US 2494473 A
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A. P. BOWLING PLASTIC GASKET Jam. EQ, 3.950
Filed July 29, 1944 Plasiz'c Cardboard i'orneys Patented Jan. 10, 1950 UNITED vsrrsres PLASTIC cA'slnn'r Arthur P. Dowling, Narberth, -'Pa., -as signor -to Plastic Products Corp., New York, N. Yr, a corporation of Connecticut A'lpilcation July 29, 1944,`Se'ria'1 No.547,12`7 '13 claims. (01527-3) The @present invention relates to burial equipment and more V'particularly =to 'a composite casket.
lt has been proposed f heretofore to fabricate caskets of plastic 'utilizing a resinous base 'molding-powder, fa 'fabricfsuch asglass, cotton, ete., impregnated with aresinous substance, or a casting resin. Eachof these prior lmethods haspracticaldiiiculties `whichlealveithe problem of how to successfully fabricate a lplastic lcasket unsolved. In 'molding resinous base powders, high molding pressures fare Jrequired :necessitating complicated Iand expensive equipment, high cost tools fand'dies andra curing Vcycle too prolonged for commerciall'pu-rposes. Y'In molding, or laminating, as `it tis more properlytermed, resinimpregnated lfab'ric, while `-it is possible to *carry out the `process at low molding pressures, -the resulting produ'ct 'is Eunsightly `so that expensive hand finishing is needed.. The -casting method failed because lc'ognizance 'was vnot 'taken of the `difference between the Lemoansionancl contraction characteristics of fthe'cast plastic and an assoelated reinforcement.
Some of the objects `of `the .present invention are: to provide an yimproved 'casket 'made-of polymer; -to `provide a casket which'canfbe cast at lowcost and i'n a minimum Iof time; 'to provide a casketin Whic'hfshrinkage 'of the polymer .during or afterifabrication has no deleterious vheffect upon the fi'nishd pr'oduct; to provide a casket made "of1comp'osite wood zand vpolymer in which the wood Apart forms ionefp'art of the mold in which the vpolymer is 'shap'ed; Yto provide a novel means of'anchoring the shandle `iittings :to a polymer casket; to provide means in 'th'ecasting of a :polymer 'casket for preventing Acracking of the polymer =during the setting of the iplastic; to provide la casket having a seamless polymer exterior 'having vno fjoints; yto Vprovide ya ycasket characterized by great beauty; to prov-ide a casket having stable fand durable characteristics when vexposed to adverse :conditions of moisture or temperature, Iand to ,provide AVother limprovements as willfhereinafter appear. l
fncarrying out the invention in an Lillustrative but preferred form, '1I-utilize ia cast :polymer as an outer encompassing seamless .layer for fani-nter-ier `mold-forming reinforcing :member with materials between the inner andouter layers -predetermined in characteristics 'for -the nature ci the stresses encountered -at various points of the contiguous .layers to permit diierential relative shrinking without disruptive stra-ins vin 'either-the reinforcement or the outers'eamless layer.
In the 'accompanying drawings, 'Fi-g. 1 represents `a lperspective lof la Vcasket embodying one form-o the present Iinvention 'With'the top spaced from the body and partly broken'awayiorfbetter illustration; Fig. 2 represents -a Vsection online 2 2 `of Fig. "1; lFig. B represents a construction detail in section on Lline -3e-3 of Fig. 1; Aand Fig. 4 representsa section'on line 4-'4of -FigxL Referring to Vthe drawings, lone :form 'of 'the present invention comprises fan inner boX '9 of. a shape 1following generally the 'contour `of :la casket, and outer `cast :layer 'ID forming With thebox t the sidesferlds and'bottomofiacasket, plus a llid 1*! formed '-of an inner reinforcement frame i2, and an outer llayer 1'3. The box F9 is preferably made of wood of lthe fpine species because of its llight `'Weight rand fgeneral Aabundance, and this Wood priortoassernbly.isipreferably adjusted as to 'a imoisture content of `between six and eight fpercent by storing rina dry room "at `normal room `temperatures for `the re. quired time ncutting the Wood -to proper dimensions yfor assembly, 'this should be vdone lso that the grain direction `of the 'wood lruns the length of the box on the sides I4 and across the `box on 'the 'rends 15. The 'bottom yof the box 9 is formed by slats Hik of the wood which are :separated from each other 'by about 'one'- eightho an inch, these slats 16 'being v:four vor ve inches in width and being as 'long .fas 5the casket is Wide. By assembling 4the -box 'in this way, 'any dimensional changes -of the wood due to r'noisture content variations vare largely neu'- tralized. The `parts of the kbox '9 are preferably connected 'together b'yscrevvs 1H, which'arelpliaced in the wood to carry shear loads, lthat is 'the screws -are perpendicular vto 'the sides 1to enter the slats it, as shown fin 'the several figures. The box Y 9 as -so assembled becomes the male member of the mold "during 'the molding opera# tion which 'latter results in the outer encompassing 'la'ye'r "I 0.
This 'outer 'layer i0- is y'Iriolded of a feasting 'polymer which "is preferably Ja rp'henolic "resin of the phenol-alcohol 'type 2made :by vreacting phenol with formaldehyde in the presence of an alkaline catalyst by methods 'well known in the art. Prior to casting, the polymer :issin la liquid state and contains thesmallest possible amount of free water, 'being :preferably `condensed Vto -a specific gravity which will be as close Tas possible to the speciic'gravity which will characterize the hardened or set polymer, in order to minimi-ze volumetric changes. :acidic accelerator of either the organic or inorganic type bis preferablyadded to the polymer to accelerate the curing of the liquid polymer to the soild, infusible state, at a moderate temperature, for example, about 140 F., although the temperature may be between 140 F. and 200 F. All ingredients are preferably mixed under vacuum so as not to mix air into the mass.
In order to allow for relative shrinkage between the two materials forming the box 9 and the layer I0, and thereby prevent cracking or breaking of the outer polymer layer I0, the outer faces of the sides and bottom of the box I are covered with cardboard I8, preferably corrugated and tacked or glued to the wood. A cardboard of a thickness of about one-eighth of an inch has been found satisfactory. Across the ends of the box 9 and around the bottom of these ends, sponge rubber is glued to the wood to thereby form resilient spacing elements between the box ends and the layer l0, when the latter is molded into place. The thickness of this rubber 20 is preferably about three-eighths of an inch across the ends, and about one-quarter of an inch along each bottom edge.
For the purpose of mounting the usual handle brackets 2|, wood blocks 22 are glued at the proper locations to the outer faces of the respective box sides, and are then wrapped by an edge encircling strip of sponge rubber 23, which is glued in place. The cardboard I8 is cut away at these locations to frame the rubber 23, and the thickness of the blocks 22 is approximately equal to the sum of the thicknesses of the cardboard I8 and the outer layer I 0. On the inner faces of the respective sides of the box 9 reinforcing plates 24, preferably of wood, are glued in place opposite the locations of the respective blocks 22. Thus, a rigid reinforcement is obtained for the handle brackets 2I, and which latter are attached after the casting operation by means of screws or other fastening devices 25 passing through the sides to enter threaded openings in the aforesaid brackets 2|. Washers 26 are interposed between the screw heads and the plates 24.
In the casting of the polymer outer layer I0, the box 9 is suspended within a mold 21' (indicated by dotted lines Fig 3), so that a minimum of about three-eighths inches clearance is provided between the inner mold walls and the cardboard and rubber covering. mer has been mixed, it is preferable to pour the mix about at room temperature into the clearance to thereby form a complete unitary encompassing layer about the ends, sides and bottom of the box 9.
To cure the polymer, the mold, polymer and box assembly are placed in an oven or heated room at about 150 F. and allowed to remain until the polymer has hardened, after which, it is allowed to cool to room temperature. The box 9 with the cast layer l0 thereon is removed from the mold, any rough exposed edges trimmed oi, and the exposed wood varnished. The casket is now ready for the attachment of the handle fittings, and linings.
' The lid II, like the box 9, is formed of a wood reinforcement frame I2, covered on the outer face with cardboard 30, which latter in turn has the polymer layer I3 cast thereon, as will be understood. The cardboard of the lid is supplemented by strips of sponge rubber where required by shrinkage conditions. The lid 9 when completed is attached to the casket body by hinges or other fastening means.
After the poly- Since the reinforcing box 9 forms the male part of the mold, a very simple female part mold only is required, and preferably, this is of glass or lead `cast from a master metal pattern. Also, since the cardboard and sponge rubber completely covers the outer surface of the box 9, the liquid polymer cannot contact the Wood to become glued thereto. This is important because one essential feature of the invention resides in having a construction in which relative movement between the setting polymer and the wood is permitted. Were this not so the expansion of one part and the shrinkage of the other part would result in cracking and breaking of the polymer. By reason of the compressible material between the wood and the polymer this damaging action cannot take place as any adverse stretching or contracting is automatically compensated.
An illustrative polymer for forming the encompassing layer I0 is the general type of phenolformaldehyde resin sold under the trade-mark Catalin and is described in various phases of United States Patents 1,854,600, 1,858,168, 1,892,848, 1,909,786, 1,909,788 and 1,909,789, among others. This is obviously one of many types of polymers that may be used.
It may be useful to recite the characteristics of the preferred form of casting polymer in place of or in augmentation of the chemical nature thereof. Thus, preferably, the polymer has a softening point above F., a minimum tensile strength of 3000 pounds per square inch, a minimized impact strength of .1 foot-lb. per inch of notch, a water absorption of not more than 5% by weight absorbed after immersion in water for forty-eight hours, a minimum exural strength of 4000 pounds per square inch, shrinkage in cooling from highest temperatures used in casting process preferably .012 inch per inch maximum, and the polymer must be stable in the cast state, that is, be capable of being cast in a slab at least seven feet in length, four feet in width and one inch in thickness without any cracks or excessive warpage occurring and the hardened slab so cast shall not exhibit any cracks or excessive warpage after being exposed to at least six cycles of the following lconditions that might be met in storage: twenty-four hours at 120 F., followed by twenty-four hours at 32 F.
The internal reinforcement may also be disclosed by the conditions which must be met by it, whether it be made of wood or wood products; or by any structural material which is superior to the surrounding polymer on a strength/weight and/or stiffness/weight basis. Since all rigid polymers have a relatively high degree of compressive strength, the inner reinforcement need not have a compressive strength equal to or exceeding the surrounding polymer, but it is essential that if the reinforcement is to constitute a reinforcement, that it have a higher stiffness/ weight ratio; that it have a higher specific iiexural strength and higher specic modulus of elasticity in exure; that it have a higher impact strength; in most but not all cases its specific gravity should be less than that of the surrounding polymer. Of course, it should also be capable either of being glued or the like, or to hold nails or screws or the like.
It will be understood that appropriate dyes, waxes, and fillers of any desired sort may be incorporated directly into the polymer prior to casting, if desired. y i
The assembled unit, while possibly using the 55 most .expensive 'type of polymer, cat eleast of 'the -three .types of synthetic gresins .mentionedihereiir effects a casket '.of beauty, strength, rfdurability, relatively effective 'warmth lto the .touch because :of .low V ,thermal conductivity, vand `.which .has .an rextremelyilowilaborcost.
In conclusion, `it will :be understood that not only does the method described .furnish :animfproved anduseful casket,`.but.it is Yonelin which zchan'ges 'in 'external design .are simply accomiplished .by -ichanging .the external lmaster-mold vpattern from which itis .possible .to cast V'agreat .slumber :of individual .low acost mlds o'f `'lead .or zglass, .or 'the likegwhereas vfor compression vmold- :ing :of '.caskets Seach and .every high :cost :mold -has to be changed, or in .p'lacefof the=elaborate wood .carving of the `past iin wooden .casket :making; fthata wide range civ-.colors .is .available with l:selected `ric'olors Ain tricher 'texture .and saturation ythan fin .the past; .and zin :which there are A'no external glued ijointsand y.therefore -the casket continues Ato exclude 4moisture even long after the internal .wooden .o1'1other'-reinforcements fhas decomposed, and .hence establishes a .casket of Iexltreinely long and useful life or duration, l'as the 1 lpheno'lic resins, if used, resist corroding and deiteriorating Vagents ywhich :attack other known :materials 'of which present `caskets :are constructed.
.Havingthus describedmy invention, I claim:
l. A casket comprising a polymer molded to a predetermined generally 'oblong vshape having end, side, and .bottom Iwalls fmeeting in :angular corners, a box of different andstronger :material of generally oblong shape complemental to that of the shaped polymer "so Ya'sto substantially nest therein iinternally reinforcing said shaped .polyrmer, sponge rubberinterposedbetween thejuxta- `,posed ends of .said .box .and of said shaped 'poly- 'mer and coextensive about the internal corners `formed by said end walls Ywith athe side vand bottom walls of said polymershape and terminating fadiacent thereto, strips of sponge rubber .disposed Vfor fcoextension about the internal :corners forrneol bythe interseotionof said side walls with said bo-ttom of said polymer shape terminating adjacent thereto, and cardboard interposed between the bottom and sides of said box and said polymer and extending substantially the distance between the terminations of the respective interposed sponge rubber strips, whereby relative dimensional changes of the polymer shape and said box are ineffective to disrupt said polymer shape.
2. A casket comprising a box-like mold unit, one wall of the unit having an external flattened protuberance of smaller area than the wall, a layer of polymer encompassing the outer surface of said unit except for the protuberance with which it has spaced relation, a handle for the casket having a part juxtaposed to the protuberance, and means connecting the handle to the mold unit through the protuberance whereby stresses pass between the handle and unit without appreciable incidence on the polymer layer.
3. A casket comprising a box-like mold unit, one wall of the unit having an external flattened protuberance of smaller area than the wall, a layer of polymer encompassing the outer surface of said unit except for the protuberance with which it has spaced relation, a handle for the casket having a part juxtaposed to the protuberance, means connecting the handle to the mold unit through the protuberance whereby stresses pass between the handle and unit without aptpreciabl'e iincidence ion :the polymer Slayer, .and compressible'.materialencircling:theprotuberance andan contact .withthe .protuberance and thead- :jacent portions :of :the :polymer layer.
`A fcasket comprising .an .inner :reinforcing mold polyangular portion, 'an outer vpolyangular yencompassing seamless polymer layer, substantially enclosing ythefr-einforcing portion, and an intermediate icompressibe layer formed of two diierent lelements yin .end wise substantial coextensionfofiwhich one element is capable of yielding under compression and is .disposed about the tangles Lof 'the-'respective polyangular mold portion and the other element Aof which is capable of `wielding underashearand is disposed adjacent to fthe .areas .between .the angles of the said polyr:angular mold, Asaid intermediate .layer vbeing disposed=betweentheportion and the polymer layer permitting relative differential .contraction and expansion without disruption :of the outer layer.
.5. A casket comprising an inner :reinforcing `vmold portion, .an l.outer encompassing seamless ipolymer layer, substantially -enclosing the reinorcing fportion, an intermediate layer between `the portion vand the Apolymer :layer permitting .relative differential contraction and expansion `without disruption 'of the -outer polymer layer, said polymer layer having an opening, asupplemental .reinforcement-anchored Eto the rst men-- itioned :reinforcementxand located in said opening :inspaced relation to theedges thereof.
6. iA casket comprising an :inner reinforcing .mold eportion, an outer 'encompassing seamless .polymer layer, substantially 'enclosing the reinforcing portion, an intermediate layer between `the portion *and the ,polymer `layer permitting relative xdifferential contraction and expansion `.without disruption Vof the outer polymer layer, said :polymer layer yhaving `an opening, a suppleoriental :reinforcement anchored tothe first vmentioned reinforcementand located in said opening in .spaced 'relation .to the edges thereof, said second reinforcement being'ofrsubstantially the same thickness .as the polymer layer and the `interme- .cliatefl ayer adj acent to -:the opening.
7. A casket comprising an inner reinforcing mold portion, an outer encompassing seamless polymer layer, substantially enclosing the reinforcing portion, and an intermediate layer between the portion and the polymer layer permitting relative differential contraction and expansion without disruption of the outer polymer layer, said polymer layer having an opening, a, supplemental reinforcement anchored to the first mentioned reinforcement and located in spaced relation to the edges of said opening, and a strip of compressible material disposed between the edges of the opening and the sides of the secondary reinforcement to insulate the polymer layer and secondary reinforcement.
8. A casket comprising an inner reinforcing mold portion, an outer encompassing seamless polymer layer substantially enclosing the reinforcing portion, an intermediate layer between the portion and the polymer layer permitting relative differential contraction and expansion without disruption of the outer polymer layer, said polymer layer having an opening, a secondary reinforcement anchored to the iirst mentioned reinforcement and located in spaced relation to the edges of said opening, a strip of compressible material disposed between the edges of the opening and the sides of the secondary reinforcement to insulate the polymer layer and secondary reinforcement, and a handle device anchored to the 'rst mentioned reinforcement substantially out of physical contact with the polymer layer.
9. A casket comprising a rigid inner reinforcing mold portion, an outer polymer layer having an opening, a handle device extending through said opening and having a portion for engagement against the mold portion and another portion for disposition externally of said polymer layer, said handle device adjacent to the polymer layer being of smaller dimensions than said opening so as to be out of direct physical contact with the polymer layer.
10. A casket comprising an inner reinforcing mold portion comprising sides, ends and a bottom connected together, said bottom comprised of spaced slats, a polymer layer molded about the mold portion, and means bridging the slats to preclude entry of the polymer into the space between the said slats.
11. A casket comprising an inner reinforcing portion having sides, ends and a bottom, alayer of brous material disposed on the sides of the said portion, a polymer layer molded about the portion in contact with the fibrous layer, said fibrous layer arranged to shear to permit differential relative contraction of the portion and polymer layer Without disruptive strains on either the portion or polymer layer, and a plurality of strips of sponge rubber disposed on each of a plurality of corners between sides and ends and between sides and bottom of the reinforcement in contact with the polymer layer arranged to yield in two planes under contraction of the polymer layer during hardening to prevent disruptive strains on the polymer layer.
12. A casket comprising a box-like mold unit having substantial corners, yielding means superimposed on said mold unit and forming with the unit a substantially liquid tight box, the yielding means between corners comprising a layer of brous material primarily capable of yielding in shear, the yielding means at the corners comprising material different from said fibrous material primarily capable of yielding in compression, a layer of organic polymer cast upon and permanently encompassing the outer surfaces of the box, said cast layer having a different expansion ratio from that of the mold unit so that diierential relative expansions of the mold unit and encompassing layer can occur by subjecting the yielding means to varying degrees of compression and shear Without rupture of the encompassing cast layer.
13. A casket comprising a box-like mold unit having substantial corners between relatively at walls, yielding means superimposed on said mold unit and forming with the unit a substantially liquid tight box, the yielding means adjacent and surrounding the substantial corners comprising porous resilient material and the yielding means between the substantial corners adjacent to certain of the flat walls comprising fibrous material, a layer of organic polymer having the characteristic of shrinking in setting up from' a liquid to a solid state cast about and permanently encompassing the box, said porous resilient material being susceptible to compression under stress occasioned by said relative shrinking of said layer and being under a condition of compression between the mold unit and the said layer of polymer, and said brous material in part at least being distorted in shear between the mold unit and the said layer of polymer when the shrinkage of said layer has been completed.
ARTHUR P` DOW'LING.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 915,928 Barnes Mar. 23, 1909 925,929 Magoris June 22, 1909 1,027,453 Wible May 28, 1912 1,417,534 Leo May 30, 1922 1,989,962 ZinZer et al Feb. 5, 1935 2,023,992 Chesler Dec. 10, 1935 2,118,717 White May 24, 1938 2,222,729 Ver Planck et al. Nov. 26, 1940