers one above the other, the vanes of the upper of said tiers being disposed in alignment with the vertical axis of the impeller and the of the lower tier being disposed at an angle to the vertical axis of the impeller with their forward edges in ad-.-
vance of their rearward edges relative to'the direction of rotation. 1
5. An air changer unit comprising, a frame, a rotor disposed in a vertical axis, a rotor shaft having its lower end secured to said rotor and having its upper end iournalled in said frame,
said rotor including a top closure plate, an intermediate shroud ring and a lower intake ring, a
' series of vanes between said top plate and said intermediate plate and a second set of vanes between said intermediate plate and said lower in-.
take ring, said second set of vanes being disposed in substantial alignment in a horizontal plane with said first mentioned set but being offset posed on a vertical axis and having an open angulariy in a vertical plane with respect to said first mentioned set of vanes.
. 6. An air changer unit adapted to be installed g in an upper portion of a building to induce a lower end communicating with the air intake opening of said mounting plate and adapted to induce a flow of air from the area below, through said air intake duct into the rotor for discharge radially about the circumference of said rotor into the upper portion of the building.
'1. An air changer unit comprising, a frame, an impeller rotatably mounted in said frame, power means for driving said impeller, said impeller having an air intake opening at one end thereof and having an intermediate shroud ring spaced inwardly from saidintake opening. a closure plate spaced rearwardly from said shroud ring,
said shroud ring providing an opening of smaller diameter than said air intake opening which constitutes a restricted passageway for .the flow of air to distribute the discharge of air longitudinally along the impeller, said-impeller having a set of vanes disposed between said intake opening and shroud ring, said vanes being disposed at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the impeller,
and having a second set of vanes disposed between said shroud ring and closure plate, said second set being disposed in parallelism with the longitudinal axis of the impeller.
8. An air changer unit comprising, a frame, an impeller rotatably mounted insaid frame, power means for driving said impeller, said impeller having an air intake opening at one end thereof and having an intermediate shroud ring spaced inwardly from said intake opening, a closure plate spaced rearwardly from said shroud ring,
- said shroud ring providing an opening of smaller diameter than said air intake opening which constitutes a restricted" passageway for the flow of air to distribute the discharge of air longitudinally along the impeller, said impeller having a set of vanes disposed between said intake opening and shroud ring, said vanes being disposed at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the impeller, and having a second set of vanes disposed between said shroud ring-and closure plate, said second set of vanes being disposed in alignment with the longitudinal axis of the impeller.
9, A residential air changer unit comprising, a frame, a rotary impeller disposed within said frame, said impeller having an end closure plate and an open opposite end forming an air intake, 9. series of vanes in said impeller, said vanes arranged in tandem sets, the vanes of one of the sets being disposed at an angle in plane longitudinally'to the plane 0! the vanes of the other set, each of said vanes comprising a metal envelope having sound deadening material disposed therein.
10. A residential air changer having a rotary impeller, a plurality of vanes in said impeller, each of said vanes constituting a pair of metal plates, said plates having a layer of sound deadening material therebetween, one of said plates having overfolded marginal flanges turned toward the opposite plate and arranged to space said plates apart to prevent said sound deadening layer from being compressed therebetween, andv the opposite plate having a pair of marginal flanges overlapping the longitudinal side. edges of REFERENCES CITED The following references are or record in the flle of this patent:
UNITED s'rams PATENTS Number Name a Date 949,150 Kestner Feb. 15, 1910 1,075,120 Rogers Oct. 7, 1913 1,143,365 Davidson June 15, 1915 1,175,162 McMurdie Mar. 14, 1916 1,348,513 Morey Aug. 3, 1920 1,561,046 Asire Nov. 10, 1925 1,985,705 Whiton Dec. 25, 1934 2,217,944 Collicutt Oct. 15, 1940 2,337,863 Beeler Dec. 28, 1943 FOREEGN PATENTS Number Country Date 56,934 Germany June 9, 1891 151,743 Germany s June 3, 1904 Great Britain Feb. 14, 1929