|Publication number||US2493017 A|
|Publication date||Jan 3, 1950|
|Filing date||Aug 5, 1946|
|Priority date||Aug 5, 1946|
|Publication number||US 2493017 A, US 2493017A, US-A-2493017, US2493017 A, US2493017A|
|Inventors||Ervin J Nutter|
|Original Assignee||Ervin J Nutter|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (17), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Jan. 3, 1950 E. J. NUTTER GRID SPRHY NOZZLE 3 Shgets-Sheet 1 Filed. Aug. 5, 1946 INVENTOR. v EC'W/V J, A/l/TTJFB Jan. 3, 1950 E. .1. NUTTER GRID SPRAY NOZZLE s Shets-Sheet 5 Filed Aug. 5, 1946 INVENTOR. FEW/V J. #07754? Patented Jan. 3, 1950 PAT- ENT FFICE' GRID SPRAY NOZZLE.
Ervin J. Nutter, Dayton; 01110 A pucationnu gusrs;1946; seriar No: 6ss;414-
8-Claimsr (01. 244-136) (Granted under the act of -March *3, "1883, as amended*Api'il 30; 1928; 370- 0.-G.' 7'57) Tli' invention deseribedherein m'ay be'manw' facturecr'andfusedby or for theGo'vernment for governmental purposesiwithbut paymentto 'mex' ofa'n 'ro a1tlythereom It is a primary object of my inventionto pro;- vide a grid spray nozzlethat utilizestheactiorrof. air new through the grid nozzle to draw the spraymaterialltherefrom in atomizediform.
'Imfi'mvenfioflrelates'to gridlspmy'nozzlescon:' 5 It is another object of this invention.to-atomize structed and'iarran'ged to"f ormVenturi passage mean'sth'rough which theffiow'of air is"utilized*to"ip draw spray material therefrom and be diffused in" atomizedrormr aref' kn'oiwn f or distributing 'sprayi material'iin" whieh' the spray? material is ordinarily emitted" from:the:spray nozz1e meansibyi'gravityoriorcedti.: therefroinibyra pressuretpumpf Many forms" of spraynozzleshave been produced-to decrease tlie 15 droplet size'of therissuedspray-since adec'rease droplet size lnorea'ses-the"emciency of the spray? such form's'xo'f breaking upithespray materiar have included" especially 'designe'dmozzl'e heads}: spray breaker bars and whirling porteddiscs, or appli" "on" of pre's'sureito'thespray' material, -aml the" likeg' to accomplish desirable" atomization? While'these devices have been successful inopera= tio'n continued'ffiortsmaye been made'-to"obtain""' a higher deg-react atomization -of spray'material"" 25 to getgreater effi'ciency without including abure den'soin'e" amount I of "imachinery, as 'pressure"" pumpsfsprayfbreakerbaraetct' Wherespraying" dei/icesare'us'ed" on aircraft the" necessity of 'llSiIlg'i pressure pumpsyisprayr'nozzle" attachments; and th'likjn order to obtain goodspraying'qualitie's'; is objectionable sin'ethe taircraft operatin'g load is increased.
The presentinv'ention "of thegrids'praynozzle is shown' a'nd described as '1 applicable to aircraft merely by way of illustration; althoughit maybe: attachedito othermovablevehicles; "or it maybe usedin a; 'stationarymanner; in which thefiovrof air through a 'gridnozzleof streamlined fiuid'bbm duits, arrangewtoiform Vehturi passages there; betwen'havin'g orifices at the optl'rn'iifn' re'gionfof hilii elo'cityand low. prssureairin the venturi assapesyigbperabl to c'ausefthehprayi material to bedraw'rithroughthe orlfices'atright'anglestoi theaif stream athighivelocityand' shornpff and '45" diffused "to produce atomization of the spray-ma"- teri'al "into .vei'y'flrfialy idividd droplets. L" Iiihas beenfound that 'the' gridnozzla'of thisinventiom giyes droplet sizes approximately" one-half that" spray material therefrom-and idiffuses it to pro sprayrmaterial by passing a stream of air throughw. a gridnof fiuid nozzle conduits,-f0rmed to providea: Venturi t-passage means therebetween; for drawlingzthe spray'material out of the nozzlevconduitsyrr and'idiffnsing'it.
A further object of this inventio'nlis' "the provt-rn sion -"of a grid spray nozzl'e of parallel streamlined'zi conduits constructed and arranged to formi-Vnr .turi "passage means therebetwe'en with orifices-in theconduits at optimum points of high Velocity andlow pressure wherein air flowing through the' grid nozzle will pull the sprayymaterial from-theconduits-in an atomized spray;
A'still further object of this invention is to p'r'o=- vide"a*grid'" spray nozzle for aircraft havingtarstreamlined manifold means'attachable t0the"-" airor'aftand in communication with a supply'tta'nk forsupplyi'ng;spraymaterial to a multiple of con neeted axially parallel streamlinednozzl'e con=-"': duits," the streamlined nozzle conduits having th'ei'r; major cross-sectional axes" parallel an'diii arranged in the). same streamlineddireetidni h.
as the .said l streamlined manifold to form .l
Venturi passagesmeans therebetween andQ.orifice's;- arranged in the streamlined nozzle. conduits suhstantiallyvin the region of least-Venturi passage area-1 at right angles to the airflow whereinlthea fiowr'ofair through the gridsnozzlet draws the duceaflnezatomizedspray.
Other objects "and advantages -will become apt-, parent as=the description xproceeds taken in-icon-i junetion with the accompanying drawings int-J whichnss Figr l is a view of s an airplane in broken lines shewing oneniorm. of the :-grid spray nozzle ac-w cording-to therinvention, attached thereto;
Fig; 2-is--a .front View ofthe :form of thegridspray nozzle shown used in Fig.1;
Fig-B is a cross sectional view'taken along the. 1lne"'r3:-3- of Fig.2 looking in the direction of=ther-s shows anotherziormtof a. grid; spraym Flgi fi isa top: plan --view: of thes-embodiiiientar Fig. 7 is an end view of the embodiment shown in Fig.
Fig. 8 is another embodiment of the grid spray nozzle;
Fig. 9 is still another embodiment of the grid spray nozzle;
Fig. 10 is a top view of Fig. 9;
Fig. 11 is a cross-sectional view taken along the line llll of Fig. 9, looking in the direction of the arrows;
Fig. 12 is a broken-away view of the side of the streamlined nozzle conduit that forms one wall of the Venturi passage of the nozzle illustrated in the above figures;
Fig. 13 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of the streamlined nozzle conduit illustrated in the above figures;
Fig. 14 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of another modification of a nozzle conduit; and t Fig. 15 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of another form of a nozzle conduit.
Describing the invention more in detail, referring particularly to Fig. 1, there is shown an airplane in broken lines, generally designated by the reference character 21, with a preferred embodiment of the grid spray nozzle 22 of this invention operatively attached to the underside of the fuselage thereof as by hanger brackets 23 fastened to the grid spray nozzle 22 at 24 and to the airplane fuselage by a plate 25 in any well known manner. The grid spray nozzle 22 is supplied with spray'material by a conduit 26 connected to a spray'material supply tank (not shown) within the fuselage of the airplane. A throttle control valve (not shown) is conveniently placed in conduit 26 in order that an occupant of the airplane may control the flow of the spray material in the well known manner.
The preferred embodiment of the grid spray nozzle, as shown in Figs. 2, 3, and 4, comprises a fluid manifold 21 having a streamlined crosssectional configuration forming a head portion 28 and a tail portion 29. The upper end of the manifold 21 has a flange 30 for attachment to the spray material supply conduit 26 of the airplane shown in Fig. l, or for attachment to a supply conduit of any other desirable spray equipment. The lower end of the manifold is closed by a flat plate 3|. Spray nozzle conduits or tubes 32 extend in fluid conducting parallel relation from diametrically opposite sides perpendicular to the major diametrical axis of the manifold 27 and are streamlined in cross-section forming head portions 33 and tail portions 34 that lie in the same relative major axis longitudinal direction as the head and tail portions of the streamlined manifold 21. The outer extremities of the nozzle conduits 32 are closed by means of flat plates 35 that extend above the nozzle conduits to facilitate attaching the grid spray nozzle to spraying equipment. The flat plates 35 have openings over the nozzle conduit ends with removable plugs 36 therein for use in inspecting, draining, or cleaning the nozzle conduits 32. The openings thus formed between the nozzle conduits 32, with the head and tail portions 33, 34 all lying in the same relative direction, are constricted to form Venturi passages. Elongated slot orifice openings 31 are arranged at intervals along the nozzle conduits 32, in the region where the head and munication between the interior of the nozzle conduits 32 and the Venturi passage. The orifice openings enter at right angles to a tangent of the exterior surface of the nozzle conduit to permit spray material to be drawn out at right angles to the airstream. The wall portion of the outermost nozzle conduits, that is removed from the Venturi passage means is imperforate.
The grid spray nozzle may, where desirable, be made in sections consistingof a manifold section with a single opposed nozzle conduit on each side thereof and individual end plates over each nozzle conduit end. Such sections may be piled to obtain the desired size of grid spray nozzle and fastened together in any well known manner, as
for example, the manner of fastening the sections of a common heat exchanging steam or hot water radiator. The sections are illustrated as being connected at 38 and 39.
Figs. 5, 6, and 7 show another modification of a grid spray nozzle in which two streamlined manifolds 4i and 42 are used having connecting flanges 43 and 44, respectively, for attachment to a spray material supply conduit in the well known manner. Streamlined nozzle conduits 45 are connected between the streamlined manifolds M and 32 in parallel spaced fluid conducting relation with the head portions of the streamlined manifolds and the nozzle conduits lying in the same relative direction in the manner described of these elements in Figs. 2, 3, and 4. Caps 56 on the bottom ends of the streamlined manifolds d! and 42 are removable for inspecting, draining, or cleaning of the manifolds while caps 41 on one of the streamlined manifolds are removable for inspecting and cleaning of the nozzle conduits 45. The nozzle conduits 45 have orifices in their adj acent portions entering into the Venturi passage formed by the nozzle conduits in the same manner as described above of Figs. 2, 3, and 4. Obviously this modification of a grid nozzle may be made in sections in the manner described above, if so desired.
The modification shown in Fig. 8 comprises a streamlined manifold 48 adapted to be suspended vertically from some spray material supply means by theflange 49. Streamlined nozzle conduits 50 are attached in parallel spaced fluid conducting relation on one side of the manifold 48 with the head portions of the manifold and the nozzle conduits arranged in one direction as described of the corresponding elements in Figs. 2, 3, and 4. The outermost ends of the nozzle conduits 59 are closed off by a flat plate 5|. Orifices are arranged along the nozzle conduits 50 to permit fluid in the nozzle conduits to flow outwardly into the Venturi passages formed between these c0nduits in the manner described of the orifice arrangement in these parts with reference to Figs. 2, 3,- and 4. Here again this form of grid spray nozzle may be made insections if desirable. Inspection, draining, or cleanout plugs 52 and 53 are conveniently placed in the manifold 48.
The embodiment shown in Figs. 9, 10, and 11 comprises a streamlined inverted T-shaped manifold54 adapted to be attached to a spray material supply conduit by the flange 55. Depending vertically from the horizontal portion of the inverted T-shaped streamlined manifold in fluid conducting relation are spaced parallel nozzle conduits 56 streamlined in cross section with the head portions arranged in the same relative direction as the manifold head portion as set forth in the description of the corresponding elements in Figs.
2, 3, and 4. The outer ends of the nozzle con duits 56 are closed as by a flat plate 51.
rag'cesiow ting: fthezsprammaterialx although ':rectangular. or around; drilled in! :spunchedizholes may be=.:.used :cwhererparticular'application shows .therneed orxif therel'arezpreferences.
Fig. 13sshows theistreamlinedinozzlevconduit;
i=5 lroh-Eig. 12,5fr usei'aszone: of the intermediate n'ozzlesconduits, imenlarged: crossi section. 'zThe innozzlemonduit: 6 Ithas :the: orifices; 62. therealong, equivalent? to thexorificesi 3T. in Fig. 3, inrthei reagiomwherecthecheadzportion $3 andthe tailpor-y ttioni 64 imeet'entering-znormal to a ,tangentof the -.:outer surfaceithereof. .Other typesof streamlined ;-,=nozzleoconduits i-may rberused as .showmin Figs. 14 andzl5zin which the? nozzle: conduits: 6 5 and-@ 6 rrrespectively, haveiorifi-ces El aud t-58,- respectively;
.-.-in.1the:region:or :the junctureroi thethead: and-tail gportions. .-JIn :the ,grid ass'emblypair:flowa over athese nozzle conduitswill-be at'itshighest velocity hand lowest;:pressure :inethe "region rof the :orifices a-whichrwill create a vacuum. in the:oriflcesto-drawi i spray .emater-ial vout rinto wthe airstream. 'I-he ashearingmfirof the-spray material at the Ecrifi-ces e andthersubsequent reduction in velocity. and zincrease in pressurerofithepmixture in-the diffusion 6 :ithe -Venturi .passagwmeans. "fThe actlomon-lthe airstream through the Venturi passages drawing the spray mater!al'routwardlyzinto the -airstream e'diifuses it in. the: surrounding atmosphere leaving 5 "fit rto'ifa'll :on the, area to be sprayed. Q Theflcw-rate oiathe spraymaterial may-be controlled by :an occcupant' 'oifi lthez. airplane -by: -regulating a throttle -'szalve not sh'own). at some. place in the spr'ayma- -.-terial-:sup-p1y=conduit.
0 tEWhilestheigrid spray-nozzle isillustrated as-beziing usedi on aemovable vehicle as-anair-plane it sis to belunderstoodwthat it:may' be made stationaaryrand; asstreamof air forced through the'grid tmproduce rthadesirable spraying results.
.15 :LThe gridtnozzle .is isimple 'of design andrso -conz'sstruptedtithatiittmayibe readily adapted for very large'rangetofi'iflowrratesp droplet :sizes; and --air aflowr :speeds. The adoption f of nozzle conduits s-spaced'sinwthe?grid'nozzle.to' formtlongrectangular oflovwsections iszan important feature in spraying.
iThaiposition of thezgrid nozzle inaaniairstream nprovides suiii'ci'ent head -td 'the spray material-Hay sithefi passage of air I. through the Venturi pastages-obviating the necessity of otherequipment .2 o -as pumps or pressure deVi'CeS'tO =produce'an even "flow rate. Althoughthe grid nozzleappears to l have aklarge' frontal area,-' the airstream drag is out-to a minimumbe'cause of the'recoveryfinthe -'-"expanding Venturi passage.
'30 wmier have'shown and described: ce'rtairrsimfple embodimentsof-the invention it is to be'.under stood that "many "modifications, gproducing changes *in details and construction, "may "be madewithoutdeparting ifrom ther'spir'it' and. scope -ofmy invention and I desire to belimited onlyby the-*appendd'claims.
I claim: 1. A-"gridmpray"nozzle"devi'ce comprising, a ---'plural-ity of spaced parallel fluidi'coriduits conportion -iof-the Venturi passage causes atomizationaao gnefifiblewmsspmy, material.:supply.means..having of the spray material into finally divided droplets.
The numbersbfcnozzl'ez'condiiitsfishown used in the seyeralembodiments .are.known -to.pr.oduce good spraying results althoughany number may their adj acent portions constructedrand arranged jto' f'orm Venturi passage means th'ereb'etween, a and oififi-ees-iri the-said-lluidconduits atthe' throat section of the saidVenturipassagemeans wherebe used in designing the grid nozzle for particu- 454 thegfigwhf, air-through figheugrmspraysnozzle lar spraying-purposes.
Thermethod of fabricating-the grid spraymoz- .zlemayIbe eflected by welding;bolting threading, .or;clamping in well knowncmanners as, preferlfromeanyem'etal, fiber, or plastic-material capable of being formed, out, and'fastened. If it is made of metal it may be made of virgin metal or alloy to withstand any corrosive liquids to which it may be subjected, or it may be plated in any manner 65 spray material supply means and adapted to have a stream of air to flow therethrough will cause spray material to be emitted therefrom. By way of illustration these conditions may be produced by attaching the grid spray nozzle to a movable *will' pull fluid-spray material outwardly therefrom-in atomized form.
2;Agrid nozzle' -spraying device; fluid compris- -ing, conduits streamlined "in -"cross-section ar- -='able. ..The; grid nozzle may lbe manuiactured m space-dwparanel.relation;thesmajoraxes or their cross=sefctions "being parallel andthe'minor axes-of their cross' sectionsb'eing adj acent the forward respective ends of the same major axes to form Venturi passage means therebetween, orifices in the said conduits in the region of least cross-sectional area of the said Venturi passage means, and manifold means connecting the said streamlined fluid conduits in fluid conducting relation for supplying spray material to the said orifices which spray material is atomized by air flowing through the said Venturi passage means of the grid nozzle.
3. A fluid spray device comprising, streamlined vehicle, as an airplane shown in Fig. 1, which will manifold means adapted to be connected to a,
in flight cause an airstream to flow through the grid spray nozzle. The air flowing through the grid spray nozzle passes through the constricted area of the Venturi passages between the nozzle conduits which increases its velocity and reduces the pressure and pulls the spray material out wardly through the orifices at right angles to the airstream. The orifices are located along the nozzle conduits, as heretofore described, where the source of fluid supply and exposed to a relatively moving airstream, at least two discharge tubes of streamlined cross-section connected to the said manifold means in fluid conducting relation and having the major axes of their cross-sections parallel to each other and to the airstream, said discharge tubes being positioned in the airstream and spaced to form Venturi passages v 'lerebetween, and ports in the said tubes for discharge optimum condition of diffusion can be obtained in 76 of fluid into said Venturi p e means at the throat section thereof to distribute spray 'fluid'in of fluid supply adapted to be carried by the aircraft, streamlined manifoldmeans connected to said source of supply and exposed to the airstream, at least two discharge tubes of streamlined cross-section connected to the said manifold means and having the major axes of their cross-sections parallel to each other and to the airstream, said discharge tubes being positioned in the airstream and spaced to form Venturi passage means therebetween, and ports in said tubes for discharge of fluid into said Venturi passage means at the throat section thereof;
' 5. A fluid spray nozzle device adaptable for use with aircraft so as to discharge spray fluid into the relativelymoving airstream comprising, a source of fluid supply adapted to be carried by the aircraft, a streamlined manifold connected to the said source of supply and exposed to the airstream, discharge conduits of streamlined cross-section disposed in parallel fluid conducting relation from opposed side surfaces and substantially perpendicular to the cross-sectional major axis of the said streamlined manifold, plate means closing the outer ends of the said discharge conduits with upstanding extensions for connection to the aircraft, said discharge conduits being positioned in the airstream and spaced to form Venturi passages therebetween, and orifices in the said discharge conduits for emitting fluid into said Venturi passages at the throat section thereof upon the passage of air therethrough.
6. A fluid spray nozzle device adapted to be used on aircraft so as to discharge spray fluid into the relatively moving airstream comprising, a source of fluid supply adapted to be carried by the aircraft, discharge tubes of streamlined cross-section disposed in parallel relation with their cross-sectional minor axes lying in the same plane perpendicular to the airstream, said discharge tubes being positioned in the airstream and spaced to form Venturi passages therebetween, orifices in the said discharge tubes for discharging fluid in the throat section of the Venturi passages, and a streamlined manifold connected in fluid conducting relation to each of the opposite ends of said discharge tubes, said streamlined manifolds beingin fluid com'muni cation with said fluid supply and each having its cross-sectional major axis parallel to the airstream.
7. A fluid spray nozzle device adapted to be used on aircraft so as to discharge spray fluid into the relatively moving airstream comprising, a source of fluid supply adapted to be carried by the aircraft, an inverted T-shaped manifold being streamlined in cross-section exposed to the airstream and having its stem portion connected in fluid conducting relation with the said fluid supply, spray nozzle conduits of streamlined crosssection depending in parallel relation from the cross-bar of the inverted T-shaped manifold, said spray nozzle conduits being positioned in the airstream and spaced to form Venturi passages therebetween, and ports in the said spray nozzle conduits for discharging fluid into said Venturi passages at the throat section thereof.
8. A grid nozzle spraying device adapted to issue atomized spray fluid into a relatively moving airstream comprising, manifold means of streamlined cross-section exposed to the airstream with the cross-sectional major axis thereof being parallel and the minor axis thereof being forward relative to the major axis and to the airstream, said streamlined manifold means adapted to be connected to a spray fluid supply, a plurality of tubes of streamlined cross-section exposed to the airstream extending laterally in axial parallel relation from the said manifold means substantially perpendicular to the crosssectional major axis thereof and with the crosssectional minor axes being forward relative to the airstream to form Venturi passages therebetween, said orifices arranged along the said tubes for discharging spray fluid into the throat section of the said Venturi passages.
' ERVIN J. NUTTER.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENT Number Name 1 V vDate 1,752,879 Anderson Apr. 1, 1930 1,957,075 Morgansen May 1, 1934 2,374,130 Planiol Apr. 2'7, 1945 2,395,827 Husman et al, Mar. 5, 1946
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1752879 *||Sep 15, 1928||Apr 1, 1930||American Blower Corp||Radiator|
|US1957075 *||Sep 29, 1931||May 1, 1934||E R Hawke||Airplane spray equipment|
|US2374130 *||Oct 8, 1941||Apr 17, 1945||Eugene Planiol Andre Paul||Charge feeding system for internalcombustion engines|
|US2395827 *||Jul 3, 1945||Mar 5, 1946||Us Agriculture||Airplane spray unit|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2772061 *||Sep 8, 1952||Nov 27, 1956||Joseph M Sellers||Apparatus for disseminating insecticides|
|US2979273 *||Dec 8, 1958||Apr 11, 1961||Dorsey M Liebhart||Spray boom for aircraft|
|US4012469 *||Dec 22, 1975||Mar 15, 1977||Combustion Engineering, Inc.||Venturi wet scrubber|
|US4865820 *||Aug 14, 1987||Sep 12, 1989||Davy Mckee Corporation||Gas mixer and distributor for reactor|
|US6264142||Dec 13, 1999||Jul 24, 2001||Agrotors, Inc.||Helicopter deicing and anti-icing system and method|
|US7413145||Jun 14, 2004||Aug 19, 2008||Evergreen International Aviation, Inc.||Aerial delivery system|
|US7748662||Jul 30, 2008||Jul 6, 2010||Evergreen International Aviation, Inc.||Aerial delivery system|
|US7819362||Mar 1, 2007||Oct 26, 2010||Evergreen International Aviation, Inc.||Enhanced aerial delivery system|
|US8066223||Jul 15, 2010||Nov 29, 2011||Evergreen International Aviation, Inc.||Enhanced aerial delivery system|
|US8079551||Aug 24, 2010||Dec 20, 2011||Evergreen International Aviation, Inc.||Enhanced aerial delivery system|
|US20050017131 *||Jun 14, 2004||Jan 27, 2005||Evergreen International Aviation, Inc.||Aerial delivery system|
|US20050072880 *||Oct 1, 2003||Apr 7, 2005||Nolan Brooks R.||Systems and methods for aerial dispersion of materials|
|US20080210825 *||Mar 1, 2007||Sep 4, 2008||Evergreen International Aviation, Inc.||Enhanced aerial delivery system|
|US20090065646 *||Jul 30, 2008||Mar 12, 2009||Evergreen International Aviation, Inc.||Aerial delivery system|
|US20100282914 *||Jul 15, 2010||Nov 11, 2010||Evergreen International Aviation, Inc.||Enhanced aerial delivery system|
|US20100314496 *||Aug 24, 2010||Dec 16, 2010||Evergreen International Aviation, Inc.||Enhanced aerial delivery system|
|WO2004108528A3 *||Jun 14, 2004||Jun 9, 2005||Evergreen Internat Aviat Inc||Aerial delivery system|
|U.S. Classification||239/340, 239/171, 244/136, 261/118, 239/426, 261/DIG.540|
|Cooperative Classification||B64D1/18, Y10S261/54|