US 2486427 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 1, 1949. R. R. MILLER ETAL REBREATHER VALVE 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed April 50, 1946 mmvroxs ROMAN R. MILLER WILLIAM H. SCHECHTER ATTORNEY Nov. 1, 1949. R. R. MILLER ETAL REBREATHER VALVE 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 FiIed April 30, 1946 Nov. 1, 1949. R. R. MILLER EI'AL REBREATHER VALVE 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed April 50, 1946 game/M3010. RQMAN R. MILLER WILLIAM H. S CHECHTER Patented Nov. 1, 1949 nannna'rnan VALVE Roman R. Miller, Silver Spring, Md., and William B. Schecliter, Jetmore, Kane.
Application April 30, 1946, Serial No. 665,982
towns. (01.217 1) (Granted under the m of March a, 1883, as
This invention relates to valves, and more particularly to a rebreather valve for use with oxygen breathing apparatus. 7
Where it is necessary to enter any atmosphere that is irrespirable due to the presence of harmful gases, vapors, dust, and smokes, or to a deficiency of oxygen, special breathing apparatus is available which will permitremaining in such an atmosphere for an extended period. .In one conventional type of apparatus a compressed oxygen cylinder is employed as a source of oxygen for breathing requirements and a compartment filled with chemicals for absorbing the carbon dioxide contained in the exhaled breath is provided. Arecently developed type of breathing apparatus employs a canister-filled with a special chemical which absorbs carbon dioxide and simultaneously evolves suflicient oxygen to provide for the wearers respiratory requirements, thus permitting the elimination of the oxygen cylinder. The chemicals used'have a limited period of useful life and consequently when their use is exhausted, the canister must be replaced or the wearer must leave the atmosphere which necessitates the use of the oxygen breathing apparatus. Often this latter alternative is not feasible. It then becomes necessary to provide a breathing apparatus with which the canister may be exchanged during use in a noxious atmosphere. facility of exchange, the apparatus must be so designed that the exchange of canisters may be effected without any possibility of the noxious atmosphere reaching the wearer.
An object of the present invention is to provide a new and improved rebreather valve for use with oxygen breathing apparatus, and more particularly a rebreather valve which will enable ready exchange of canisters while preventing entrance of the atmosphere into the breathing apparatus.
- In accordance with one embodiment of this invention a rebreather valve may be provided which when a canister is removed therefrom automatically closes the passage from the mask tothe canister and from the canister to the breathihg bag, while at the same time opening a direct passage from the mask through the valve to the breathing bag. When a new canister is inserted in position, this causes the valve to shift position and to seal the direct passage from the mask through the valve to the breathing bag and at the same time to open the passage from the mask through the valve to the canister and from the canister to the breathing bag. In either In addition to affordin amended April 30, 1928; 370 O. G. 757) 2 valve position a closed system is maintained outside atmosphere is prevented from reaching the wearer of the apparatus.
'. Other objects and advantages ofthepresfli.
invention will be apparent from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with Fig. 2 is an enlarged, vertical, sectional view 7 of the rebreather valve shown in Fig. 1, the valve having a canister shown 'fragmentarily associated therewith;
Fig. 3 is a sectional view similar to Fig. 2 show- I ing, however, the position of the several parts of the valve when the canister is removed therefrom;
Fig. 4 is an elevational view of the lower end of the valve as shown in Fig. 3; and
Fig. 5 is a. transverse, sectional view taken substantially along the line 55 of Fig. 3.
Referring now to the drawings, and particularly to Fig. 1, it will be seen that a complete oxygen rebreathing apparatus is shown comprising a substantially conventional mask, or face piece 5 adapted to be fitted over the wearers face and so designed that it will fit closely and prevent entrance or escape of air. 'The mask 5 is connected at its base to a T fitting 6 in either end of which are oppositely acting flutter valves mounted in housings l and 8. The flutter valve 1 is selected to open in response to pressure on the right side thereof, as viewed in Fig. 1, this occurring when the wearer exhales, while the valve 8 is designed to close in response to pressure on the left side thereof, again when the wearer exhales. When the wearer exhales, the exhaled air is thus directed through the valve 1, a flexible tube 9, connected to the valve, and into the upper portion of a rebreather valve l0 shown in detail in Figs. 2, 3, 4 and 5. When a canister H is in position on the rebreather valve 10, as will be more readily understood from the detailed description of the rebreather valve hereinafter set forth, the exhaled air is caused to pass through the valve into the canister. The canister is filled with a chemical which purifies the air by absorbing the carbon dioxide and which simultaneously evolves suflicient oxygen to replenish the air and to render it suitable for the wearers respiratory requirements. By reason of the design of the canister, which forms no part of the present invention, exhaled air is caused to travel and ' i2, extending from the left hand side thereof,
which is in turn connected to a breathing bag ii. The breathing bag is made quite" large and is so designed that air entering at one side thereof must traverse substantially the breadth thereof before reaching an outlet it which connects through a flexible'tube II to the end of the T-shaped fitting having the flutter valve 8 associated therewith, the bag permitting the air to cool prior to reaching the wearer of the breathing assembly and providing a supply of air. when the-wearer inhales, the valve 1 closes and the valve 8 opens, permitting the wearer to inhale purified and replenished air from the breathing bag.
After a period of use the lengthof which is dependent on the amount of chemical in the canister and its characteristics as well as the extent of the wearer's exertions, the chemicals in the canister become exhausted and the wearer must either leave the area necessitating the use of the mask or must exchange the canister for a fresh one. Exchanging the canister ordinarily requires leaving the noxious atmosphere because of the danger of the atmosphere reaching the wearer during the 'priod required for exchange. In some cases, as will be readilyapparent, this may be quite impracticable or very undesirable. Accordingly, in order to permit exchange of the canister while in a noxious atmosphere and without danger to the wearer, the rebreather valve ill of the present invention has been provided.
Referring now to Figs. 2 and 3 it will be seen that the valve of this invention comprises a generally cylindrical housing having an upper or neck portion 20, a somewhat larger diameter midportion 2|, and an enlarged lower portion 22, the several portions of the housing being illustrated as integrally formed; however, they may be separate elements and assembled. The upper portion of the periphery of the neck 28 is threaded to receive a collar 23 whereby a short coupling tube 24, adapted to fit into the lower end of the flexible tube 9, is mounted on the upper side of the valve. The coupling tube 24 has a flange 25 integrally formed about the periphery thereof am'acent its lower end and the collar 23 bears against the upper side of this flange. An'annular sealing gasket 28 is positioned about the lower end of the tube and when the: tube 24 is assembled on the valve, as shown in Figs. 2 and 8, the gasket is compressed between the underside of the flange 25 and the upper edge of the housing portion 20, providing thereby a fluidtight connection.
When a canister II is in position on the valve, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, a passage is opened directly through .the center of the valve from the upper portion 28' to the lower portion 22, the passage including a sleeve 21, the upper portion of which is slidably disposed in the neck portion of the valve housing and the lower portion of which extends downwardly substantially to the lower end of the mid-portion 2| of the valve housing. A second sleeve 28, connected to the sleeve 21 and axially aligned therewith, is positioned in the lower portion 22 of the valve housing. The upper portion 29 of the sleeve 28 is made substantially larger in diameter than the lower portion, which is of substantially the same diameter as the sleeve 21, and the upper portion is threaded internally to engage the threaded periphery of a flange 80 integrally formed at the lower end of the sleeve 21 and extending outwardly therefrom. The lower portion of the sleeve 28 extends beyond the base of the housing section 22 and has fixed thereto a conical wedge 34, the sides of which are apertured.- When the canister I i is assembled on the valve ill, the conical wedge serves to perforate the cap of the canister, the canister being forced upwardly 'by a large hand bolt 85 fixed to the breathing -apparatus as shown in Fig. 1. In the position shown in Fig. 2, the lower end of the sleeve 28 extends into the center of the canister neck and is sealed to a suitable duct formed therein. The upper edge -'of the canister neck is usually provided with a soft covering of gasket material which when compressed serves as an effective seal. When the canister H is assembled on the valve housing as shown in Figs. 1, and 2, the periphery of the neck of the canister bears against and urges upwardly a heavy ring 38 slidably disposedin the lower portion 22 of the valve housing. The lower portion of the ring may be beveled outwardly to provide a suitable seal, while the upper portion of the ring 38 is provided with an annular recess 48 in which is disposed the lower portion of a spring 43'. The ring 86 is. urged downwardly against retaining lugs '81 mounted about the peripheryof the housing 22 and extending inwardly therefrom by the helical spring 43, the lower end of which bears against the base of the recess 48, while the upper end of the spring bears against an outwardly extending flange 44 integrally formed with a short tube 45, which is rigid- 1y secured to a shoulder 41, formed at the junction of the mid portion 2i and the lower portion 22 of the valve housing, by a number of screws 48. Integrally formed with the lower end 'of the tube 45 is an inwardly extending flange 48, the
inner edge of which bears against the periphery of the sleeve 28 and serves as a guide therefor,
maintaining axial alignment of the sleeve 28 with respect to the valve housing as the sleeve 28 moves upwardly or downwardly as will be hereinafter explained.
Considering the valve insofar as it has been described up to this point, it will be apparent that the several elements thereof combine to provide a passageway for exhaled air which extends from the upper portion 20 through the interior of the sleeves 21 and 28, downwardly and into the center of the canister i l through the apertured, conicalwedge 34. Air entering the canister through the center thereof is caused to pass downwardly, then outwardly, then upwardly, and flnallyleaves the canister through the annular passageway formed between the lower end of the sleeve 28 and the neck of the canister. This air then enters the lower portion 22 of the valve, passing through a chamber formed between the outer side of the sleeve 28 and the inner side of the valve position 22, and upwardly through suitable apertures 48 formed in the flange 48 adjacent the sleeve 28 and into an "annular chamber designatedat 58, which is bounded by the outer sides of the sleeves 21 and '28 and the inner side of the valve section 2!. A port 5| is formed in the left side of the housing section 2! and connects the chamber 58 to the short tube l2 extending from the left side of the valve housing and connecting to the breathing bag l5.
, Thus air entering the chamber 50 may be drawn was:
of airffrom the breathing apparatus or entrance of air into the breathing. apparatus, a valve mechanism has been provided whereby upon removal of a canister from the lower end of the valve housing, the passage from'the mask to the canister described in the preceding paragraph is closed and a direct passage is opened from the interior of the sleeve 21 to the chamber 50 and near the lower end of along valve stem 53, which is axially disposed. with respect to the valve housing and extends from the upper portion i when the flange uis caused to bear against the flange 48,, the apertures 48 formed in the flange 48 "will be effectively; sealed, as may be readily seen in Fig. 8. :Since the upper end of the valve stem-80 is slidably Journaled in the spider disk I. 51, it will be apparent that'after the flange 30 thereof to the lower portion. The disk 52 is disposed between the flange 30 formed at the base of the sleeve 21. and a flange 54 which is integrally formed with the sleeve 28 and joins the enlarged upper portion 29 thereof to the lower portion 28. A layer 55 of-a soft gasket material, such as rubber, is provided on the upper surface of the disk 52 so thatwhen the disk 52- bears against the lower end of the sleeve 21, the sleeve is effectively sealed at its lower end.
Axial alignment of the stem 53 with respect to the housing of the valve is maintained by a small radially apertured disk or spider 55 fixed to the lower endof the stem and slidably jourment of the valve stem is limited by the length of the stub 60.
The valve stem 53 is normally urged upwardly by'a helical spring 52 disposed in the lower sleeve a 28 and the lower end of which bears against the inner side of the conical wedge 34 while the upper end of the spring bears against the under side of the spider disk 58, attached to the lower end of the valve stem 50. In order to cause the flange 30 to bear against the gasket provided on the upper surface of the valve ,52 and thereby to seal the passage through the sleeve, a helical spring 64 is provided and the upper end of this spring is mdunted against the under side of the housing section 20 while the lower end of the spring bears against the upper surface of the flange 30, thus urging the sleeves 21 and 28 downwardly relatively to the housing of the valve. Since the uppermost position of the valve 52 with respect to the valve housing is fixed, downward movement of the sleeves 21 and 28 causes the flange 30 to engage the upper surface of the valve 52.
, Initial downward movement of the sleeves causes the flange 30 to engage the disk 52, as
described, thus sealing the passage through the sleeves and preventing exhaledair from leaving the valve from the lower end. .Inorder to seal the passage through the apertures 49 formed in the flange 48 to prevent atmosphere from enter ing the valve, the valve I0 is so designed that I removal of a canister therefrom permits the sleeves 21 and 28 to move downwardly a sufllcient distance to cause the under side of the flange 54 to bear against the upper side of the flange 48. Adjacent the outer edge of the flange 54 and on parts of this invention have been referred to as plenished.
has engaged the disk 52, the disk 52 willmove downwardly with the sleeve. When the sleeve 21 is in its lowermost position, apertures 81 formed inits sides adjacent the upper end are exposed to'the chamber 50, these apertures having been previously closed by reason of this portion of the sleeve being disposed in the upper portion 20 of the valve housing. Exposing these apertures to the chamber 50 opens a passage from the sleeve 21 into the chamber 50 and to the tube i2. It will be apparent from .the foregoing,
however, that this passage is not opened until the passage through the sleeves to the conical wedge 34 and through the lower portion of the valve housing have been closed, thus preventing escape or entrance of air into the breathing apparatus during exchange of a canister.
When a new canister is placed in position, the wedge 34 first perforates the cap, then reaches a point beyond which it cannot enter. Further upward movement of the canister, produced by tightening the hand bolt 35, .then causes the rim of the canister neck 'to bear against the ring 38 which is resiliently mounted to provide an effective seal, and also causes the sleeves 21 and 28 to move upwardly, .openingthe outer passage through the apertures 49 to the annular chamber 50. The valve stem 53 follows until theupper end thereof strikes the fixed spider disc 51.
Thereafter, continued upward movement of the sleeves 21 and 28 causes the valve 52 to be separated from the lower end of the sleeve 21,
thereby opening the central passage through the.
rebreather valve. The apertures 61 are closed as soon as the sleeve 21 moves into the valve portion 20, preventing exhaled air from entering the breathing bag prior to being purified and re- It will be apparent that a closed system is thus maintained at all times permitting exchange of canisters in any typeof atmosphere.
Where in the foregoing description the several The invention shown and described herein may be manufactured or used by or for the Government of the United States of America for governmental purposes without the payment of royalties thereon or therefor.
What is claimed is:
1. A valve of the class described including a 'casing having a neck portion forming an inlet' aperture, a mid-portion of larger cross sectional size than said neck portion, and a lower portion,
said mid-portion having an outlet aperture formed in the side thereof, an annular disk disposed between said lower portion and said midportion having at least one aperture formed the inner side thereof is provided a rim 88- of a suitable gasket material, such as rubber, so that 7 therethrough adjacent the central aperture, a longitudinally movable conduit having an upper end lournalled in said neck portion and its lower end journalled through the central .aperture of said annular disk, said conduit having at least one aperture formed in the side thereof and so located that when said conduit is moved into' said neck portion said aperture is closed but when said conduit is moved out of said neck portion a suflicient distance, said aperture opens into said midportion, a flange fixed to the periphery of said conduit and ensageable with said annular disk to close the off-center passage therethrough when said conduit is moved away from said neck portion, and a valve disposed in said conduit for closcross-sectional size, and a lower portion, said midportion having an outlet aperture formed in a side thereof, an annular member disposed be-v tween said lower portion and said lower portion having a central aperture formed therethrough and at least one other aperture radially offcentered with respect to said central aperture, a conduit longitudinally movable with respect to said housing and having its upper end joumalled in the upper portion thereof and its lower end journalled through the central aperture of said annular member, a flange fixed to the periphery of said conduit and engageable with said annular member to close the radially off-centered passage therethrough when said conduit is in its lower position, resilient means for urging said flange into engagement with said annular member, said conduit having at least one aperture formed in a side thereof so located with respect to said conduit that when said flange is in engagement with said annular member, said aperture opens into the mid-portion of the valve housing,
a valve disposed in said conduit for closing the passage therethrough in response to downward movement of said conduit, and resilient means for urging said valve into closed position.
' 3. In a valve of the class described, a housing, I
as'eaaav a a a a housing substantially to the mid-portion thereof, said housing having an outlet port formed in the side thereof and communicatin'g with said annular chamber, means for closing said annular chamber adjacent the lower end thereof, .and
means for closing said axial passage adjacent the lower end thereof, said axial passage having an aperture in the side thereof normally closed but which opens into said annular chamber when the i lower end ofsaid axial passage is closed.
J aperture, a mid-portion, of larger cross sectional ing the passage through said conduit operable in size than said neck portion, having an aperture formed in the side thereof, and a lower portion, an annular disk disposed between said lower portion and said mid-portion insaid casing, a conduit, longitudinally movable to an upper and lower position, having its upper end journalled in said neck portion and its lower end projecting beyond the lower portion of said casing, a perforate, conical member, integral with said projecting end, adapted to puncture said canister when it is moved into sealed position with respect to said casing and to simultaneously move said conduit to said upper position, the said conduit having its lower end journalled through the aperture of said annular disk, said annular disk having at 3 and a valve mounted in said conduit for closing the passage therethrough, both the said aperture and said passage being closed when said conduit is in its lower position.
ROMAN R. MILLER.
WILLIAM H. SCHECHTER.
REFERENCES crrEn The following references are of record in the 5 file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PA'I'ENTS Number Name Date 2,187,371 Cannon Jan. 16, 1940 1 2,343,901 Groves Mar. 14, 1944 2,349,137 Brown May 16, 1944