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Publication numberUS2495862 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 31, 1950
Filing dateMar 10, 1945
Priority dateMar 10, 1945
Publication numberUS 2495862 A, US 2495862A, US-A-2495862, US2495862 A, US2495862A
InventorsOsborn Emery S
Original AssigneeOsborn Emery S
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Building construction of predetermined characteristics
US 2495862 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 3l, 1950 E. s. osBoRN 2,495,862


E. s. OSBORN 2,495,862


rlhis invention relates to building construction of pre-fabricateL characteristics, and is designed to meet the conditions of the modern developments in the ield of building construction in which housing structures are fabricated in the form of units produced at the manufacturing plant, shipped to the point of use and then assembled, the building of the structures thus becoming a matter of assembly of units, thus facilitating the building; such structures are generally of the wooden type. The modern development has included the making of window and door units, as well as interior features, but the present invention is concerned mainly with the building construction features.

While there are a number of advantages present in connection with pre-fabricated housing structures, such as rapid completion of the structure, and its lower costs, there are certain disadvantages present, due to the fact that the structure, produced at the manufacturing plant,

needs to be more or less standard, since the lower cost condition can be met only through quantity production. Since the producer cannot profitably stock up with a large number of different types of housing structures, he is compelled to limit his housing types to a comparatively few forms and dimensions, which thus become standardized; hence, the purchaser is limited to such standardized housing structures, with no opportunity of varying from them structurally or dimensionally. As a result, the market for the structures is limited to purchasers willing to accept one of the standardized forms; obviously, this tends to reduce the marketing possibilities in a community where the preference is for structures more or less individualized. As a result, the advantages in such pre-fabrication are limited to but a comparative few, excepting where the housing is to be more or less regimented.

The disadvantages thus apply to both the manufacturer and to the customer. The former must carry in stock a supply of units to provide for the pre-fabrication supply, and cannot maintain a vast stock such as would be required by the presence of many different forms and types--a small stock would defeat the advantages of quantity production. The customer lacks freedom of choice beyond a limited number of types or dimensions, and thus is restricted to standardized structures and loss of individualized desires; through the fact that specialists in trimming effects provide a larger field of choice, it is possible to vary slightly as to doors and Windows, but the overall characteristics available are limited to the few standardized types. As a result, the customer desiring individuality or material variations, utilizes made to order conditions, thereby affecting the ability of the manufacturer to reduce costs, since the orders are then based on individual rather than quantity production.

One of the factors permitting the reduced price by the manufacturer is the fact that his raw material can be utilized under regimens through which he can obtain almost complete values from the material-made possible by uniformity in production through a few standardized types; where the structures are individual such regimens cannot be used, and wastage is a factor requiring consideration.

The present invention is designed to overcome many of these disadvantages and make possible to both manufacturer and customer the advantages accruing through quantity-production conditions, and at the same time permit a quasiindividualizing of the housing structures to largely increase the types and forms of structures available for selection; partial standardization is present, but inasmuch as this conforms to general practice, its presence is not objectionable. For instance, the height of rooms or floors is more or less uniform-the Variations in this respect are generally few, so that it is possible to provide a few standardized sizes, even though the floor plans vary widely; in other words, this particular vstandardization is effective on both manufacturer and customer.

Under the present invention, however, the floor-plan characteristics are changed as compared With the prior pre-fabricated housing practices. Obviously, there must oe standardization so far as the manufacturer is concerned in order to produce the quantity-production condition, but the standardized units are of Such type as to provide for ready production and may embrace many variations in dimensions other than the ceiling heights, so that the individual units then become of quantity producing condition. But such standardization does not extend to the customer other than as a basis of supply. The customer, after accepting the architects plans-the latter being based upon the use of such units-is supplied with the particular units needed to provide the construction called for by the floor plan, the supply coming from the unit stockpiles of the manufacturer; the units are then assembled in accordance with the floorplan presentation, thus setting up say the first story of the house; the units for the next story are then added, etc. As a result, the overall form of the house is more or less individualized and made to conform to the desires of the customer, while the manufacturer is providing the supply under quantity production conditions, and is thus able to provide the advantage of lower costs and more rapid house erection.

To secure these combined results, the present invention provides a number of variations from the regimens normally practiced under pre-fabricated housing conditions. Instead of providing the material for the completefstructure, the pre-l fabricated portion supplied by the manufacturer pertains to the vertical framing-essential with all building structures-thus providing the basic features or core of the structure, and making possible the inside and outside finishing, the floor assemblages, etc., as activities of the builder who is able to meet the individual desires of the customer as to these features. In other words, the prefabricated material pertains more particularly to housing features which are more or less concealed within the completed structure, thus leaving the exposed surfaces of the building conformable to the desires of the consumer.

Since the vertical framing constitutes the core of the vertical walls of the buildingboth external and internal-it is possible to permit wide variations in floor plans as to dimensions of the building and of the room floors, provided the vertical walls present the essential stability required, and the pre-fabricated structures are such as to permit such development and stability, conditions which are met by the present invention. But to produce the result, the usual methods of erecting buildings are varied in certain respects; for instance, the framing is erected by completing one story before beginning the next. In addition, the erection of the framing of a story is varied in such way that the development of the assembly is progressively in the horizontal direction, as compared with the vertical direction usually employed, the development being according to the floor plan but the progression being by unit accretion individually, with the result that the completion of the wall assembly produces the wall core of the story as contemplated by the floor plan. If a second story is to be added, the joists for the floor and ceiling are added by the builder, and the added story then progressively developed according y to its floor plan.

While such assembly and its methodsof production provide for almost unlimited freedom of-Y selection as to design and dimensions, complete freedom in this respect is limited by the need for limiting the assortment of units, etc., produced by the manufacturer. Hence, the present invention utilizes the principle of a base Width dimension of units, etc., and multiples thereof; as a result, the building dimensions on a horizontal plane need to conform to this principle. In addition, the normal assortment of units, etc., of the manufacturer is based on the assumption of walls extending in a plane or at right angles, these being the most common forms of wall construction. The invention, however, contemplates variations from this, by the use of joint elements modified to meet the changed conditions.

The invention includes also the selective use of insulation as a part of the framing of the external walls, the insulation, when desired, being supplied by the manufacturer as a permanent portion of the units, etc.

To these and other ends, therefore, the nature 4 of which will be more fully set forth as the invention is hereinafter disclosed, said invention consists in the vertical framing construction for buildings, the methods of assemblage, and the units, etc., utilized in the assemblage, hereinafter more fully described, illustrated in the accompanying drawings, and more particularly pointed out in the appended claims.

In the accompanying drawings, in which similar reference characters indicate similar parts in each of the views,

Fig. 1 is a sectional View taken transversely of the length of a unit forming one or" the members of the assembly, the unit being of the insulating type.

Fig. 2 is a similar view with the insulation omitted.

Fig. 3 is a section taken on a similar plane and showing the uniting of two units to form a wall section, the width of one of the units being complete, the other unit being incomplete.

Fig. 4 is a section similar to Fig. 3 but with the complete unit of lesser` width.

Fig. 5 is a section taken on a similar plane and showing one form of joint element used in connection with a corner ofthe building.

Fig. 6 is a section of a form of joint element used in connecting an internal wall to an intermediate position in an external wall length.

Fig. '7 is a section of the type of Fig. 6 but with the joint element of a slightly different configuration.

Fig. 8 is a section showing one form of joint element used where the intersection is that of four walls.

Fig. 9 is an illustrative View of a portion of a typical iioor plan of the vertical framing.

Fig. 10 is a View similar to Fig. 9 and showing the application of the present invention thereto.

Fig. 11 is a fragmentary perspective view showing the arrangements used under multi-story conditions, the pre-fabricated framing assembly being illustrated by one of the units from a wall of each of a pair of stories, the sill or shoe assemblies and the joist assemblies being indicated in dotted lines, these being supplied by the builder.

Fig. 12 is a vertical longitudinal section of a unit of the maximum width type.

Fig. 13 is a view of the unit of Fig. 12 with the inner face member omitted.

Fig. 14 is a fragmentary perspective view of one of the units, with the shoe or sill members shown in dotted lines.

An underlying characteristic of the present invention is the use of units or sections of substantially similar dimensions as to length and thickness, but which differ as to width, with this difference presenting a base width dimension and multiples of such dimension. For instance, in the disclosure, the base width dimension presents a width of four inches, while the multiple dimension units have widths of eight, twelve, sixteen, thirty-two and forty-eight inches respectively; the thickness of each is four inches, and the length approximately that of the ceiling height. Each unit is formed with at least one male and one female joint member; joint members connecting internal walls with external walls may have an additional male or female member, and those used for connecting similarly positioned internal walls may include additional male and female members; the male joint member projects beyond the dimension edge ofthe unit-of section, while the female member lies within the section in such position that when a male and female joint member are assembled, the opposing edge faces of the connected sections will be substantially in contact on the opposite sides of the assembly. The assembly of the joints is by movement of the male member in the direction of the axis of the female member, so that, in the assembly, the male and female members have a common axis.

. Due to the different widths of the units or sections it is possible to develop floor plans of wide variety, both as to the external walls as Well as internal Walls, the one limiting factor being that the width dimension of a wall shall be some multiple of the base dimension, the latter being four inches in the form indicated in the drawings, by

a judicious selection of units, the width of the wall can be obtained, and with the units properly united, the wall will be of the desired dimensions. No specific provision is made in the units supplied by the manufacturer for door and Window frame structures, the openings for these being made by the builder-a reason for the wider-dimensioned unit, the dimension of which is such as to exceed the width of the normal door or Window frame, so that the desired opening can be readily cut within such unit intermediate the opposite joint members. As a result, the positions of the doors and windows can be accurately fixed by the positioning of the unit of wider dimensions, and the remainder of the Wall formed from the assortment of different width ,units A similar flexibility is present in connection with the internal walls or partitions. The proper joint element is positioned at the desired location,'and the remainder of the wall fashioned from the different width units, units for the external walls being utilized for the outer walls, and units of the internal Wall type utilized for the partition walls, doors in the latter being accommodated by the builder by cutting the unit as above indicated.

As is apparent from this brief explanation, the present invention presents a building regimen more or less in contrast with that usually followed, in that the sectional characteristic of the `structure is provided in the horizontal direction instead of vertically, the vertical dimension of the unit being fixed to correspond to the ceiling height of a story. Consequently, the floor plan arrangement of the house is not limited to a few standardized types, as to dimensions, positions of door and window openings, etc., but, on the contrary, permits of a rather wide range of individuality on the part of the architect in carrying out the customers desires, as long as the dimensions are such as to come within the character- Aistic of being a multiple of the base Width di mension, as explained above.

through the fact that While he needs to have a stock-pile of each of a considerable member of units and joint elements, each of these is itself standardized, so that he is required only to maintain his stock-piles. Since each assembly of the latter is standardized, such maintenance ber,comes of routine character and can be undertaken at any time since the manufacturer is not dependent upon orders for a particular type of house, and is able to obtain his lumber and other base materials under quantity conditions and then utilize it to maximum advantage and reduce wastage, since regimens can be developed and the production carried out under such regimens. The customer not only is able to utilize the services of an architect, but the basic system of the invention provides advantages to the architect who may be furnished with a detailed disclosure of the various units supplied by the manufacturer. Given the general characteristics of the house desired by the customer, the architect is able to formulate his lfloor plans without difficulty, since the units provide a flexibility in width dimensions such as enable him to meet the desired characteristics as to dimensions of a horizontal section of each story by a judicious selection of units. While the invention deals only with the vertical Walls of the building, thus presenting the general dimensional characteristics of the building, the flexibility in unit width dimensions permits a Acomplete lay-out of the door plans, the foundation of the architects activities.

For the purpose of illustrating these conditions, a partial typical floor plan is shown in Figures 9 and 10, the latter diagram showing the Zone of the building story with the unit widths indicated. One of the rooms shown is 9 x 12'; another room is shown as 10 x 134"; a tlr'rd room is shown as 68 X 8'; a fourth room is shown at 5' X 5', together with a hall-Way 2'8" x 5-the three latter rooms are at the end of the building, the depth of the building at such end being 23', the wall including four joint elements each of 4, the room dimensions given being the internal dimensions, and with each of the walls having a depth of 4". Fig. 9 shows the architects plan, Fig. 10 showing the unit diagram. The section of the building shown presents dimensions indicating the use of different units and joint elements included within the invention; where an opening or door is indicated, the opening is within a unit of greater width than that of the opening, the opening being formed in the unit by the builder before or after the unit has been placed in position; in other words, when the position of a window or door has been determined in the total width of the wall, the unit of a Width dimension which will contain the opening is located in such position, and the remainder of the wall width made up of unit widths which will total the distance on each side of the unit carrying the opening. l

Specifically, the units of the external walls are indicated as A while those of the,internal Walls are indicated as B, the specific width of the unit being indicated by the exponent used in connection with the designating character, For instance, the 48" width unit for the outer or eX- ternal wall is indicated as A*x8 while the similar width unit of the inner or internal wall is indicated at B48, the 32 units being indicated respectively as A32 and B32, etc. Units of similar width of both series are generally of similar construction with the exception that the A series has the outer face member formed of a standard vapor-sealed 1/2" insulation board f and the inner face member formed of a standard recessededge gypsum board g of 1/2 thicknessin the B series both faces are of the gypsum board (g) type. The overall thickness of the units of each series is 4".

The units of both series have their inner and 'I5 Outer face members spaced in their vertical edge zonesby acomposite formation composedof a Thev of the wall by assembling amaleelement of one,

unit withthe female element of another unit;

The mortis@ and tenori effect can be provided by structures of varied configurations, a pre,- ferredarrangement, however, presenting the cooperating portions as an incomplete circular characteristic, the male elementpresentin. the axis of the circle as beyond the edge ofthe zone-the axis of the female element lying within` the edge Zone of the unit--the two elements thus setting up the conditions of an interlocking joint assembled by inserting the lower end of the,A male member within theupper end of the female member and moving the male member in the. direction of theaxes of thetwo elements, the dimensions of the-two being such as to set up a working iitbetween them; preferably, the lower zone of the male member isV formed slightly taf pered asy at m:to aid in assembling the elements. Each of the elements isshoWn as formed f sheet material-which may be` plastic or metallic-- shaped to provide the vinterlocking zone and wing zones with the latter secured to,- the inside of the inner and outer face members oftha unit. The male element is indicated at ML and the female element at F; the wingsY orr flanges of the element are supported by frame members X; In practice, the axialiength of theelementsis less thanthat of the length of the inner and' outer face members of the unit, for a purpose presently.v described.

The male and female interlockingA joint ele,- mentsare eaclrof two formsdifiering from each other within the angedportions, one form havingsimplya straightflange and the other having anangular ange; the straightange form is generally used wherethe joint membersA contain more than a pair of the interlockingmembers-the cross-sectionA dimensions of the joint element does not permit the use of' the angular flange Where more than two of' the joint members are used with the joint element.

In addition, the inner outer face members of the units-excepting theV unit of 16" width is spacedby a header Hwhichextends across the top zone of the unit at a suitable distance from the top of the unit and the larger width unitsadditionally carry studding, extending vertically, the 32" width having a single stud, while the 48 Width utilizes twol studs, the studs being indicated at Y. The stud' length approximates that of the elements M andE. The header H is generally omitted fromthe 16" widthl unit of the external and/or internal wall (the A and/or B series). since the latter units are designed` to be used for conduit purposesas for heat `or cold air, etc., the usualV metallic heating ducts being readily positioned therein; for` this purpose, thisdimensioned unit, is also supplied in'multiple lengths for multiple story houses where the' units are not used for this service, a header is added by the builder.

The units of the A series-those ofthe external wallsare also oan additional type, the second type carrying a 2" thickness of insulation a,

whichmay b eofwmineralbr brous character, preferably in blanket or` batt form, and whiclrcanbereadilystapled to the inside of face member f.

In addition to the-units the invention includes a. number of forms of joint elements, each ofwhich is approximately similar to thelength` of `the units but has a width dimension correspending to the base width dimension (i")-;of-Y

the Ymultiple unit system which formsvthe Vfourrdationof the present invention, ,the thickness dimension being similar to that of the units, Two series ofthe joint elements are provided; as with the units,vdue to the fact that'one series `is used with the external wall-thus requiring-the outer'face member construction of the unitsbf that wall-while the other series is used with vthe internal walls and thus has its opposite Afaces conforming to therunit face members forsuch walls; excepting for the material used for oneV of the face members therefore, the elements generally` are similarvfor both Walls.

Each of these elements has at leastone male joint member and one female joint member as with the units, and in the simpler form-indicated at J-the member contains` one of each of the two joint members these beingflocatedon opposingdedges of the member-this'formfofthe latter, in effect,- setting up the conditions-offsl unit with a width dimension of 4f', and usable as a unit when necessary; A secondelementindicated at J"-a1so contains one of ieach of the male and female joint members, but these are arranged on adjacent sides; the element is thus applicable for-use asa corner member. A third form-indicated` at -J Z-hasfthe maleand female joint members asin-the J form-and, inaddtion, has'a second female member on anintermediate side; the fourth form-indicated at J3is similar thereto, excepting that the additional joint member is a male member-instead of a. female member. A fifth form-indicated as JL- is similar to the J3 form, and, in addition, carri'esa female joint member on the fourth side of 'the element, thus placing a jointmember on each of the fourth sides of the element. Structurally-,theseelements are internally completedas by the use ofblown-in insulation-to llthe interior thereofthe form of the latter depending upon the cross-sections produced by the number and arrangements'of the male and female joint members;

Since a Wallv will generally beV madey up oa plurality ofunits and joint elements in interlocked relation, stability ofthe wall against-pressures, etc; wouldbe somewhat dependent upon the interlock itself; whereV the latter is of'circular characteristic-as indicated-it is essenmi that additionaimeans be utilized to secure such stability: In` the present invention this result is obtained byV a pseudoV keying effect through the use of shoesorA sills-indicatedv at -S; these are of lurnberdressed to rectangular tion. The length of the shoes is dependent upon the iioor plan; since the shoes are designed to retain the alinement of adjacent units-thus anchoring or keying the assembly-the lengths are such as to present a shoe as extending across an interlocking joint, the length of the members of such joint being such that the lower end rests on the lower sill and the upper end forms a support for the housed upper sill.

In practice, the lower sills are properly positioned and secured on the foundations of the building, after which the bulider begins assembling from one of the corners, following the directions of the floor plan in selecting the particular unit to be employed. The correct joint element is positioned, and then the units are successively added according to the floor plan instructions, the workman advancing from right to left-or vice versa-as the particular conditions require, but following the selected course after the direction of advance has been decided upon. This is due to the fact that the malemember of the joint normally must be entered into the female member of a positioned unit by movement in the direction of the axis of the female member. The joint elements for the connection of the internal walls are positioned during this progression, so that after the external wall has been completed, the internal walls can be similarly assembled relative to the positioned joint elements. Since the lower end zones of a unit straddle the sill, it is apparent that the assembled walls will present the arrangement of the floor plan for the ground iloor.

During or after the assembly of the units, the housed sills are positioned at the upper end of the units, thus anchoring both ends of the unit against displacement. Due to the presence of the sills to prevent lateral displacement, and the presence of the vertical interlocking joints, it is apparent that the resulting structure is so braced as to resist strains and stresses. The addition of the second sill at the top not only increases the stability, but additionally supplies a support for the joistsused in developing the ceiling and other laterally-extending structures of the build- Ing.

In other words, while the invention pertains more particularly to the vertical framing of the building, leaving the horizontally-extending portions of the building, such as ceilings, floors, roofs, etc., to be provided in the usual manner, the shoes or sills S-although extendinghorlzontally-are included within the invention, since they are acting more particularly to stabilize or key the assembly ofv units and joint elements, although these shoes or sills are generally supplied by the builder rather than by the manufacturer.

As indicated in Fig. 11, if a second story is present in the structue, the procedure of the first story is followed, the lower shoes or sills S being mounted on the positioned joists, and the walls of this story then developed by the procedure followed in the rst story. If but one story and attic is present, the roof structure is developed upon the positioned joist assembly.`

It is possible that in developing the unit-byunits wall structure, the final unit to be positioned to complete the 'wall may have a female member as the movable unit member in completing the interlocking joint. To meet the possibility, some of the male joint members M have the tapered zone m at both ends to permit of readier assembly by permitting the female member of the interlocking point to have the endwise movement.

As is apparent, the question of the presence or absence of hot and cold air ducts for the building is determined by the architect with the decision carried out by the builder. Such ducts include a sheet metal lining for the channel, and this is added by the builder-the sixteen-inch width unit being designed for this purpose by omitting the header from this unit, as heretofore pointed out. Since such duct may extend through each of the stories of a multi-story building, this width unit is made in various lengths additional to the normal story-lengths.

In practice, the manufacturer will provide his units in lengths of several different ceiling heights-the variations generally being six inches; however, in supplying the units, the manufacturer selects units of the same length for the production of a story. While this increases the assortment of units held in stock, it has the advantage of permitting the manufacturer to obtain greater benefits from his virgin supplies through decrease of wastage.

As is evident from the above the erection of the vertical framing of the building story by story by practicing the present invention, does not complete the building-that which is provided is the core of the building. The exterior and the interior finish of the vertical walls must be added, as must the windows and doors; the ceiling and iioors must also be added,as well as the roof structure. These are provided by the builderthe manufacturer supplies the units and joint elements which, with the exception of the shoes or sills (the latter being of standard Stock available to the builder), constitute the vertical core of the building. The windows and doors may not be supplied by the manufacturer, but his unit arrangement is such as to permit the builder to install a desired construction, generally secured from specialists, as previously explained.

The advantages of the invention, as heretofore pointed out, pertain to both the manufacturer and the customer, through the ability to provide housing under partial pre-fabrication conditions and thus under lower cost conditions with respect to material. In addition, the. cost reduction reaches to the builder through the fact that he is able to rapidly develop the vertical framing of a story of the building since the construction is that of assembling pre-formed units in accordance with a definite plan, thus decreasing labor costs and providing more rapid completion. Since these advantages are obtained without material loss in the freedom of selection of the type and characteristics of the building to be erected, the fact that pre-fabrication is that of but a portion of the building is not of disadvantage.

structurally, the framing provides for complete stability and serviceability, with the units of a form which not only provide for rapid assembly into the positioned framing, but when positioned,

provide a core upon which the external and internal finishing can be applied under highspeed development due to the form of the exposed face members of the core assembly. As a result, the building progresses more rapidly with reduced labor cost conditions.

As will be understood, the successful attainment of these results iiows from the fundamental change made in construction methods by which the framing of the story is developed progressivelyin a generally horizontal direction instead of vertically, through the use of preformed units of substantially uniform vertical lengths and amanece 11 swhchfare secured:inLinterlo'ckedrzseries. in accord lwithfthe"floor1-plan :of fthe vertical core'offthe Vfstory of i `the ibuilding. s; Such method i is made possible .bytheiuse ofithe'systemzofrunit width fdimensionswhich are multiples' of a basev width dimension or of such base width dimension itself; `thispermits theproduction ofrunitsunder pre- @fabrication conditions/ :without the need of 4'exacessivef assortments of, units; yetfcapable* of meet- ;:ing' the conditions ofra'wde selection of loor nplanspthereby aeliminatingzthe vneed for regimenting of pre-fabricatedfhousing structures.

Aslis apparent, the inormal structures of units 'andi jointl'elements .is :based on'theprinciple' that #walls will extend-in alinement; parallelism or'at rrightuangles. It is lobvious, however, that the joint 'elements' may be'con'structed toprovide for fia variation from: the right angleconditions, and that" the units may'be formed "curved or angular to meet individual "desires; such 'changed forms v --would,f.infpracticeynot be' carried instockzby the manufacturer for ipreefabricationusage, but can tbesupplie'd Vwhen 'desired and'thus'permit the Aconstructionof a building of 'such type under the fladvantageousmethod ccnditionsfoutlinedl above.

While I'have herein shown and described methods of carrying :out the invention, astructure :which resultsv fromsuch methods; and unit struc- "turesusable insuchfmethods in producing the -structure, it is-apparent that thelinvention,A in 1 "practice, 'may take' on various changes and modi- "eationsl as Ttoforml and characteristics to meet thefexigenciesofservice andthe' desiresof the user,-and I therefore reserve `the right' to make any and allfsuch changes Vor modifications there;

"in as may be" found necessary ordesirable; insofar ',asthe same may fall within the spirit and scope ofthe'inVention-as `expressed in thev accompanying claims.

i What isI claimed as new is:

1. A 'preformed structural'unit for forming -`Ebuilding A-walls fand partitions including aA body portion;v af' male 'element of1an interlocking key meansiextending along-one'side edge ofsaidbody 'portion for substantially the'fll length thereofand' a female element 'f an interlocking key means extendingfalong'the opposite side edge for H substantially'the full' length Ithereof, said body 'portion including-apair of spaced parallel panel Aelements, 'at -least'-two stud `members placedsbe- V`r`ltween said panel'elements'in parallelrelation to Sand' spaced predetermined Vdistances inwardly of said'side edges; each of said'm'ele and'feniale ele- 'ments having a4 pair of 'inwardly directedr parallel v"iiange porti ons. said'ange portions being integral `AWith and extending the' fulllength'of said-male "and femaleel'ements'and engaging 'the side edges of each of said stud members for' the full length thereof andlyinafbetween said side edges and fthe Vinner faces of the panel elements.

"'2. A 'preformedstructnral unit'for forming "building 4*w'alls'and' partitionsY including a body -portion,V a male element of' an interlockingkey *means extending-along one 'side edge of said body uportion for"sbstantially 'the full length' thereof, "and afemale element ofan Vinterlocking key "means extending' along the opposite side edge for substantially thefull lengththereofysaid body portionincliiding' a pair'ofl spaced parallel panel elements, a plurality ofspaced intermediate stud members'between'and engaged'with said panel V'elements and'parallellto the side"edges thereof, "and ani end vstud member of slightly less width 'than the intermediate stud-members attached to 'the'outer face of eachvof the two outermost interl zmediatefstud: members, tsaideendstudmembers :being spaced inwardlyfa' pre-determined distance Afrom' the' sideedges: of the :panel elements; .-each :oifsaidrmaleand Afemale elements having a pair'of 5 ninwardlyI 'directedgparallel :flange portions, said Vflange `:portions 'being integral with andfextendfing .the vfull length of saidffmale and female elements and engagingl the side edges of each ofthe f-.end studmembers of-less width' for the full length l Y ithe1'eof-.and lying between said side edgesand the winner facesfof'the fpanel-felements.

3. :2A :preformed structural unit for f forming #building '.Walls'nand rpartitions -including -a body sportion, :a male element :of an interlocking key mr means extending alongicne side edge of saidbody :portion forfsubstantially the full length thereof r: andata female element ;of 'f an f interlocking -key r'meansextending along the oppositeV side edge for vf*substantially1, the full lengththereof, said'Y body 2() y:portion Aincluding a-pairsof yspaced parallel panel jelements; at :least two studmembers placed ber 1tween said panel@ elements f inv `parallel relation to ^and spaced predetermined distances.inwardlyof -fsaidside edges; each: ofv said male and femaleele- 325 ments beingzof substantial-.U-shape in cross sec- Qtion, fproviding side ,-legs-adaptedto' engage t'ne sideedgezzof;A each-'fof said studimembers forflthe :E full length thereof and lying-between ythe side eedgesfof said studf'members and the inner: faces :in of the panel elem-entsitheclosedside of each of 'saidlmale and female elements being'bent to form 1 a:sulznstaiitially cylindrical' key t of fless `diameter than the distance-fbetweenthe side' legs'of-'the ffelements.

2.4. A rpi'eformed structural :uniti for .'formlng rebuilding walls Vand partitions including-a `body portion, 'fa fmalef element-of ran 4interlocking key tmeansextending alongone side edge of said body .portion forf substantially the fullv lengththereof,

mand ca fernale'felernent-flof i anf interlocking ,key

emeansfextendingaiong the-opposite side edge :for substantial'ly the fullv "length" thereof ;r said body tportion includingamair of `spaced-parallel 'panel -i elements,sa^rplurality-of\ spaced intermediate stud 4 timembersi between and engaged'iwithsaid fpanel elements and parallel to the side edges thereof, 1a and aan -ziendstndl member of slightly' Vless width thanftheintermediate stud members' attached to ttheiouterfaceof each: ofthe two. outermost inter- 50 ".mediate Ystud members, said end stud-membersklerjng'spaced inwardly-a preedetermined distance :fromithe side edgesof the panel elements; each :of-,said male and-'female elements being of" sub- 'fstantial' .U-shape inI cross sectionfprovidinglside 55.' legsfa'dapteduto engage'theside edgeiof each of ,isaid' end stud members for the 'fullvlengthA thereof andlying Ibetween the sideeedges of saidg'stud members and the inner faces of themaneliele- `ments;.therclosed side.of;each;of said: male and femalevelementsbeing bent to form asubstan- 'tiallyffcylindricalzkey of r-less "diameter than'the '-distanceibetween the'sidelegs: ofthe elements.

y SEMERY Si ,OSBORN .The following. references'arecof record in the file' of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS 70 Number Name Date 968,321 Boyer Aug. 23,v 1910 1,236,635 Wells `Aug."14,l 1917 1,409,729 Kennedy Mar; 14,' 1922 55 (Other. referencesY onI following page) UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Number Number Name Date Brown Apr. 17, 1945 Rausch Jan. 7, 1947 FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date Great Britain of 1906 France 1919 Switzerland 1920 Switzerland 1930 OTHER REFERENCES Printed Publication, American Builder, December 1937, page 69.v

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U.S. Classification52/580, 52/578
International ClassificationE04B1/61, E04B1/02, E04B1/10
Cooperative ClassificationE04B1/6137, E04B1/10
European ClassificationE04B1/10