US 2495966 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. M, 19% M. E. HAINES Zfilgflm JINT BETWEEN STRUCTURAL MEMBERS OF BUILDINGS Filed June lO, 1944 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR MALCOLM E. HA WIES M. E. HA] N ES JOINT BETWEEN STRUCTURAL MEMBERS OF BUILDINGS 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed June lO, 1944 lNvENToR MALCOLM E. HAlNE ATTORNEY5 Patented Jan. 31, 1950 NITED STATES TENT OFFICE JINT BETVJEEN STRUCTURAL MEMBEBS OF BUILDINGS Application `lune 10, 1944, Serial No. 539,699
' My invention relates to buildings and in particular to the construction of a standardized building adapted to mass production.
It is a particular object of my invention to provide a system of joining the element of a building Structure of the utmost Simplicity but at the same time of Such permanency and Strength that the juncture point of the several elements of the building will constitute the stronger portion of the building instead of the Weaker portion.
It is a further object to provide a system of reinforcement of the building to provide great Strength despite the fact that this system of standardized interconnecting means is employed. It is a further object to provide a standard system of mortise and tenon which can be produced on machinery in a mass production manner so as to reduce the cost of the standardized members.
t is a further object to provide a connecting system and means for effecting the connection between a plurality of building members so that not only are the members connect-cd to one another but they are prevented from shifting with respect to one another While accommodating the expansion and contraction of the wood memm bers constituting the building Structure.
Referring to the drawings i Figure l is a perspective of the building ein--` bodying the construction of my invention with f a portion of the side walls and the roof broken away to illustrate the method of the framing of the building and the nature of the completed attachment.
Figure 2 is a perspective showing the ridge pole members showing the nature of the tapered wedges and the chamfer of the member in order to provide the tongue-and-groove wedging surface. F
Figure 7 is a detailed illustration partially broken away of the juncture of the horizontal Referring to the drawings in detail, I is the i foundation of a building upon which are mounted the bottom plate members 2 upon which are erected horizontal plate members 3 that serve to connect the studding 4 with the side walls and the framing members for the doors and windows as at 6 and 1. Mounted upon the studding 4 are the cap plate members 8. Mounted upon the cap plates are the rafters 9 and the ceiling joists ir. The rafters are interlocked with the multiple reinforced ridge pole member il. The rafters and ridge pole carry the shingles i2.
Referring in detail to the construction of the building, it will be observed that the building is joined together to its several members by a mortise and tenon or a tongue-and-groove construction which consists of a building member generally designated a studding or a rafter which is provided at each end with a dovetailed member I 6 having an outwardly fiared wedged end l'! which forms a recess l8 into which is introduced either a fiat plate or a Wedge shaped plate 19 between the recess 18 and the slot 20 in the horizontal member such as the ridge pole membeil H. The ridge pole member is made up of a central continuous plate Ha and side members i i b and I Ic that may either be continuous or discontinuous but which are provided with a groove 253. In the event the members are discontinuous the ends of the members I lc are spaced from one another and -adapted to receive the Wedge shaped member 5. The wedges are sufliciently large to form a tight joint between the angularly disposed members in order to lock them together;
By the reason of this construction the members can expand and contract and there is suflicient play to provide for this natural expansion and contraction without the parts becoming loosened. t will be noted that the several forms of con,- traction all employ a standardized type of tongue and Wedge construction. It is preferable to have the groove 20 also tapered as in Figures 4, 5 and 7. Such a taper is indicated at 2I. Wedge 19 or dual wedges may be empioyed. In order to prevent the shifting of the horzontal A single aeeaoce and vertical members with respect to one another vertically disposed or horizontally disposed intermediate grooves or notches 22 are provided in the walls of the groove Zii. The member having the tongue is provided with the rib or tongue 23 that is insertable in the groove or notch 22. This provides against lateral movement between tongue-and-groove construction and leaves the Wedge to perform simply the looking of the parts together to prevent their becoming detached by movement at right angles from one another. In this way,r` the twov pieces are anchored against movement; at right angles to one another in either a horizontal or vertical direction.
By providing tongue and-groove construction either on the sides or ends of the structural members, but still maintaining` the tongue-and,- groove construction of a standardized type, it is possible to develop a great variety of standardzed forms of interconnection while retaini-ngthe ad-V bsemble or disassemble; a complete building. All,
nails are eliminated. All sawingg, dusting, cutting and fitting are eliminated and as the building is out. so as to accurately position the parts in their angular relationshipit is unnecessary to do any-=V thing more than to provide the level foundation. After this has been provided, the structural members can be erected in a simple manner and as they arel erected` they provide a support for moving upwardly for the superimposition of additional members to finally complete. the building and' cover it. Any person of modest mechanical attainments can.. therefore, completely assemble. and erect. a building and provide one. that is true.
Itv will be understood that I desire to comprehend within my invention such variations of cn struction as are necessary to adapt myl invention to various uses and conditions and which fall Within the scope of. the claims herei-nafter ap.- pended.
Having thus described. my invention, what. I claim as new and desire to secure: byy Letters:v Patent, is:
. 1. Incombination, a pair of building members. oneV of which has a tapered groove oonvergent toward'its open side and theV other of which has an outwardly eX-tending undercut tongue partdis... posed in said groove, a Wedge between one. side face offsaid tongue part and. one side wall of said groove. said Wedge and tongue lling said groove, andl means for holding said building members rigidly in a direction along the length of said: groove, said means comprising a rib on one of' thel other side faces of said. tongue and a notch in the adjacent groove surface in which said rib rests.
2; In combination, a plurality of pieces of building timber abutting one another to form a, jointv of a building; one of said pieces having. a tongue and another of said pieces having a tapered groove into which said tongue extends, said.
groove being of greater Width than the. Width of/ said tongue, a Wedge filling the space between the interlocking tongue and'groove atone side, means for holding the pieces of timber rigidlyiiin a direc-v tion along the.V length of the. groove, said means;
comprising a rib positioned at the faces of said first mentioned tongue and groove on the side opposite said Wedge and extending angularly to the length of said first mentioned groove.
3. In combination, a pair of building members, one of which has an inwardly divergent groove therein and the other of which has an outwardly divergent tongue extending into said groove, one side face of said groove and tongue being parallel and abutting, a notch extending across one of said abutting faces, normal with respect to the direction of the tongue, and groove, a rib. in said notch and extending from the other of said abutting faces, and a filler member fitting between the other side faces of said tongue and groove and holding said first mentioned side faces in abutting relationship.
4. In combination, a pair of building members one. of which has an inwardly divergent groove therein, and the other of which has an outwardly divergent tongue which extends into said groove, said tongue and groove having one of their side faces parallel and in abutment, a notch extending across one of said abutting faces, normal with respect to the direction of the groove and tongue, and a rib extending into said notch. and upstanding from, the. other of said abutting faces, and.V a. filler member driven between the side facesi of: said tongue. and. groove on the side opposite said rib and notch, the largest part of. said tongue: being no greater in Widthv than the narrowest part; of said groove.
5. In combination, a pair of building members one of which has an inwardly divergent groove;
, therein and the other of which has an. outwardly divergent tongue extending into said groove, said groove and tongue abutting on oneof the side, faces thereof, a notch extending across the. said1 one side, face of saidl groove and at right ang'les` to the length of said groove, a rib upstandi-ng from the said one side face of said tongue and disposed, in said notch, and a filler Wedge driven between. the-other side faces of said tongue andY groove.
6. In combination, a pair of building members-`` one of which has an inwardly divergent groove therein and the other of which has an outwardly divergent tongue extendingV into said groove, said; groove and tongue abutting on one of the side. faces thereof, anotch` extending across the' said: one. side face of said groove and at right anglas, to the length of said groove, a rib upstanding: from the said` one side face of said tongue and.. disposed in said notch, and a filler Wedge driven between theV other side faces; of saidV tongue and groove, the widest part of said tongue being; no,-
greater in, Width than the narrowest party of said, groove..
7. In combination, a building. member havingan inwardly divergentJ groove therein, a pair of other building members having outwardly divergenttongues extending into said grooveand taken togetherv being of less width than said groove, the. outer faces of said tongues being parallel' with. and abutting the side faces of said groove, an interfitting rib and notch on at least one pair of said abutting faces and extending thereacross at an angle to. the length of said groove, and a fillen member between said other building members. and positivcly` retaining said other members. in engagement with the side faces ofV said groove.
8. In. combination,v a building member having; an inwardly divergent. groovev therein, a pair' of; other building members having outwardly divergenttongues. extending into said grooveand. taken together being; oflesswidth than said groove. tho
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
6 UNITED sTATEs PATENTS Number Number Name Date Lange Aug. 12, 1092 Rufl'ner Nov. 24, 1903 Schossow Mar. 31, 1908 Silberg July 9, 1918 Laughlin Feb. 13, 1923 Shipway Feb. 23, 1937 Fletcher Aug. 2, 1938 Hatton Aug. 4, 1942 FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date France 1930