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Publication numberUS2485184 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 18, 1949
Filing dateMay 7, 1948
Priority dateMay 7, 1948
Publication numberUS 2485184 A, US 2485184A, US-A-2485184, US2485184 A, US2485184A
InventorsBlackman Seymour N, Harold Rosenblum
Original AssigneePremo Pharmaceutical Lab Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Nebulizer
US 2485184 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

s. N. BLACKMAN' ET AL 'NEBULIZER.

Filed May 'i 1948 INVENTQRS 5 YMouR N. Baqcmmu 7 7mg: Poss/vellum TTORNEY Patented Oct. 18, 1949 NEBUIJZER Seymour N. Blackman, Teaneck, and Harold Rosenblum, Rahway, N. J., assignors to Premo Pharmaceutical Laboratories, Inc., South Hackensack, N. J a corporation of New York 4 Application May 7, 1948, Serial No. 25,574

This invention relates to nebulizers.

It is an object of the invention to provide a nebulizer for accurately dispensing, in spray form, small prescribed dosages of liquid drugs.

It is another object of the invention to provide a nebulizer for handling small amounts of liquids and which is adapted to vaporize substantially all the liquid placed therein.

It is a further object of the invention to provide a nebulizer which creates an extremely fine mist.

It is an additional object of the invention to provide a nebulizer which can be mainipulated easily to apply to the respiratory tract either a mist or a slight negative pressure, whereby a patient alternately can spray said tract and drain the nasal cavities.

Other objects of the invention will in part be obvious and in part will be pointed out hereinafter.

The invention accordingly consists in the features of construction, combinations of elements, and arrangements of parts which will be exemplified in the construction hereinafter described, and of which the scope of application will be indicated in the appended claims.

In the accompanying drawings in which is shown one of the various possible embodiments of the invention;

Fig. 1- is a front view of a nebulizer constructed in accordance with the invention, portions thereof being broken away to better illustrate details of the internal construction;

Fig. 2 is a partially cut away side view of the nebulizer; I

Fig. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken substantially along the line 3--3 of Fig. 1, and shows the construction of the portion of the nebulizer which enables a spray and a negative pressure alternately to be obtained; and

Fig. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken substantially along the line 4-4 of Fig. 2, and shows the construction of the portion of the nebulizer which enables the nebulizer to use up substantially all the liquid placed therein and obtain a very fine mist.

Inhalation of drugs, as aerosols, i. e. in mist 11 Claims. (Cl. 128-194) form prepared by room atomizers and nasal venous injection, so fast is the absorption. This type of therapy has been found to be highly effective where potent drugs like penicillin, streptomycin, bactricin and the andrenergic drugs, such for example as epinephrine are applied locally at the site of an infection. Inhalation therapy using penicillin as an aerosol is useful in cases of broncho pulmonary infections caused by penicillin sensitive organisms. Typical diseases which can be treated in such manner are bronchial asthma, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, lung abscess, secondary infections associated with pulmonary fibrosis, and emphysema. However, these drugs are so powerful in their effect, that the amount given must be carefully controlled. If drugs of this nature are applied with conventional nebulizers or room atomizers, the quantity given cannot be regulated with the desired degree of accuracy. Moreover, a conventional hand nebulizer isnot able to produce a small enough particle size to obtain the requisite rapid absorption.

, Pursuant to the present invention, an accurate dosage is obtained by so constructing the nebulizer that it is able to use up substantially all of the drug solution placed in the liquid reservoir. In general, this phase of the invention is accomplished by employing capillary tubes as the pickup tubes for transferring liquid from the reservoir to the zone of nebulization and having the bottom of the reservoir flat and horizontal beneath the lower ends of the pickup tubes. Capillary as used herein denotes a tube of such tiny dimensions that if vertically disposed with its.

lower end in contact with a liquid, the liquid will rise therein. The lower ends of the pickup tube tubes cannot be brought too close to the bottom the liquid drug placed in the reservoir, and it 7 was this factor that made nebulizers unable to apply an accurate dose without wastage.

Accordingly, hereto- The instant nebulizer overcomes this defect by having the lower ends of the capillary pickup tubes disposed at an angle to the flat horizontal bottom of the reservoir and by placing the lower ends of the tubes as close as possible to the bottom of the reservoir or even touching the same. With this arrangement, the lower ends of the tube can be brought extremely close to the bottom of the reservoir without impeding flow of liquid into the tube. Moreover, since the tubes are capillary, aslong as liquid touches any portion of the inclined bottom openings, the liquid will be drawn up into the tube by capillary action. It will be observed that inclining the bottom openings of the tubes will not prevent liquid from rising in the tubes when the liquid level is below the tops of the openings as it would if the tubes were not capillary, inasmuch as introduction of liquid into the tubes is not dependent upon negative pressure in the tubes.

The requisite fine particle sizes are obtained in accordance with the present invention by making the tips of the pickup tubes of capillary size, by disposing said tips to overlie the air blast orifice rather than be laterally offset therefrom, by locating said tips on diametrically opposite sides of the air blast orifice, by orienting said tips so that they direct the liquid at an acute angle to the direction of fiow of the air blast (the term acute as used herein denotes not in excess of 60), and by "having the planes of the openings in said tips at an obtuse angle to the direction of flow of the air blast. It has been found that this arrangement causes the initial nebulization to result in very fine particles, and subsequently when these particles strike one another, an even finer nebulization is obtained. In practice, the particle size has been determined to range from 0.5 to 2.0 microns, this being much smaller than the particle size heretofore obtained in any hand nebulizer.

The feature of the invention pertaining to alternately securing a mist and negative pressure is obtained by means of an aspirator in which a current of air is arranged to entrain air from a passageway leading to the nebulizing air blast nozzle. The aspirator is connected to the atmosphere by a normally open tube. When the tube is blocked, the air emerging from the aspirator under pressure is directed to the nebulizing nozzle to effect nebulization and when the tube is open the aspirator will create a negative pressure in the nebulizing nozzle, so that simply by blocking and unblocking the tube, nebulization and negative pressure alternately may be obtained.

Referring now in detail to the drawings, the reference numeral denotes a nebulizer embodying the invention. The principal parts of said nebulizer preferably are made of glass in order not to affect the drugs which are employed therein and in order that its state of cleanliness readily may be ascertained. It will be understood, however, that, if desired, other materials which do not contaminate the drugs. and which can be sterilized also can be employed. The nebulizer includes a cloud chamber I2 having a discharge passageway M which leads to a mucous chamber [6. The discharge passageway leaves the cloud chamber vertically but its exit is curved over, as best shown in Fig. 2. The mucous chamber. includes a portion well below the level of the exit of the discharge passageway [4 in order to detain mucous drained into the nebulizer during operation of the device. The mucous chamber has two short exit tubes l8 which are connected by elastomeric sleeves 20 to nose pieces 22 of conventional construction.

The lower end of the cloud chamber l2 communicates with a nebulizing chamber 24. This latter chamber is provided with a side opening 26 normally closed by a rubber plug 28. The bottom wall 30 of the chamber is fiat and horizontal as is shown clearly in Figs. 3 and 4. Said bottom wall has a central opening 32 from which a vertical tube 34 extends upwardly, said tube terminating in a blast nozzle 36. The lower portion of the nebulizing chamber constitutes a reservoir 38 for the liquid to be nebulized.

Two pickup tubes 40, 42 are provided, these tubes being disposed on diametrically opposite sides of the blast tube 34 and being permanently secured thereby by glass arms 44, 46 fused to the tubes; Said pickup tubes run in a generally vertical direction. Their lower ends, however, may be inclined slightly toward the blast tube. The openings in the bottoms of the pickup tubes have their mouths disposed in planes at an angle to the fiat horizontal bottom 30 of the reservoir for the fluid to be nebulized. Moreover, the lowermost points of the bottoms of these tubes are placed very ,close to the bottom of the reservoir, and preferably said lowermost points contact the. bottom of the reservoir, although this is not necessary. The pickup tubes are. of capillary dimensions although for the purpose of illustration,

the diameters of the tubes are somewhat enlarged in the drawings.

The upper endsof the pickup tubes are inclined toward the axis of the blast tube 34 at an acute angle to the direction of flow of an air stream issuing therefrom, as is best illustrated in Fig. 4'. The tips of said pickup tubes extend. well into.

the blast stream 48 (indicated by the fine lines.

issuing from the blast nozzle), and overlie the blast orifice so that the tips of the tubes are disposed very close to one another, although on opposite sides of the longitudinal axis of the blast tube. It will be noted that the tips of the pickup tubes are of even smaller diameter than.

the balance of said tubeswhereby to provide only a tiny exposed area tothe nebulizing action of the air blast, such small areabeing a factor in reducing the particle size of the nebulized. cloud. More-- in communication with an elongated casing 52 inwhich an aspirator '54 is. disposed. Said aspirator includes an inner tube 56 centrally located within the casing 52 and having its open entry end 58 extending through the casing to detachably receive a rubber squeeze bulb 60. This bulb-is of the conventional type which when collapsed will force air through its mouth 62 and when allowed.

to resume its normal shape will suck air in through a one-way valve 64. The tip of the inner tube 56 is of reduced diameter and is orientedto direct air issuing. therefrom through a constricted throat 66 in the casing 52. The casing opens to the atmosphere at a mouth 68.

It will be appreciated that when the bulb is squeezed a current of air will issue from the inner tube 56 and-,if themouth 68 not blocked, said air willfiow. at high speed through the throat 66 and entrain air from the tube 50. This, will create. a negative pressure (suction) in said tube which will be communicatedto the cloud chamber l2 through the blast tube 34. Such negative pressure is transmitted to the nose pieces 22, whereby, when the bulb 60 is squeezed with the mouth 68 unblocked and the nose pieces in the nostrils of a patient, a negative pressure will be created in the nasal cavities which will tend to drain mucous therefrom into the mucous chamber I6.

If with the mouth 68 blocked, as by placing the palm of a hand thereover, the tube 60 is squeezed, air issuing from the inner tube '56 will pass through the tube 50 and up into the blast tube 34 emerging from the nozzle 36 as an air blast which will nebulize liquid in the reservoir 38. The nebulized cloud will pass up through the discharge tube l4 and mucous chamber I6 into the nose pieces.

To place fluid in the reservoid 38, the plug 28 is removed and the requisite materials inserted therethrough. By way of example, there may be disposed in said reservoir through the opening 26, a quickly soluble tablet whose active material is penicillin. After said tablet has been placed in the reservoir, a few drops, e. g. /2 cc. of water is led into the reservoir through the opening 26. The penicillin tablet will quickly form a pharmaceutical solution which can be nebulized in the manner already described. It will be understood, that depending upon the type of treatment to be given, the user can alternately apply the nebulized cloud of the drug to his respiratory tract and drain mucous from his nasal cavities.

It thus will be seen that there is provided a nebulizer which accomplishes the several objects of the invention and is well adapted to meet the conditions of practical use.

As various possible embodiments might be made of the above invention, and as various changes might be made in the embodiments above set forth, it will be understood that all matter herein described or shown in the accompanying drawings is to be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.

Having thus described the invention, there is claimed as new and desired to secure by Letters Patent:

1.A nebulizer comprising a reservoir for fluid to be nebulized, a nebulizing chamber above and connected to said reservoir, a blast tube in said nebulizing chamber, two pickup tubes, each pickup tube having its lower end disposed adjacent the bottom of the nebulizing reservoir, the bottom of said reservoir beneath said tube being flat and horizontal, the opening in said lower ends having their mouths in planes oriented at an angle to said bottom, the other end of each pickup tube being disposed above the nozzle of the air blast tube and overlying the air blast orifice, said other ends of the pickup tube being disposed on diametrically opposite sides of the blast tube and being oriented with their axes of how at acute angles to the direction of the air blast, the openings in said other ends of the pickup tubes having their mouths in planes at obtuse angles to the direction of the air blast, both ends of said pickup tubes being of capillary dimensions, a mucous chamber, means to connect said nebulizing chamber to said mucous chamber, a pair of nose pieces, means to connect said mucous chamber to said pair of nose pieces, an aspirator including an inner tube, a casing in which said inner tube is disposed, means to connect said casing to said blast tube, said casing having a constricted throat which opens to the atmosphere, the discharge end of said inner tube,

being directed toward said throat, and means'to blow air into the other end of said inner tube, whereby when air is blown through said inner tube, if the throat atmospheric opening is blocked, the liquid in said reservoir will be nebulized, and if said opening is unblocked a negative pressure will be maintained in said nose pieces.

- 2. A nebulizer comprising a reservoir for fluid tobe nebulized, a nebulizing chamber above and connected to said reservoir, a blast tube in said nebulizing chamber, two pickup tubes, each pickup tube having it lower end disposed adjacent the bottom of the nebulizing reservoir, the bottom of said reservoir beneath said tubes being fiat and horizontal, the opening in said lower ends having their mouths in planes oriented at an angle to said bottom, the other end of each pickup tube being disposed above the nozzle of the air blast tube and overlying the air blast orifice, said other ends of the pickup tubes being disposed on diametrically opposite sides of the blast tube and being oriented with their axes of fiow at acute angles to the direction of the air blast, the openings in said other ends of the pickup tubes having their mouths in planes at obtuse angles to the direction of the air blast, both ends of said pickup tubes being of capillary dimensions, a mucous chamber, means to connect said nebulizing chamber to said mucous chamber, a pair of nose pieces, means to connect said mucous chamber to said pair of nose pieces, an aspirator including an inner tube, a casing in which said inner tube is disposed, means to connect said casing to said blast tube, said casing having a constricted throat which opens to the atmosphere, the discharge end of said inner tube being directed toward said throat, and a squeeze bulb for blowing air into the other end of said inner tube, whereby when air is blown through said inner tube, if the throat atmospheric opening is blocked, the liquid insaid reservoir will be nebulized, and if said opening is unblocked a negative pressure will be maintained in said nose pieces.

3. A nebulizer comprising a reservoir for fluid to be nebulized, a nebulizing chamber above and connected to said reservoir, a blasttube in said nebulizing chamber, two pickup tubes, each pickup tube having its lower end disposed adjacent the bottom of the nebulizing reservoir, the bottom of said reservoir beneath said tubes being fiat and horizontal, the opening in said lower ends having their mouths in planes oriented at an angle to said bottom the other end of each pickup tube being disposed above the nozzle of the airblast tube and overlying the air blast orifice, said other ends of the pickup tubes being disposed on diametrically opposite sides of the blast tube and being oriented with their axes of flow at acute angles to the direction of the air blast, the openings in said other ends of the pickup tubes having their mouths in planes at obtuse angles to the direction of the air blast, both ends of said pickup tubes being of capillary dimensions, a mucous chamber, means to connect said nebulizing chamber to said mucous chamber, a pair of nose pieces, means to connect said mucous chamber to said pair of nose pieces, as aspirator including an inner tube, a casing in which said inner tube is disposed, means to connect said casing to said blast tube, said casing having a throat which opens to the atmosphere, the discharge end of said inner tube being directed toward said throat, and means to blow air into the other end of said inner tube,

; whereby when air is blown through said inner tube, if the throat atmospheric opening is blocked, the liquid in said reservoir will be nebulized, and if said opening is unblocked a negative pressure will be maintained in said nose pieces.

4. A nebulizer comprising a reservoir for fluid to be nebulized, a nebulizing chamber above and connected to said reservoir, a blast tube in said nebulizing chamber, two pickup tubes, each pickup tube having its lower end disposed adjacent the bottom of the nebulizing reservoir, the bottom of said reservoir beneath said tubes being flat and horizontal, the opening in said lower ends having their mouths in planes oriented at an angle to said bottom, the other end of each pickup tube being disposed above the nozzle ofthe air blast tube and overlying the air blast orifice, said other ends of the pickup tubes being disposed on diametrically opposite sides of the blast tube and being oriented with their axes of flow at acute angles to the direction of the air blast, the openings in said other ends of the pickup tubes having their mouths in planes at obtuse angles to the direction of the air blast, both ends of said pickup tubes being of capillary dimensions, a mucous chamber, means to connect said nebulizing chamber to said mucous chamber, a pair of nose pieces, means to connect said mucous chamber to said pair of nose pieces, and means to blow air through said blast tube.

5. A nebulizer comprising a reservoir for fluid to be nebulized, a nebulizing chamber above and connected to said reservoir, a blast tube in said nebulizing chamber, two pickup tubes, each pickup tube having its lower end disposed adjacent the. bottom of the nebulizing reservoir, the bottom of said reservoir beneath said tubes being fiat and, horizontal, the opening in said lower ends having their mouths in planes oriented at an angle to. said bottom, the other end of each pickup tube being disposed above the nozzle of the air blast. tube and overlying the air blast orifice, said other ends, of the pickup tubes being disposed. on diametrically opposite sides of the blast tube and being oriented with their axes of flow at acute angles to the direction of. the air blast, the open,- ings in said other ends of the pickup tubes having their mouths in planes at obtuse angles to the direction of the air blast, both ends. of said pickup tubes being of capillary dimensions, a mucous chamber, means to connect said nebulizing chamber to said mucous chamber, a pair of nose pieces, means to connect said mucous chamber to said, pair of nose pieces, and an aspirator having its suction connection communicating with said blast tube.

6. A nebulizer comprising a reservoir for fluidto. be nebulized, a nebulizing chamber above and; connected to said reservoir, a blast tube in said, nebulizing chamber, two pickup tubes, each pickup tube having its lower end disposed adjacent the bottom of the nebulizing reservoir, the bottom of.

said reservoir beneath said tubes being flat: and horizontal, the opening in said lower ends hav.--- ing their mouths in planes oriented at an, angle to said bottom, the other end of each. pickup tube being disposed above the nozzle of the air blast. tube and overlying the air blast orifice-said other ends of the pickup tubes being disposed on di ametrically opposite sides of the blast. tube and being oriented with their axes of flow at acute angles to thedirection of the air blast, the openings in said other ends of. the pickup tubes having their mouths planes at obtuse angles to the direction; of. the air blast, both ends ot saiefpickup tubes being of capillary dimensions, and means to blow air through said blast tube.

7. A nebulizer comprising a reservoir for fluid to be nebulized, a nebulizing chamber above and connected to said reservoir, a blast tube in said nebulizing chamber, two pickup tubes, each pickup tube having its lower end disposed adjacent the bottbm of the nebulizing reservoir, the bottom of said reservoir beneath said tubes being flat and horizontal, the opening in said lower ends having their mouths inplanes oriented at an angle to said bottom, the other end of each pickup tube being disposed above the nozzle of the air blast tube and overlying the air blast orifice, the first mentioned end of each pickup tube being of capillarysize, and means to blow air through said blast tube.

8;. Anebulizer comprising a reservoir for fluid to: be nebulized, a nebulizing chamber above and connected to, said reservoir, a .blast tube in said nebulizing, chamber, two pickup tubes, each pickup tube having its lower end disposed adjacent the bottom of the nebulizing reservoir, the other end of each pickup tube being disposed above the nozzle of the air blast tube and overlying the air blast orifice, said other ends of the pickup tubes being disposed on diametrically opposite sides of the blast tube and being oriented with their axes of flow at acute angles to the direction of the air blast, the openings in said other ends of the pickup tubes having their mouths inplanes at obtuse angles to the direction of the air blast, said other ends being of capillary size, and means to blow air through said blast tube.

9. A nebulizer comprising a reservoir for fluid to be nebulized, a nebulizing chamber above and connected to said reservoir, a blast tube in said nebulizing chamber, a pickup tube having an end thereof disposed adjacent the bottom of the nebulizing reservoin; the bottom of said reservoir beneath said tube being flat and horizontal, the opening: in. said end having its mouth in a plane oriented at an. acute angle to said bottom, the other end of said pickup tube being disposed above the. nozzle of the air blast tube, the first-mentioned. end of the tube being of capillary size, and means to, blow air through the air blast tube.

10. Anebulizer comprising, a reservoir for fluid tobenebulized, a nebulizing chamber above and connected to said reservoir, a blast tube in said nebulizing chamber, a pickup tube having an and disposed adjacent the bottom of the nebulizing reservoir andits other end in the air blast adapted toissue from theblast tube, a mucous chamber, means to-conneet said nebulizing chamber to said mucous chamber, a pair of nose pieces, means to connect said mucous chamber to said pair of nose pieces, an aspirator including an inner tube, a casinginwhich said inner tube is disposedmeans to connect said casing to said blast tube, said casing, having a constricted throat which opens to; the atmosphere, the discharge end of said inner; tube being directed toward said throat, and meansztoblow air into th other end of said inner tube,,. whereby when air is blown through said inner tube, if the throat atmospheric opening is blocked, the'liquid in said reservoir will be nebulized, andif said opening is unblocked a negative pressure will be maintained in said nose pieces.

11. A nebulizer comprising a reservoir for fluid tobenebul'ized', a nebulizing chamber above and connected tosaid reservoir, a blast tube in said nebulizing'ch-amber, a pickup tube having an end REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,266,228 Devilbiss May 14, 1918 2,253,143 Siegel Aug. 19, 1941

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Referenced by
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Classifications
U.S. Classification128/200.22, 604/94.1, 128/203.22
International ClassificationA61M11/06, A61M1/00
Cooperative ClassificationA61M2210/0618, A61M11/06, A61M2205/075, A61M1/0076, A61M1/0047, A61M1/0062
European ClassificationA61M11/06, A61M1/00K2, A61M1/00P8