|Publication number||US2495794 A|
|Publication date||Jan 31, 1950|
|Filing date||Dec 27, 1946|
|Priority date||Dec 27, 1946|
|Publication number||US 2495794 A, US 2495794A, US-A-2495794, US2495794 A, US2495794A|
|Inventors||Weller Thomas H|
|Original Assignee||Weller Thomas H|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (12), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
T. H. WELLER Jan., 3l, 1950 RECTAL SCRAPER Filed Dec. r2:7, 1s4e.
Patented Jan. 31, 1950 STATES PATENT OFFICE s claims.
(Granted unelrithe act of.A March 3, 1883,., as
The invention described herein; may be manuffactured-andf used byor.` for; the Government for governmentalpurposes, Without payment to nie. off any royalty-thereon,
'The' 'present invention provides a device forfacilitating the identi-catio-nofgcertain intestinal parasites-causing pathological conditions, and the'invention:` provides,arr=improved device for collecting material-for examination for eggs and spor-esfot'such lorganisms,-` andl for the. organisms themselves.l
Parasitic intestinal infections occur very freq-uentl-y,fan-d` are especially; Widespread-intropical climates. =HoWever,-in many instances, the posi--v tive detection "andidenticationofthe invading,
organism are difficult'. and. uncertainl owing, for example', to non-uniform distribution oi eggs, spores, or the organism themselves.
f Thus, for example, inv` cases of` intestinal \schistosomiasis, vit has been found that the eggs of-'Schistosoma mansom' are not' distributed uniicrmly throughoutformed stools, but are mostnumerous in the mucousadhering-to thesurface of the rectum.-
A-In view of the factthat examination of formed stools may result in missing evidences of particular infections of-the above-indicated character, there has been introduced the so-called rectal swab method oi--diagnosis ofv intestinal schistoso-rniasis, which method consists in the microscopicexamination offmucous adheringv to a-gloved llinger following digital rectal examination;
- The amount of material collectable in this manner is.- small; and-'it isv desirable not only to collect a larger-sample--oi mucous-'than will -adhere-to a glovedfngenbut; to collect suchA a samplevwhichvcan beplacedfin a-v tube f ortransportation from the eld or clinic to the laboratary;l f
vrEhe present; invention provides an instrument which maybe called a, rectal scraper, that is designed: to. be introduced into theV7 rectum of a patient: or subject being examined for collecting lflger samplesoi material for; examination not:
.. amendedA Aprili 30,
the-view. showing-,thescraper mountedin a rub,-` ber stopperfcrfinsertionjin agtest tube for transf. portationtoa laboratory for-examination; and
Figure-.2`` isaptransversfe sectional elevationx 5d taken on thefline-II-II of- Figure-1, looking inthedirection-v o-f the arrows,
-Referringmore particularly to the drawings, the;improvedfinstrument ofT the present inven-l tion con-,iprises f,.a-` bodyvA having an enlarged headportion d, that-graduaIly'and evenlt7 tapers into-,a-stem-portion- 6. --The headportion 4 terrni-natesin,-a,v :rounded distal-'end ll. The stem portionmay-terminate in 'a restricted proximal end` section; lily-which isadaptedtoY be insertedinf a` stopperwl-Z, the-junction betweenthe stemA portion G ancltherestrictedt proximal end secr. tion- I-Il-.beingdenedby va shoulderlll, which vin th y, ustratedy for-mofthe invention deiinesan ahutmentstcpfor the stopperl2. The; proximal end-section lll-fts.- tightly--in--a hole provided .therefor-in the-:stoppen this stopper beingpreferablynaone-hole rubber stopperof a standard size,- suitablafortclos-ing the mouth ofa given` testy tubey foe transportingthecolle'ctedspecimen preferably are--rounded for obviatingV possibilityof -cutting the .r,ubber body of--the stopper l2.
. Elie.- head ,portiongdi of, the` instrument has one orf-.merci Spiralspccimen--ccllecton grooves I8,
J the illustrated-embodiment; showing-` thlaee--Sileh .erom/esas; beine preferable, althouslrl` not, crit-ical.-',-v Thesef groovesare-adapted to col` lect specimens dif-material `to be, examined,` andI it isy-ipundain practice; that thesey grooves Will-` ecllect-larreerf-an Qreuniferm--samples of Ineterialthan-,do 1 single groove. Where three. enlever.- arev esed..fthey-ere spacedl at 120 degreeint aisee-.reune "the bedr eff: the: Sere-per asf.
crmed with the ccr cf each groove. curving-sharplyto thesurface at sta-l, endg off each groove, but otherwise the eareyflatlthroughcut the length 0f each l1c.adwall ofthe-,grooves as Viewed: beveled;- smccthlyas` indicated at l tbe-refcre hewingits; edge 55, slishtmbelow:- that cnt-thc; strepen-the :beveledof; material tos a--laboratoryf-Where the specimen- 3 wall being the leader wall when the instrumentJ is used. and the scraper wall being the follower wall, which scrapes off the mucous from the intestinal wall and deposits the resulting specimen in the collecting grooves.
The folowing specific example illustrates more definitely the construction of a typical instrument of this invention. It will be understood that the following example is illustrative only in character, that the indicated dimensions are not critical, that many of the structural details may be omitted or changed in a manner that will be suggested readily to one skilled in the art.
In production quantities, the instrument of the present invention is made by molding it from a suitable plastic material. However, the original test specimens of the instrument were machined from 5% inch lengths of Bakelite rod having a diameter of one-half inch. 'I'he distal end 8 was rounded off and the instrument was tapered uniformly as shown at 22 from its maximum diameter of one-half inch, the taper starting at a point three-slxteenths inch from the distal end 8 to a diameter of nve-sixteenths of an inch, which is the diameter of the stem portion E between the tapered portion 22 and the shoulder I4, where the stem `portion 6 lwas reduced to a diameter of one-fourth of an inch, thereby forming the shoulder I4 and the proximal end section I0. 'I'his one-fourth inch diameter of the proximal end section causes the end section I0 to t snugly into a standard hole in a No. 1 one-hole rubber stopper adapted to close a test tube for -carrying the instrument after use to a laboratory for examination of the collected material.
' Following shaping, .a spiral groove I8, one and one-eighth inches long, was milled diagonally across the rod, starting at a point one-eighth inch behind the greatest diameter of the scraper and running approximately to the right-hand margin of the scraper as viewed in Figure 1. The iioor of the groove was curved sharply to the surface at the distal end of the rod, but was otherwise flat throughout its length. The lefthand wall of the groove, as viewed in Figure 1, was beveled smoothly as indicated at 20, so that the edge was approximately one-thirty-second inch below that on the right side, which is the scraping side of the instrument when in use.
Originally, the instrument was made with one groove, but subsequently, two additional grooves as shown were milled into the head portion of the scraper so that identical grooves were spaced at 120 intervals around the head portion 4.
The foregoing specifically enumerated ydimensions obviously are not critical 'and are intended to be illustrative only in character. The important features are that the instrument is insertable readily into the rectum and that mucous and fecal material will be scraped from the rectum walls and guided into the retaining groove or grooves responsively to rotation of the instrument, which, together with the collected material, may be inserted in a sterile test tube that is closed by the stopper I2, and thus transported to a laboratory for examination. The only critical dimensions of the instrument are that it must not have a diameter so large as to preclude ready insertion into the rectum of a patient 4and ready manipulation therein without discomfort to the patient. To this end, the distal end 8 of the instrument is smoothly rounded, and the grooves I 8 are disposed spirally adjacent to the distal end so that material scraped from the rectal walls Will be guided into the grooves and retained therein, until these grooves contain substantial amounts of material. The use of three of the materialcollecting grooves increases the likelihood of obtaining a representative mucous sample with a minimum of fecal material.
In using the instrument of the present invention, the patients are examined in a standing position with the trunk bent forward at a angle. The scraper lubricated with green soap solution is passed through the rectal sphincter and intro- -duced carefully into the rectum for a distance of three to three and one-half inches. Then with a gentle circular movement, the instrument is swung laterally around the bowel wall and at the same time rotated in a counter-clockwise direction four to six times before being withdrawn. If at any time after passage through the sphincter a definite sense of resistance was felt, the angle of introduction was changed and forceful insertion carefully avoided.
Tests show that mucous and fecal material collected in the groove could be examined several hours after collection if the Scrapers were fitted by their attached rubber stoppers into moist test tub-es for transportation.
Specimens can be obtained rapidly with this instrument. For example, a team of four, consisting of a doctor, two microscopists, and an assistant, can collect and examine preparations from individuals in the course of a six-hour period.
The instrument of the present invention is straight axially and is substantially circular in cross section throughout for ease of insertion.
The specifically illustrated details of the embodiment of this invention shown on the drawings are not critical. Thus, the designated size and dimensions may be varied within limits that will be apparent to one familiar with the use of instruments of this general type. The slope of the grooves may be varied from that shown, and the grooves may be pitched in the opposite direction to that shown; also there may be one groove, or three as shown, or more. The dimensions of the grooves are such as to permit more than three in the enlarged head portion of the instrument.
While the scraper of the invention has been described in connection with the collection of specimens of material for examination for Schistosoma mansoni, it will be understood that this is not the only use for the instrument of the invention, and that it will collect the mucous material from the rectum and intestinal walls independently of the particular organism that is to be detected including intestinal protozoa.
Having thus described my invention, what Ir claim' as new and wish to secure by Letters Patent is:
l. A rectal scraper comprising a rod-like body including a proximal end, a distal end, a stem portion including the proximal end, and an enlarged head portion including the distal end, the body being of circular cross-section throughout and having its maximum diameter in the head portion, the stem portion gradually tapering to the head portion, scraping means in the head portion for scraping material to be examined from a rectal wall, and collecting means for collecting scraped-off material.
2. A rectal scraper comprising a rod-like body including a proximal end, a distal end, a stem portion including the proximal end, and an enlarged head portion including the distal end, the said rod-like body being of circular cross-section throughout and having its maximum diameter in the head portion, the stem portion gradually enlarging to the head portion, means in the head portion for collecting material to be examined responsively to rotation of the body, and a scraper wall on the means for scraping material to be examined from a rectal wall.
3. A rectal scraper comprising a rod-like body including a proximal end, a distal end, a stem portion including the proximal end, and an enlarged head portion including the distal end, the said rod-like body being of circular cross-section throughout having its maximum diameter in the head portion, the said stem portion gradually enlarging to the head portion, a spiral collecting groove in the head portion for collecting material to be examined, and a scraper Wall on the collecting groove for scraping material to be examined from a rectal wall responsively to insertion of a scraper in a rectum and rotation thereof in a direction adapted to bring the scraper wall of the collecting groove into scraping engagement with the rectum wall, the distal endv of the scraper body being rounded for facilitating insertion of the scraper into the rectum.
4. A rectal scraper comprising a rod-like body including a proximal end, a distal end, a stern portion including the proximal end, and an enlarged head portion, the said rod-like body being of circular cross-section throughout and having its maximum diameter in the head portion, the stem portion enlarging uniformly into the head portion, thereby obviating any sharp junction edge, and spirally disposed scraping and collecting means in the head portion for scraping and collecting material from a rectum wall responsively to insertion of the scraper into a rectum and rotation of the inserted scraper, the distal end of the scraper being rounded for facilitating insertion of the scraper body into the rectum.
5. A rectal scraper comprising a, rod-like body including a proximal end, a distal end, a stern portion including the proximal end, and an enlarged head portion, the said rod-like body being of substantially circular cross-section throughout and having its maximum diameter in the head portion, the stem portion enlarging uniformly into the head portion, and spirally disposed scraping and collecting grooves in the head portion for scraping and collecting material from a rectum wall responsively to insertion of the scraper into a rectum and rotation of the inserted scraper.
6. A rectal scraper comprising a rod-like body including a proximal end, a distal end, a stem o portion including the proximal end, and an enlarged head portion, the said rod-like body being collecting grooves in the head portion disposed substantially 120 apart for scraping and collecting material from a rectum wall responsively to insertion of the scraper into a rectum and rotation of the inserted scraper.
'7. A rectal scraper comprising a rod-like body of circular cross-section throughout including a proximal end, a distal end, a stem portion including the proximal end, and an enlarged head portion, the said head portion being adjacent to the distal end, the stem portion enlarging into the head portion, and spirally disposed scraping and collecting grooves in the head portion, each of the said grooves having a beveled-edge side wall and a scraper-edge side wall, the bevelededge side wall being the leader wall and the scraper-edge side wall being the follower wall responsively to insertion of the scraper into a rectum and voperative rotation of the inserted scraper, the scraper-edge of each groove being adapted to scrape material to be examined from the rectum' wall and to deliver the scraped-off material into the spiral collecting grooves.
8. A rectal scraper comprising a rod-like body including a proximal end, a distal end, a stem portion including the proximal end, and an enlarged head portion, the said head portion being adjacent to the distal end, the rod-like body of substantially circular cross-section throughout and having its maximum diameter in the head portion, scraping and collecting means in the head portion for material to be examined, the stem portion gradually and smoothly enlarging into the head portion thereby avoiding sharp junction edges, the stem portion having a restricted portion towards the proximal end and dening an abutment shoulder at the juncture with the restricted portion, and carrying means on the restricted portion adapted to form a closure for a carrying tube for the scraper and collected material, the said carrying means abutting against the abutment shoulder, the distal end being rounded for facilitating insertion of the scraper into a. rectum.
THOMAS H. W'ELLER.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the iile of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 58,631 Gates Oct. 9, 1866 5y 547,047 Thornton Oct. 1, 1895 605,052 Cook May 31, 1898 Y 839,641 Reavley Dec. 25. 1906 1,867,624 Hoffman July 19, 1932 v FOREIGN PATENTS 00 Number Country Date 528,422 Germany June 29, 1931
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US58631 *||Oct 9, 1866||Improvement in dental drills|
|US547047 *||Jun 1, 1895||Oct 1, 1895||Island|
|US605052 *||Feb 14, 1898||May 31, 1898||Syringe|
|US839641 *||Dec 21, 1905||Dec 25, 1906||Ethelbert Reavley||Curette.|
|US1867624 *||Apr 1, 1930||Jul 19, 1932||Memorial Hospital For The Trea||Device for obtaining biopsy specimens|
|DE528422C *||Jun 29, 1931||Albert Strasmann Fa||Reibahle, bei der kegelige Teile mit hinterschliffenen und zylindrische Teile mit nichthinterschliffenen Schneidkanten abwechseln|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3230949 *||Aug 2, 1962||Jan 25, 1966||Puerto Rico Cancer League Hosp||Gastroesophageal catheter|
|US3886943 *||Aug 10, 1973||Jun 3, 1975||John C Rauth||Surgical instrument|
|US4020847 *||Nov 5, 1975||May 3, 1977||Clark Iii William T||Rotating cutter catheter|
|US4441509 *||May 21, 1981||Apr 10, 1984||Sherwood Medical Company||Endometrial sampling device|
|US4757826 *||Nov 20, 1986||Jul 19, 1988||Gazi Abdulhay||Endocervical biopsy instrument|
|US4951684 *||Mar 20, 1989||Aug 28, 1990||Syntex (U.S.A.) Inc.||Device for collecting biological material|
|US4981143 *||Aug 13, 1987||Jan 1, 1991||Anne Company Limited||Cell sampler|
|US5810861 *||Feb 27, 1996||Sep 22, 1998||Gaber; Benny||Uterine tissue collector|
|US5976170 *||Jun 19, 1997||Nov 2, 1999||Levin; Carl||Bowel blockage removal instrument and method|
|CN103860213A *||Dec 18, 2012||Jun 18, 2014||李沂泽||Rocket cone type anus stool removing device|
|CN103860213B *||Dec 18, 2012||Jan 13, 2016||李沂泽||火箭锥式肛门清便器|
|WO2014179804A1 *||May 5, 2014||Nov 6, 2014||Femasys Inc.||Methods and devices for endometrial cell and tissue sampling|
|U.S. Classification||600/570, 606/191|
|International Classification||A61B17/32, A61B10/02, A61B10/00, A61B10/04, A61B17/22|
|Cooperative Classification||A61B2017/320008, A61B10/04, A61B2017/22037|