US 2494430 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 1Q, 1.950 J. R. CRNWATH ROTATING KITE 3 Sheets-Sheet l Filed March 29, 1948 Jan. l0, 1950 .1. R. CARNWATH 2,494,439
ROTATING KITE Filed March 29., 1948 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 l :T l /2 a 5 /2 57@ INVENTOR. Jameafffmwwaf/a BY uw ATTRNEY Jan. 10, 1950 J. R. CARNWATH 2,494,430
ROTATING KITE 5 She'ets-Sheet 3 Filed March 29, 1948 INVENTOR. Jam ego eff bf/7 .4e/@1% ATTRNEY Patented Jan. 10, 1956 JNlT STATES ECE ROTATING KITE? James R. Carnwath,- BothelleWashr.
Appicati'onlvlarcli 29, 1948;"Serial N'o; 172680' Zillamse (Cl. 244-153) My invention relates'to a new--and-'novel-form orotor kite-whichcis constructed in such arman-A nerV tlratf'itVA derives' its-f lifting-'f eiortfrom the Magnus effect which v may be briey and Anon-- technically described as follows A' cyiindenrotating in a fluid mee'liumI such as air will, dueto friction; causeanim-ofthatmediuin to adhere'and" rotate with'I iti therefore aA horizontal cylinder rotating in; an air 'stream in `suchL av direction Vthat -theemotion -ofthel top Side 'ofthe cylinder-is th'eesame` direction-as the air'stream and thelbottom thereforeI opposite to' it will cause the Irotatingfilm-oiair-on-'vthe top side-ofl the' cylinder vto move With'th'eair streamandfcause a-rareaction -of lthe ai-r'when the peripheral sneedl of the-cylinderfisf greater thanthe -Vel'ocity of the air -streamand canse-a compression on-the lower side--thereblycausing alifting"- upward oi the cylinder.- By roughing the surface such' as corrugating :eter or f by 'substituting different shaped surfacesthis eiect maybe-increased. Mykite is therefore-preferably constructed o two-substantially' sernicircuiar varies mounted parallel-.to eachother about Ya common parallei axis and 'inf suchI la` manner that the' kitefwilt he4 rotated 'by the lWiner-itself: The object i ofv *my kitef andf-itsconstruction 1 are--more fully described in the accompanying 'speciica-A tion, shown in theL drawings and .nallyapointed out in' the appended. claims.
FigY 1 isealoenspectiveA of .my :kite in.` ighte and Withiits string.reelingcmechanism;`
Fig. .2 isa smallperspectiveof one end of the kite-showing a noise maker .that may .be attached..
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal cross section of myl-:ite showing attachment fsmall generatorswhen the kite is to .be-used for signalling;
Fig.. 4 is a cross section taken uponl theeline 4-1-4 ofFig. 3...
Fig.15'is a similarcross section showinganother form .of wing.
Fig. 6 is also a similarcross section. showing another form` oi wing.-
Fig'. 7 is a fragmentary View showing how *the* Wings maybe attached to their intermediate sec-A tions.
Fig; 8 is a fragmentary View showing the Fig. 12lis a section'takerr upon'- afline IZLlT-of Fig;- 1015'- FgaflS-ds a partial elevation simlarY toFi-gf- 1TB showing-'the kite aT sloping position and"` a statiilzingl'mechanism coming irrto^-play^'to"rig'ht thekitef I Y Fig. 14shows-a diferent forml ofJ stabilizing' structure similar ltoftheair foils-ofapane:1
Referring: more partieul'arly'tothe" drawing. reference-- numerati l0'JA represents Lthe kite' inf'its entirety (Figa 1fand"3);- Reference humerai H indicates varresvor wings,`A iZYftheenwplates, andi 31 th'e-.L'intermediate sections; and"4 idf the shafts upon which thekite rotates.v`
Several` difffeizenttypes of''inateriarmay;7 ioeused forthesconstmotionoff thelite-ya prerequisite of course being I that thematerial be strong' "for the Weight involved-.1I Material suchas-baka Wood, light'ltypes ofi-plastics; or light metal;with'L proper conxstriictiorr,l or'l paper may-bei' used-s The-pres` entlyidescribed kite'is-shownf-made of corrugated paperwi-thasmoothhackngon oneside and the c'oiirugated.faeeleftonthefother.l The-corrugated paper` used.- to ir-icreasel tslY strength" qual-ity and thercorrugations when ti'irnedl out Willf lcause afgreater@ airl\ mass :to Lrotatewith'the -rotor'and consequentiyzimprovethe iiliting` effort:
Th'e'- construction-'of 4-thekit'ef willE bel-*described alongsthe. preferred-"method iofassembling'.' The center-sections i3 are:r cut "to" theprofileeshown in Figs. 4 and 7 which is adapted to the particui'ar designazoii :wingfshown generally throughoutf the presenti details; The -.sections l 3iare perforated witirlsl'otseas-shown atal S'ICFig.; 7i which aresulo'-i stanti-ally segments oflaxciiclainfshaaefandwhich are: provided'. 1. with rtalasf asa' sliiiwxi` at'J I6;Y The material. .outsidef onthe :slots ais out: asf .shown at H; The center of :segments-:13 zarezprovided. with metal eyelets. asshoWmat l8r.: -Thezwirigs-llfare perforated@ as f shown i at. t9'. Thesei perforations are located where the intermediate sections are to hepiaced. and spaced sonas :to` register with l-the talos Vl Sinthe siots. i5.. By bending ;the-.material on .either side .of slits.. Vl in .the manner shown .at 2 0-the wings may .beeeasilyjpushed into therslots till perorations .Hf coincide; with .tabs.. I6.- and pressed over them... Thamateriat nowuis `leent back, to .form a .flat surfacez anda gummed sticker securedto each side .ci lthematerial. over theslits iT as shown. .at .21. l (Fig.,.4).. y. The shafts fidfare now assembled implaca. n l
The shafts [ilaria L. shaped as .shown nFig. 3` consisting yof the inner. or. shaft portion 14d and the outside portion |136'. Theinner .end `of`1oortion4 Ijligis stamped to provide' ears Me. The outside 3 portion I4b is provided with a hole I4h. The shaft is assembled in place by threading the outside end through eyelets I8. The outside ends I2 are now assembled in place.
The outside ends I2 are preferably circular in shape and are perforated as shown at 22 to receive ears 23 at the ends of the wings. The ears 23 are slit as shown at 24. The center of ends I2 are provided with eyelets 25. The ends I2 are now slipped over the portion I4b on to the portion I4b of the shaft and threaded over the ears 23 of the wings. Fig. 8 shows the end I2 slipped over the ears 23 of Yone Wing and the other wing as it appears just before the end has been slipped in place. After the ends are slipped in place the ears 23 projecting beyond the end plate I2 are turned outward as shown at 26. The ends I2 are now more firmly secured by gummed stickers 21 secured over the outturned ears 26. see Fig. 1. Y
Kites with wing shapes shown in Figs. and 6 may be assembled with their center sections in substantially the same manner as previously described for wing shapes shown in Fig. 4.
A noise maker for the kite may be made as shown in Fig. 2 which consists of a Z-shaped metal plate as shown at 21 which consists of a center section and the twoy end sections 28'which are bent outwardly as shown. Plates 21 may be secured in place by ears stamped in the metal as shown at 29 and forced through the end plates I2 and clinched on the inside. The end sections 28 are bent out just far enough to interfere with the outer portions I4b of the shafts making a clicking noise as they spring past.
The kite is provided with two strings, one string being attached to each of the two shafts I4 by passing them through the holes I4hiand tying in place. The strings may be wound on any suitable form of reel as shown in Fig. 1. This reel assembly consists of a substantial bar 30 near the center of which is placed a two section reel 3I which rotates freely about a spindle 32 the lower end of which is secured to the bar 30 and the outer end provided with a thumb nut 33. The outer endsrof bar 30 are provided with screw eyes 34 through which the strings pass to keep them-in the proper spaced relation. The reel is provided with a handle 35 for winding up the string in bringing the kite down.
For signaling purposes the kite may be provided with small electric generators suitably equipped with an interrupter to operate light in code as shown at 36 (Fig. 3) the fields of which are secured to the end plates. I2 and the armatures secured to the portions 14a of the shafts I4. The generators would supply power to lights on the kite or to a radio transmitter or other device located on the kite or near the kite operator.
When the generators are used the kites are generally made much larger and more substantial. When the generators are used the shaft I4a is preferably made of two pieces of hollow tubing joined together at their elbow and the wires from the generators passed through the hollow shafts. A detail construction of this is not shown as it may be made in several approved methods. The generators may be made to light smalllights securedto thekite string or kite as shown Vat 31 and at 31a (Fig. 1).
The kite, may also be used for signal by attaching very light plates of metal 38 to the kite strings. These metal plates may be polished or represented in its entirety by reference numeral In employing this type of stabilizing mechanism the shaft I4a is extended out as shown at I4c (Figs. 10-12-13). Over the outer end I4c of the shaft is rst slipped a very light bracket 4I perforated at its outer end to receive the kite string.
After the bracket 4I is slipped in place the stabilizing mechanism 40 is next slipped in place. stabilizing mechanism 43' consists of a tube. 42 to the ends of which are secured brackets 43 and 44 to the outer ends of which in turn is secured stabilizing wing 45 (Figs. 10-11 and 13). stabilizing mechanism is kept from sliding off the shaft I4c by means of a round point set screw 46 engaging in a small slot 41 near the end of the shaft. The outer end of the tube 42 is provided with a slot 48. Into the slot 48 is slipped the upper end of a stabilizing lever 49. The stabilizing lever 49 is provided with an eye 5i] which registers with perforations 5I in the outer end of the tube 42. Passed through the perforations 5I of the tube 42 and eye 5D of the lever 49 is the end of a shaft 53. The shaft 53 is free to oscillate in perforations 5I but is rigidly secured in the eye 55 of the lever 49. The outer end of shaft 53 is bent so as to form a crank 54. The outer end of crank 54 is provided with an eye 55. Connecting with the eye 55 of the crank 54 is the eye end of the connecting rod 56. The upper end of connecting rod 56 is provided with eye which interconnects with a small eye bolt 51 which is secured to stabilizing wing 45 by means of nut 58. The lower end of stabilizing lever 49 is pro-- vided with a weight 59.
In Fig. 14 airfoils 60 are shown pivoted on the outer ends of shaft Ma. From the back edge of the airfoils 60 are extended struts 6I to which is attached controllable foils 52 and 63 similar `to the rudder on the elevators of an airplane. In flight this kite resembles very much the appearance of an airplane.
Method, of operations is as follows:
When the kite is pulled rapidly or set up in a breeze the air striking concavedsurface of the upper wing II (Fig. l) the kite will be caused to rotate in a clockwise direction which in turn will cause the kite to lift due to the so-called Magnus eiect as previously described. The exterior corrugated surface will cause a greater air mass to rotate Ywith the wings increasingY the lifting effort. The rotation of the wings with its end pieces will cause the generators, to rotate with it producing a current which may be used to light the lights or to operate a small radio set attached to the kite if desired.
The stabilizing effect of the stabilizers atV each end of the kite one of which is shown in Figs. 10 to 13 is as follows: Suppose the right hand end of the kite tilts downward as showngin Fig. 13 the lever 4Q with its weight 55 will act as a pendulum causing the crank 54 to turn downward vith respect to the tube 42, pulling the connecting Iod 56 with it causing the back edge of stabilizer ving 45 to rock downward and the front edge 1p, permitting the oncoming air stream to strike lhe under surface of stabilizer wing 45 producing m upward lift. When the kite has again reached :he horizontal position stabilizer wings 45 will again be horizontal or slightly drooping to provide additional lift. If the kite tilts in the opposite direction to that just described it is self evident that the back edge of stabilizer wing 45 will be rocked upward and the front edge downward permitting the oncoming air stream to strike the top surface of stabilizer wing 45 tending to force the end of the kite downward.
From the above description it is apparent that the lower end of a tilting kite will be lifted up by its stabilizer wing and that simultaneously the opposite or upper end of the kite will be forced downward.
1. A rotating kite consisting of a wing, reinforcing means therefor, plates attached to either end of said wing, apertures in said plates, a rod between said plates, rotatably mounted, a portion of said rod extending beyond said wings at either end and passing through the apertures in said plates, the outer portion of said rod being bent back substantially at right angles, bearings therefor, tabs disposed upon the outer surfaces on the said end plates, ght control lines, connecting with the said rod, means for controlling the length of said flying lines and accommodating that portion of said lines which is not disposed between said control means and the kite when the latter is in flight.
2. In a device such as is described a wing consisting of two complementary horizontal members, substantially semi-cylindrical in form, the outer surfaces of which are roughened, a plate at either end of said member, apertures therein, and tabs disposed thereupon, a rod extending along said wing and beyond the same through the apertures in said end plates, the extended portion of said rod being bent back upon itself substantially at right angles, strengthening and form maintaining ribs for the complementary portions of said wing, bearings in said end plates for said rod extending therethrough, means for rotatably aixing said rod within said wing, means for controlling the kite in ilight connected with said bent rods without said end plates, means for controlling the ight of said kite and its elevation while in flight.
JAMES R. CARNWATH.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the ile of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,030,363 Whitlatch June 25, 1912 1,296,687 Nichols Mar. 11, 1919 1,431,017 Martin Oct. 3, 1922 1,812,955 Horni July 7, 1931 1,839,005 Wander Dec. 29, 1931 2,107,808 Van Ittersum Feb. 8, 1938 2,388,478 Garber Nov. 6, 1945 2,433,344 Crosby Dec. 30, 1947 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 146,887 France May 15, 1931 271,164 Great Britain May 20, 1927 430,690 France Aug. 19, 1911