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Publication numberUS2491530 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 20, 1949
Filing dateNov 30, 1944
Priority dateNov 30, 1944
Publication numberUS 2491530 A, US 2491530A, US-A-2491530, US2491530 A, US2491530A
InventorsWarren Stubblebine
Original AssigneeArmstrong Cork Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Hard surface wall and floor covering
US 2491530 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 20, 1949 W sTUBBLEBlNE 2,491,530

HARD SURFACE WALL AND FLOOR COVERING Filed NOV. 50, 1944 Patented nee. 2o, 194e UNITED I D WLL AND VERING Warren Stubblebine, Inncaster, Pa., assigner to trong Cork Company, Lanc ester, Pa., a

corporation of Pennsylvania Application November 30, i944, Serial No. 565,908

Claims.

This invention relates to hard surface wall and floor coverings. More specically, it is concerned with a floor or wall covering including a stratum of partible, felted, fibrous material. Such coverings consist essentially of a body made of felted bers impregnated with a Water-resistant material, such as asphalt, and having a decorative paint coat or a layer of linoleum composition as a wearing surface.

A serious defect of this type of floor covering resides in the fact that it is not ordinarily feasible to adhesively secure the same to a floor or wall. It is desirable to adhesively secure the covering into place; so far as walls are concerned, it is impracticable to use coverings of this type unless they can be adhesiveiy secured. So fai' as floors are concerned, adhesively securing the covering to the floor is desirable because it prevents scuillng or cracking of the material, curling of its edges, buckling, and the like.

The obvious advantages involved in adhesively securing the covering in place have been recognized but the practice has been avoided because of the difficulties which ensue if removal of the covering be subsequently attempted. As a practical matter, the user of such coverings will wish to replace the covering, even if only at infrequent intervals.

The impregnated fibrous covering is inherently less resistant to rupture than any of the adhesives customarily used in the floor or wall covering art. The material, due to the felting operation, is laminar in character and tends to pull apart at different levels between the top and bottom surfaces :depending vupon a number of factors, such as the manner in which it is pulled from the floor, the uniformity of impregnation, the uniformity of the floor, etc. If it is attempted to remove a piece of adhesively secured felt base, the covering itself is destroyed and the floor is left with an ugly and irregular covering of adhesive and pieces of asphalt saturated felt. It is impossible to deal with such a condition satisfactorily.

These dinicultles may be overcome and such coverings by the use of my invention may be adhesively secured to walls or floors and subsequently removed in such a way as to leave the wall or floor in condition to receive another covering without destruction of the original covering which has been removed. These results are attained by interposing between the stratum of partible, felted. brous material and the wall or floor a rupturable fibrous layer composed of haphazardly scattered, heterogeneously dispersed nbers which are not interlocked or entangled to any substantial extent and which is materially weaker than the stratum of fibrous material in its resistance to rupture.

According to the preferred embodiment of my invention, the rupturable fibrous layer is composed of cotton flock, cotton shearings, or carpet shearings. All of these materials retain fibrous characteristics, even in the form of flock. An adhesive coating is placed on the stratum of rupturable fibrous material and serves to bond the flock layer thereto. In addition, it may serve as a sealing coating for the impregnant of the fibrous stratum.

In the manufacture of the floor or wall covering of my invention, a decorative wear surface is integrally united with the partible, felterl, fibrous stratum. The wear surface may comprise a paint coating as is customary in the manufacture of so-called felt base floor coverings or it may consist of an oxidized siccative oil-resin gel, such as linoleum composition, for example. The bonding and sealing coating is then placed on the opposite side of the partible stratum and the layer of cotton flock is formed thereon and adhesively secured to the stratum by the sealing and bonding coating. Preferably, the layer of cotton nook is formed by blowing the cotton flock onto the adhesive coating, although if desired, cotton flock may be distributed thereon by means of a vacuum roll or similar means. It will be understood, if desired, the adhesive and sealing coating may be placed on the fibrous stratum before the wear surface is united therewith and later activated or rendered adhesive in any suitable manner to secure the flock layer to the brous stratum.

From my experiments, I have determined certain definite limits of cohesion within which the strength or resistance to tensile forces of the flock layer must fall in order to obtain ready removability.. I have determined that limits of cohesion of 3 to 30 pounds are satisfactory, but limits of 6 to 30 pounds are preferred. With greater tensile resistance than :ill pounds, the flock layer is resistant to a degree to prevent ready removability. With tensile resistance less than 3 pounds, it is dangerously Weak and the covering may be loosened from the base by severe traffic and excessive Wear; for that reason, a minimum of 6 pounds is preferred.

The pull test, hereinafter referred to as the Scott test used to establish these limits, may be carried on in the following manner:

'To one side of a strip of wood 6 long and 2 Wide, a thin layer of linoleum cement or paste is applied using a notched doctor blade to apply the paste or cementevenly over the entire surface. To the paste or cement is immediately applied a strip of the covering to be tested 8"' long and 2" wide, one end of which is placed flush with one end of the strip of wood, the other end extending freely beyond the Wood strip. After rolling to obtain a satisfactory bond between the wood and the covering, the sample is maintained at normal room temperature for approximately four days to dry the paste or cement. `The resistance of the cotton flock layer to -`tensile forces is determined by placing the sample in a Scott tensile strength machine at right angles to the direction of the forces to be exerted. The strength of the forces recordedras 4the covering is removed from the wood strip measures the resistance of the flock layer to tensile forces.

Any suitable sealing and bonding coating may be used to secure the layer of cotton flock' to the stratum of partible fibrous material. I have found a satisfactory adhesive may be composed of equal parts of a mixture of a modified alkyd resirhsuch as "Parap1ex 5B and a solvent-soluble, chemically plasticized urea-formaldehyde resin,-such as Uformite QR129.' Any suitable solvent Amay be used as a vehicle for these resins. VAs I understand, Uformite" QR129 is a heat-reactive, solvent-soluble urea-formaldehyde Acondensate plasticized with dicapryl phthalate. Y

It will be understood the layer of cotton flock may be applied to the stratum ofpartible fibrous material prior to application of the wear surface on the face thereof or the layer may be secured thereto after the wear surface has been integrally united therewith. With the rupturable flock layer of my invention, length of maturing time and temperatures of maturing of the wear surface are not important for they do not affect the rupturability characteristics of the cotton flock layer.

If desired, a sealing coating may beV applied to the stratum of partible fibrous material before the application of the adhesive coating. This is generally not necessary but it offers additional assurance that the impregnant of the partible flbrous stratum is satisfactorily sealed therein.

While the present invention has been described as particularly adapted to the manufacture of so- In the accompanying drawing illustrating my invention, Figure 1 isa sectorial view of a building structure showing my hard surface covering secured to a base, a corner of the covering being raised to show the rupturable layer and the adhesive layer bonding the covering to the base:

and Figure 2 is a sectional View, similarvto Fig-V ure 1, illustrating a modification thereof.

called felt base and linoleum-like oor or wall coverings, it is likewise adapted for use in the pro@ duction of coverings, such as industrial ooring which comprises a saturated felt base or body carrying an asphaltic coating as a wearing surface; floor coverings in which the base or body may form the wearing surface, or any similar oor coverings which include a partible fibrous stratum, such as asphalt-saturated felt underlayment for resilient tiles and the like. Y

' A building structure embodying my invention may be formed in the following manner: The base is prepared to receive a covering; that is, it is cleaned and levelled so that it presents a clean, dry, substantially smooth surface. A layer of adhesive is spread evenly over the base; the hard surface covering is laid thereon before the adhesive is dry and firmly pressed thereagainst as by rolling, placing heavy sand bags thereover, or the like. When the ahesive has dried, the covering is securely attached to the base.

When it is desired to remove the covering, the rupturable cotton flock layer may be readily ruptured by exerting tensile forces on the structure. When the covering is removed, the hase may be readily placed in condition to receive a new covering by washing away the adhesive remaining thereon and following the process described above. In many cases, it is not essential to wash off the adhesive remaining on the base since a satisfactory bond may be secured merely by placing another adhesive coating thereon and securing a covering thereto. Preferably, the adhesive is removed since in some cases the adhesive may not be spread sufficiently smooth to permit a second adhesive coating thereover.

Referring to the drawing, there is shown a base 2, a hard surface covering 3 comprising a wearing surface li'p'referably formed of an oxidized siccative oil-resingel, a stratum of partible 1lbrous material 5 which is impregnated by a waterproong compound, such as asphalt,`an adhesive layer 6 disposed on one side of the stratum 5, a layer of cotton flock 1 secured to the stratum 5 by means of the adhesive coating 6, and an adhesive layer 8 bonding the covering I tothe base 2.

In Figure 2, I have shown a covering generallyaffected by the temperatures or length of time required for maturing the wear surface. The rupturable layer may be easily and quickly applied to the fibrous stratum forming the backing of the floor covering in an inexpensive manner. The rupturable floor covering of my invention ia inexpensive and may be quickly and easily applied in position to form the decorative wear-resistant surface of a door or wall. In addition, the type and quantity of adhesive used to secure the covering to the base does not affect the rupturability characteristics of my floor covering to any sul:` stantial extent. J

While I have described and illustrated a preferred embodiment of my invention, itiwill be understood my invention is not limited thereto since it may be otherwise embodied within the scope of the following claims.

Iclaim:

1. As a new article of manufacture, a hard surface wall or floor covering including a stratum of partible, felted, iibrousmaterlal impregnated with a moisture-resistant substance and a rupturable fibrous flocked layer adhesively secured to one side of said stratum, said rupturable fibrous layer being composed of haphazardly scattered. hetero. geneously dispersed fibers which are not interlocked or entangled to any substantial extent and being materially weaker than the stratum ot' fibrous material in its resistance to rupture whereby when the covering is adhesively secured to a base with the layer interposed, between the fibrous stratum and the base, the layer may be subsew quently ruptured to permit removal of the covertermined by the Scott test adhesively secured.

to one side of said stratum, said rupturable fibrous layer being composed of haphazardly scattered, heterogeneously dispersed fibers which are not interlocked or entangled to any substantial extent and being materially weaker than the stratum of fibrous material in its resistance to 5 rupture whereby when the covering is adhesively secured to a base with the layer interposed between the fibrous sheet and the base, the layer may be subsequently ruptured to 4permit removal of the covering from the base without rupture of the partible stratum. f

3. As a new article of manufacture, a hard surface wall or iioor covering including a decorative wear surface, a stratum of partible, felted, brous material impregnated with a moisture-resistant substance, and a rupturable fibrous flocked layer adhesively secured to one side of said stratum, said rupturable brous layer being composed of haphazardly scattered, heterogeneously dispersed bers which are not interlocked or entangled to any substantial extent and being materially weaker than the stratum of brous material in its resistance to rupture whereby when the covering is adhesively secured to a base with the layer interposed between the fibrous stratum and the base, the layer may be subsequently ruptured to permit removal of the covering from the base tered, heterogeneously dispersed bers which are` not interlocked or entangled to any substantial extent, said layer being materially weaker than the stratum of brous material in its resistance to rupture whereby when the covering is adhesively secured to a base with the layer interposed between the fibrous sheet and the base, the layer may be subsequently ruptured to permit removal of the covering from the base without rupture of tine-resistant substance. and a the partible stratum.

5. As a new article of manufacture, a hard surface wall or floor covering including a decorative wear surface comprising a siccative oil-resin gel, a stratum of partible, felted, fibrous material impregnated with a moisture-resistant substance integrally united with said wear surface, a sealing and bonding coating placed on one side of said fibrous stratum, and a layer of cotton flock secured to said stratum by said bonding coating, said layer of cotton flock having a resistance to rupture in the rance of 3 to 30 pounds as determined by the Scott test and being materially weaker than the stratum of fibrous material in its resistance tov rupture whereby when the covering is adhesively secured to a base with the layer of cotton flock interposed between the iibrous stratum and the base, the cotton ilock layer may be subsequently ruptured to permit'removal of the covering from the base without rupture of the partible stratum.

6. An article of manufact-ure according to claim 5 in which the sealing and bonding coating is cornposed of a mixture of a modified alkyd resin and a plasticized urea-aldehyde resin.-

'1. In a building structure. thecombinaticn or a base. and a wear-resistant door or wall cover-v e im adhesively secured tcsaidbcse, said iioor or wall covering including` a stratum `or partible,

Y arable nbroua flocked layer adhesively secured to the side ci of partible, felted, fibrous material impregnated,

with a moisture-resistant substance, and a rupturable fibrous layer having a resistance to rupture in the range of 3 to 30 pounds as determined by the Scott test adhesively secured to the side of said stratum adjacent the base, said rupturable fibrous flocked layer being composed of haphazardly scattered, heterogeneously dispersed fibers which are not interlocked or entangled to any substantial extent and being materially weaker than the stratum of fibrous material in its resistance to,rupture whereby the layer may be subsequently ruptured to permit removal of the covering from the base without rupture of the partible stratum.

9. In a building structure, the combination of a base, a door or wall covering disposed over said base, and an adhesive layer bonding the covering to the base, said covering including a decorative wear surface composed of a siccative oil-resin gel, a stratum of partible, felted, fibrous material impregnated with a moisture-resistant substance, and a rupturable fibrous ocked layer having a resistance to rupture in the range of 3 to 30 pounds as determined by the "Scott test adhesively secured to the side of said stratum adjacent the base and being composed of haphazardly scat- 1 tered, heterogeneously dispersed bers which are not interlockedbr ventangled to any substantial extent, said layer being materially weaker than the stratum of fibrous material in its resistance to rupture whereby the layer may be subsequently ruptured to permit removal of the covering from the base without rupture of the partible stratum.

10. In a building structure, the combination of a base, a oor or wall covering disposed over said base. and an adhesive layer bonding the covering to the base, said covering including a decorative wear surface comprising a siccative oil-resin gel, a stratum of partible, felted, ilbrous material im pregnated with a moisture-resistant substance, a sealing and bonding coating placed on one side of said fibrous stratum and a layer of cotton dock secured to said stratum by said bonding coating, said layer of cotton flock being materially weaker than the stratum of fibrous material in its resistance to rupture whereby the cotton flock layer may be subsequently ruptured to permit removal v of the covering from the base ,without rupture' of the partible stratum.

WARREN STUBBLEBINE. aar-namens crran The following references are of record in the ille of this patent:

narran sra'rns PATENTS Number Name Date 1,606,735 Lines et al. Nov. 9, 1926 1,978,549 Muuocth 30, 1934 2,272,144 Allen Feb. 1942 2,274,642 Adams Mar. 3.1942

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1606735 *Apr 21, 1926Nov 9, 1926Bird & SonFlexible floor covering and process of making the same
US1978549 *Feb 26, 1932Oct 30, 1934Crown Cork & Seal CoShoe material
US2272144 *Aug 1, 1940Feb 3, 1942Congoleum Nairn IncCovering structure
US2274642 *Jun 23, 1937Mar 3, 1942Armstrong Cork CoHard surface covering
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2669757 *Mar 31, 1949Feb 23, 1954Chicopee Mfg CorpWall construction
US4062992 *Sep 29, 1975Dec 13, 1977Formica CorporationThermosetting resin
US4064297 *Sep 29, 1975Dec 20, 1977Formica CorporationInterlaminar flocked laminate
US4505964 *Aug 31, 1983Mar 19, 1985Henkel Kommanditgesellschaft Auf AktienDehesive lining paper for wall coverings comprising a fleece laminated to a film having a low-energy surface
US20120100332 *Nov 11, 2010Apr 26, 2012Shanghai Jinka Flooring Technology Co., Ltd.Self bonding floor tile and manufacturing method thereof
Classifications
U.S. Classification428/86, 428/95, 428/904.4, 428/90
International ClassificationD06N7/00
Cooperative ClassificationD06N7/0049
European ClassificationD06N7/00B8E2