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Publication numberUS2490816 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 13, 1949
Filing dateJan 19, 1945
Priority dateJan 19, 1945
Publication numberUS 2490816 A, US 2490816A, US-A-2490816, US2490816 A, US2490816A
InventorsKiebert Jr Martin V
Original AssigneeKiebert Jr Martin V
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Automatic bomb release circuit details
US 2490816 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Patented Dec. 13,1949

UNITED s PATENT g meant j OFHCE AUTOMATIC BOMB RELEASE CIRCUIT r H DETAILS 1 Martin V. Kiebert, Jr., Unitedstates Navy,

-. Arlington, I

Application January 19, 1945, Serial No. 573,617

.- roams. (o1; s4s 7 This invention relates to radar bomb release device, and is particularly directed to anf 1m provement in such devices. j Y The primary object is to provide a bomb release which will not make false releases. p f

Other objects and advantages will become apparent from the following specification and claims in connection with the accompanying drawings.

The figure is a block diagram of the system incorporating the invention.

The purpose of the system of this invention is to effect automatically the release .cfa bomb or other missile from a low flying aircraft directetd at an isolated or semi-isolated marine surface vessel. The bomb may be caused to drop at the proper time to hit the surface in the closevic'inity of the target, or at a preselected distance ahead of the target. The problem to be solved by the, equipment requires that the following conditions be determined and evaluated:

1. Height of the plane above sea level.

2. Horizontal distance to the target. r

3. Relative horizontal speed between plane and target. f

The plane may be flown at a preselected altitude with the aid of an absolute altimeter, and the equipment be designed for operation at several predetermined altitudes. This will take care of condition 1 above. Condition 2 is indirectly determined by measuring the slant distance from" the plane to the target by frequency modulation radar equipment. An antenna array'is used to beam the high frequency waves forward but sufliciently downward to be reflected back from surface vessels. Thus, the time required for the; signal to travel from the plane to the-target and back again, and hence the distance may be" evaluated. Condition 3is evaluatedin'terms'" of" slant relative speed between the plane and target account for the above conditions for each of a number of preset altitudes by a compensation switch. Since each altitude requires a different slope, or time factor, as determined by curves of the falling bomb; the equipment has been designed to give this required slope by an appropriate control of the bandwidth swept by the transmitter I. Hence, the bandwidth'is a' pre-l determined function of the time of drop plus the delay due to mechanical and electrical inertia As in frequency modulated altimeters, the beat frequency output Of the detector will be proportipnal, among other factors, to the frequency band swept by the transmitter. The frequency modulated signal is transmitted to and reflected back from the target. The instantaneous frequency of the reflected signal lags the instantaneous frequency of the transmitted signal by 2D 17 seconds whereD is the distance from the transmitter to the target in feet, and C is the speed of light in feet per second. Since a portion of the energy of the transmitter is fed directly into the detector, the transmitter signal and the reflected signal will heterodyne in the detector to produce a resultant low frequency beat note whose frequency will be proportional to the distance to the target. The number of cycles per second per foot of distance to the target may be varied directly by varying the sweep width. This is readily done by varying the driving voltage to the modulator.

Since the distance from the target at which the missile must be released is dependent upon the forward speed of the aircraft relative to the target,'as well as the altitude, it is necessary that this speed be evaluated by the equipment. Use is made, therefore, of the Doppler effect caused by the approach of the plane toward the target.

'Due to this effect'when the transmitted and received signals are mixed in the detector 6, two audio frequencies will occur, one durin the increase in frequency, or upsweep, of the wave, and

the other during the decrease or downsweep. These frequencies are composed of both distance and speed factors, and the upsweep is the difference, and the 'downsweep the sum, of the distance and speed variables. The equipment constantly measures these two variables in terms of the preset altitude; and when they bear the proper relation; the bomb release is actuated.

Thetransmitter l consists of ultra high frequency equipment, frequency modulated by a mechanically vibrating condenser. This modulator is operated by a square wave generator 5 the output of which is fed thru wave shaping circuits and sweep adjusting means 3 and am- .wpliflers 2 whose functions are to produce linear frequency modulation of the transmitter l. A compensation switch 4 is provided at the output of square wave generator 5 for changing the sweep width of the transmitter l proportional to .the time of free fall of a bomb and compensates for distance intercept. A portion of the signal fromthe transmitter I is fed to the receiver 6 to beatwith thegrefiected signals. The low frequency beats resulting therefrom are amplified .atamplifier I and converted into square waves by passing thru a limiter circuit 9. The square wave is then applied to a differential counter circuit ll, and lZwhich is employed to derive-a voltage which is proportional to frequency. *It' is highly desirable that the output voltage ofthe separate and distinct from relay RL, and is illustrated in the'figure at thetube l6 and Rm.

the invention the bomb release circuit is maintained in a normally open condition by Rm circuit it H, and I2 be linear with respect to 5 ==unt11 a signal of sufiicient amplitude and duration input frequency. Two counters are:setupand arranged so that one operates only during the upsweep in frequency and .the other operates during the downsweep. This isdonebyapplication of control voltages from the square wave generator 5 directly to counter; and after. phase inversion by means of phase inverter M, to counter m, which renders the counters separately operable at the proper timeand synchronizes them with the sweep circuit 3 of thetransmitter i.

The counter It! operates during the upsweep in frequencyfl-and counter l-l operates duringthe downsweep in frequency. The-upsweepcounter It .developes a positive voltage,proportiqnalto distance min-us speed in the common load-con sisting essentially of r the condenseriCcand resist: ance R shown at I2 inaddition=to-the-compensat ing resistance existing in the altitude :compen' sation switch is. The downsweep counter II develops a negative voltage proportional to distance plus speed into the same common load. In order that thedistance voltagewillnot rcancel out'in the common:load, the sensitivity zof thej upsweep counter I :hasbeen made greater -:than that of'the'downsweeprcounter ll. The-resultant .direct current voltages ithen simultaneously.

changing amplitude-or phaseto the cathodeio'f the relay amplifier tube H5 and :so-operates :the relay R1. connected thereto. When apredetermined value is =-reached, this; relay 1R1. will the "actuated to close its release-circuit. The cathode follower ll at the samegtime .serves as an im-' pedance'transformer and as a unidirectionalisolation between the loadandethe srelay amplifier 1 tube 55.

under certain conditions, fading, =mu1tiple apath transmission, or complex targets may -cause'a temporary change in range signals. ;When-:this l v meansioivreceiving the reflected wave, said:rereverse-direction and thereby cause-the tubeglS occurs the condensercmay charge-rapidlydma to actuate relay RL-and cause a falserelease.

The magnitude and duration of'sfading is of course most severe ata distancefromthe atargetg while the direct reflection from the sea is constant, thus frequently resulting .in a false .rele'as prior to receiving -a satisfactorysignal.

Such false releases areordinarily.minimizedby prevent the condenser .C from reversingits charge when the range signal fades and a false reflection is still present. These results may be accomplished by biasing'a tube, .orby other :means.

The present invention provides a positive means for preventing premature "closing of the release circuit by opening'that circuit at-a point rissreceived. This determined by proper delay and time constants in the amplifier tube It,

and in the, rectifier 8 which controls the amplifier .j'jtuhei' liby providing a signal bias voltage propori'utional to the amplitude and duration of the re- .ce'ived signal. .Rectifier tube 8 also automatically 7 decreases the high frequency response of the amplifier I as a function of received signal ,strength. y Rm is arranged to maintain the g5 telease-;circuit=.=open except in the presence of a signal of desired characteristics. Thus the re- ;lease .mechanismwill not be: actuated until both relays are simultaneously. operated. The pilot light serves to. indicate when a proper m i sigqnalcis.being: received. Another such light can 1 obviously be .used in the circuit of R1,, or in thereleasecircuititself.

vl iIt obvious. that various modifications may bemaderiandthatRmimay be normally-closed in-- stead. of .open ifthe. characteristics of the release circuit so require. a

While the. invention has been describedin con- Q junction with specific arrangements of 80311-- :ponents. it. should .be expressly understood that o variousv changes and. substitutions maybe made Withoutdeparting .from the-spiritof the inventionnasdefined in the appended claims.

#The inventiondescribed hereinmay be manu- 'facturedandusedbyor for theGovernment of 35 the United -States .of America for governmental purposes without thepayment of anyroyalties' thereon or therefor.

Whatis claimedis: 1. In automatic .bombrelease apparatus of the in, character disclosed for use in moving aircraft for .bombinga targetin combination, square wave generator means -.including a band width "compensating switch a radio transmitter operatively connected .to said square wave generator-means .forcemittinga frequency modulatedwavehaving It has been foundin-using these devices that, and thasettingof said switch,-said switchbeing adjusted toapreselected position corresponding a characteristic controlled by the square wave .toithe absolute altitudeof theaircraft, receiver ceiver .means being -adapted to produce two signals of two beat frequencies respectively, one beat frequency being prcportional to the distance 1 between :aircraft and target plus the speed of the aircraft .with: respect to the ta1'g'ct,the other Ebcat .Irequencybeing proportional to said distance minus said speed, amp1ifier5means :enersized fromssaid receiver means, limiter means energized fromjsaid amplifier means for producing from said two beat frequency signals :two

substantially square wave signals, a pair :of counter means operatively connected to said limitenmeansrto be energized by said square wave signals respectively, one of said counter means being :connected to said square wave generator .means to be controlled therefrom whereby said last rnamedcounter .means counts the pulses of only one of said'square wave signals, phase inverter-means, the other of said counter means being'operatively connected to said square wave .75 ccuuter-imeansandenergizedtherefrom; first and l second relays, a bomb release circuit including the contacts of both said first and second relays, firstand second electron discharge tubes each having a control grid, means including said first and second electron discharge tubes connected to said first and second relays respectively and adapted to control the energizations thereof in accordance with the values of the potentials .on the respective control grids, rectifier means energized-from said amplifier means for generating a voltage proportional to the duration and amplitude of the receiver signals, the control grid of said first electron discharge tube being connected to said rectifier means and having said direct current voltage applied thereto, and an altitude compensation switch, the control grid of said second electron discharge tube being connected to said integrator circuit by Way of said altitude compensation switch.

2. In automatic bomb release apparatus of the character disclosed for use aboard aircraft for bombing a moving target wherein the output of a square wave generator is utilized to frequency modulate a radio wave, said radio wave being received and utilized to obtain two beat frequency signals, one of said signals corresponding in frequency to the distance between aircraft and target plus the speed of the aircraft with respect to the target, the other of said beat frequency signals corresponding in frequency to said distance minus said speed, in combination, rectifier means for producing a direct current voltage proportional to the combined amplitudes and durations of said signals, counter means controlled from said square wave generator and adapted to separately count the alternations of said beat frequency signals, first and second relays, a bomb release circuit including the contacts of both said relays, means connected to said first relay and to said counter means for energiz'ing said first relay to close the contacts thereof upon preselected values of said beat frequencies, means including an electron discharge tube having a control grid and operatively connected to said second relay for energizing said second relay to close the contacts thereof when the potential on said control grid assumes a predetermined value, said control grid being connected to said rectifier means and having said direct current voltage applied thereto, said second relay preventing the premature closing of said bomb release circuit, and means connected to said second relay for indicating when the contacts of said second relay are closed thereby to indicate the readiness of said bomb release circuit.

8. In automatic bomb release apparatus of the character disclosed for use on moving aircraft for bombing a moving target, and employing master control means to frequency modulate a radio transmitter and emit a radio wave frequency modulated at a predetermined rate and band width preselected in accordance with the altitude of the aircraft, and receiver means for receiving said radio wave and generating two beat frequency signals, one of said signals corresponding in frequency to the distance between aircraft and target plus the speed of the aircraft with respect to the target, the other of said beat frequency signals corresponding in frequency to said distance minus said speed, in combination, rectifier means for generating a direct current voltage proportional to the combined amplitudes and durations of said signals, counter means controlled from said master control means and adapted to separately count the alternations of said beat frequency signals, first and second relays both adapted when energized to close the contacts thereof, a bomb release circuit including the contacts of both said relays, means including altitude compensating means and connecting said first relay to said counter means for energizing said first relay when said beat frequencies have preselected values, and means including an electron discharge tube having a control grid and operatively connected to said second relay for energizing said second relay when the potential on said control grid assumes a predetermined value, said control grid being connected to said rectifier means to have said direct current voltage applied thereto, said second relay preventing the premature closing of said bomb release circuit.

4. In automatic bomb release apparatus of the character disclosed for use on moving aircraft for bombing a moving target, and employing master control means to frequency modulate a radio transmitter and emit a radio wave frequency modulated at a perdetermined rate and band width preselected in accordance with the altitude of the aircraft, and receiver means for receiving said radio wave and generating two beat frequency signals corresponding in frequency to the distance between aircraft and target plus the speed of the aircraft with respect to the target, the other of said beat frequency signals corresponding in frequency to said distance minus said speed, in combination, rectifier means for generating a direct current voltage proportional to the combined amplitudes and durations of said signals, counter means controlled from said master control means and adapted to separately count the alternations of said beat frequency signals and generate a control voltage proportional thereto, first and second relays both adapted when energized to close the contacts thereof, a bomb release circuit including the contacts of both said relays, means including a first electron discharge tube having a first control grid for energizing said first relay when the potential on said first control grid assumes a predetermined value, means including altitude compensating means and interconnecting said first relay and first electron discharge tube to said counter means for applying said control voltage from said counter means to said first control grid and energizing said first relay when said beat frequencies have preselected values, means including a second electron discharge tube having a second control grid and operatively connected to said second relay for energizing said second relay when the potential on said second control grid assumes a predetermined value, said second control grid being connected to said rectifier means to have said direct current voltage applied thereto, said second relay preventing the premature closing of said bomb release circuit, and means connected to said second'relay for indicating when the contacts of said second relay are closed thereby to indicate the readiness of said bomb release circuit.

5. In automatic bomb release apparatus of the character disclosed for use on moving aircraft for bombing a moving target, and employing master control means to frequency modulate a radio transmitter and emit a radio wave frequency modulated at a predetermined rate and band width preselected in accordance with the altitude of the aircraft,, an d receiver means for receiving said radio wave a and generating two beat frequency signals, one of said signals corre- 7,, sponding in frequency to the distance between aircraft and target plus the'speed of the aircraft with respect to the target, the other of said beat frequency signals corresponding in frequency to said distance minus said speed, in combination, rectifier means for generating a direct current voltage proportional tothe combined amplitudes and durations of said signals, counter means controllediromsaid master control means and adapted to separately count the alternations of said beat frequency signals and generate a control voltage proportional thereto, first and second relays both adapted when energized to close the contacts thereof, a bomb release circuit including the contacts of both said relays, means including a first electron discharge tube having a first control grid and operatively connected to said first relay for energizing said first relay when the potential on said first control grid assumes a predetermined value, means including altitude compensating means and interconnecting said first relay and first electron discharge tube to said counter means for applying said control voltage from said counter means to said first controlgrid and energizing said first relay when said beat frequencies have preselected values, and means including a second-electron discharge tube having a second control grid and- 6. In automatic bomb release apparatus of the character disclosed for use in moving aircraft for bombing atarget, in combination, square wave generator means including a band width compensating switch, a radio transmitter operative ly connected to said square wave generator means for emitting a frequency modulated wave having a characteristic controlled by the square wave and the setting of said switch, said switch being adjusted to a preselected position corresponding to the absolute altitude of the aircraft, receiver means for receiving the reflected wave, said receiver means being adapted to produce two signals of two beat frequencies respectively, one

beat frequency being proportional to the dis-' 'energized by said square wave signals respectively, one of said counter meansbeing connected to said square wave generator means to be controlled therefro'in whereby said'last named counter means counts the pulses of only one of 'said square wave signals, phaseinver'ter means, the other of said counter means being-operatlvely connected to said square wave generator means by way of said phase inverter means, said other counter means counting only the pulsations'of the other of said square wave signals, integrator circuit means connected to both said counter means and energized therefrom, first and second relays, a bomb release circuit includingthe contacts of both said first and second relays, first'and Second electron discharge tubes each having'e control grid, means including said first and'sec- 0nd electron discharge tubes connected to-"said first and second relays respectively and adapted to control the energizations thereof inbccotdancewith the values of the potentialson there'- spective control grids, rectifier means energized from said amplifier means, the control grid of said first electron discharge tube being con nected to said rectifier means, an altitude compensation switch, the control grid of said second electron discharge tube b'eingconnected to said integrator circuit means by way of said "altitude compensation switch,.and means operatively connected to-said second relay for indicating when said second relay becomes energized thereby to indicate the readiness of said bomb release cir-' cult to operate to release the bomb.

'7. In automatic bomb release apparatus ofthe character disclosed for use aboard aircraft for bombing a moving target wherein a transmitted radio wave is frequency modulated, said radio wave being received and utilized to obtain two beatfrequency signals, one of said signals corresponding in frequency to the distance between aircraft and target plus the speed of theaircraft with respect to the target, the "other of saidbe'atfrequency signals corresponding'in frequency to said distance minus said speed, and in which counter means and integrator circuit 'means are utilized to derive a control voltage from'said beat'fre-- quency signals; said beat frequency signals also being rectified and amplified to obtain a'safety signal proportional in amplitude to the duration and amplitude of said beat frequency signals, in combination, first relay means 'havingsaid safety signal applied thereto and energized when said safety signal has a predetermined value,-indicating means operatively connected to said-first realay means for indicating when said first relay means is energized, second relay means, a bomb release circuit including the contacts of both said first and second relay means, an amplifier opera-' tively connected to said second relay means to control the *energization'thereof, and adjustable. altitude compensator means operatively connectingsaid amplifier means to said integrator means for energizing said second relay means by said control signal when said beat frequency signals have predetermined valuesand said altitude conipensator means is adjusted to'a preselected set-r ting.

MARTIN V. KIEBERT, JR.

REFERENCES euro The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,264,063 Bond NOV. 25, 1941 2,409,448 Rost Oct. 15, 1946 2,416,223 Sanders Feb. 18, 1947 2,420,016 Sanders May 6, 1947 2,420,017 Sanders May 6, 1947 Luck Dec. 23, 1947

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2264063 *Feb 28, 1939Nov 25, 1941Rca CorpRadio receiver
US2409448 *Feb 4, 1941Oct 15, 1946Daniel Vigren StenSelf-tracking radio direction and distance device
US2416223 *Apr 20, 1944Feb 18, 1947Rca CorpRadio bomb release system
US2420016 *May 23, 1944May 6, 1947Rca CorpReflected wave navigation device
US2420017 *May 23, 1944May 6, 1947Rca CorpReflected wave navigation device
US2433284 *Oct 2, 1944Dec 23, 1947Rca CorpRadio bomb release system
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2629865 *Jun 13, 1946Feb 24, 1953Eastern Ind IncRadio echo apparatus for detecting and measuring the speed of moving objects
US2726384 *Jul 31, 1952Dec 6, 1955Raytheon Mfg CoAutomatic frequency response controls
US7845263 *Sep 16, 2008Dec 7, 2010Frank MillerBomb release mechanism for radio-controlled airplane
Classifications
U.S. Classification342/61, 342/128
International ClassificationF41G9/02, F41G9/00
Cooperative ClassificationF41G9/02
European ClassificationF41G9/02