Minograph foe photofluorography
US 2496089 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jam. M, W5@ E. R. GOLDFIELU ET Al. 294961,@@59
MINOGRAPH FOR PHOTOFLUOROGRAPHY Filed Get. 24, 1945 5 Sheets-Sheet l Arrow/E76 17mm W5@ E. w. GULDHELD mm. Z@
MINOGRAPH FOR PHoToFLUoRoGRAPm Filed Oct. 24, 1945 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 gnuemto'm.
3mm EL W5@ E. R. GOLDHELD mm. PQBQ MINOGRAPH FOR PHOTOFLUQROGRAPHY 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 am EL W5@ E. R. GOLDFIELD ET AL. 2,4%@39 MINOGRAPH FOR PHoToFLUoRoGRAPHY Filed Oct. 24, 1945 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 l gmmm attoz uw Patented Jan. 3l, 1950 MINOGRAPH FOR PHOTOFLUOROGRAPHY Edwin R. Goldeld and Robert J. Stava, University Heights, and Edgar J. Bastin, Jr., Cleveland, Ohio, assignors to Picker X-Ray Corporation Waite Manufacturing Division, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation f Ohio Application October 24, 194.5,` Serial No. 624,172
This invention relates to a novel device for making iluorographic examinations of large numbers of people in as short a time as possible and to the making of a photographic record of said examinations.
Prior to this it has been diilicult to carry out the uoroscopic examination of large numbers of patients, as for instance, in chest examinations for the detection of tuberculosis because the equipment available was cumbersome, hard to transport and set up, and impossible to operate at a great number of examinations per hour. Our improved equipment is designed to be readily transportable, it can be quickly set up ready for operation, and it permits the examination and the preparation of photographic records of large numbers of patients as rapidly as they can be brought to and moved away from the examining equipment. In addition to this, the equipment is so arranged that all of the parts are automatically positioned in the proper relative arrangement to get the best results, the equipment may be adjusted to patients of various heights quite readily, and the entire equipment is compact, easy to handle, and very eiicient in its operation.
Among the objects of the present invention are the provision of a vertically movable X-ray tube and vertically movable viewing equipment together with synchronization of the two so that the X-ray beams are always properly directed toward the viewing equipment during all adjustments thereof.
Another` object of the present invention is the provision of a platform upon which the patients are supported during the examination, this same platform serving to properly space the X-ray tube with respect to the viewing equipment. All of this is accomplished by means of connections easily assembled and disassembled, these same connections embodying novel mechanical means for synchronizing the movements of the tube stand and a camera stand, as will later appear.
Our invention also embodies novel construction of the tube stand and camera stand, novel construction of the connecting platform and various other novel arrangements of the operating equipment, as will more clearly appear from the accompanying description and drawings. The essential features of our invention will be summarized in the appended claims.
In the drawings,
Fig. 1 is a side elevational view of our equipment showing the device in raised position in full lines, and in lowered position in dotted lines.
Fig. 2 is a sectional View of the same, taken along the line 2 2 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is an enlarged sectional view taken along the line 3 3 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a view taken along the line 4 4 of Fig. 3, showing manual means for operating the raising and lowering mechanism.
Figs. 5 and 6 are sectional views taken along similarly numbered lines of Fig. 3.
Fig. 7 is an enlarged sectional view taken along the line 'I l of Fig. 6.
Fig. 8 is a sectional view taken along the line 8 8 of Fig. 3 and partly broken away to more clearly show the construction.
Fig. 9 is an enlarged view taken in substantially the position indicated on line 9 9 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 10 is a sectional view taken along the line IIJ l El of Fig. 9.
Fig. '11 is a view similar to Fig. 10, but showing the ramps folded over on top oi the platform and locked in that position for carrying.
Fig. 12 is an enlarged sectional view taken along the line l2 |2 of Fig. 9.
Fig. 13 is a sectionalY view taken along the line |3 I3 of Fig. 12, While Fig. 14 is an enlarged sectional view taken along the line |4 4 of Fig. 9.
In the various views, a tube stand cabinet 20 is provided housing a vertically movable stand or column 2l on the top of which is mounted the X-ray tube 22, whose cone 22a directs the rays toward the viewing equipment. The usual means (not shown) is provided for energizing the tube and generally comprises, in our specic equipment, transformer and rectifier units placed alongside of the cabinet 20 with the proper control circuits housed in the cabinet 23 and the proper connections to a power source and to the X-ray tube. All of this equipment in usable form is known to the art and forms no part of the present invention. The cabinets 20 and 23 might be united in a single cabinet, but are here shown as divided from each other along the line 23a for greater portability of the equipment. Another cabinet 24 placed opposite the cabinets 20 and 23 houses a vertically movable stand or c01- umn 25 on the top of which is mounted the viewing and record making equipment. As here shown, a light-tight cone 26 is mounted by bracket means 2l on top of the column 25 and secured in position by the thumb screw 28. At the end of the cone nearer the X-ray tube is a fluorescent screen 29 in iront of which is preferably provided a'focused Wafer grid 3|). Means known to the art and not shown in detail, may
be provided at 3l for the insertion of a cassette holder for the recording of the screen images on large size lm, where such a record is desirable.
Normally however, our device is used for making photographic record, on camera nlm, of each patient as he places himself in the proper position with respect to our device, as indicated in dot-dash lines 32 of Fig. 1. It is unnecesary tov describe the camera devices in detail, as such details form no part of the present invention.v It is sufficient to state that the camera 33 is connected at the smaller end of hood 26 by means of flange 33a so that the imagefrom the screen 2 9 is focused by means of lens 34 on the exposed portion of a film 35 housed in magazine 36 at the rear end of the camera. Normally, the unexposed lm is stored in the upper reel 36a and the exposed nlm is Wound on the lower reel 36h. Film movement is provided by means of motor 3l housed in the camera and connected by means not shown, to the reels 36av or 36h in a manner well known in this art, so as to drive the film the distance of one frame after each exposure is made.
The tube stand and camera stand are built exactly alike, and therefore one only will be described, it being understood that there are two such devices, as indicated at 2l and 25. As shown in Fig. 3, near the iloor of the cabinet 24 brackets 356 rigidly support a bearing housing 39. Horizontally positioned in this housing is shaft 40 which is rotatably mounted in bearings 4 l. Collar 42 holds the shaft properly positioned in the bearings. Mounted to rotate with this shaft is spiral gear 43 which has thrusty bearings. 44 on opposite sides thereof. The spiral gear meshes with another spiral gear 45 which is mounted to rotate with a short vertical shaft 46, which in turn is rotatably held in the upstanding neck 39a of the bearing housing by means of bearings 41. rI-he member 48 is simply a spacing collar. On the upper end of shaft 46 is mounted asquare nut 49 exactly the same size and shape as the square nut 50 shown in Fig. 5. The nut 49 is welded at 49a to shaft 46. A cover plate 39h holds the top bearing 4l in the housing portion 39a. A square tube l complementary in shape to the nuts 49 and 5U and slightly spaced outwardly therefrom, as clearly shown in Figs. 3 and 5, is, rotatably mounted within the cylindrical fixed tube 52 which is fastened at its lower end to theV housing 39. A spacing collar 53 is welded to tube 5i and nts with slight clearance inside of tube 52, as clearly shown in Fig. 6. The nut 50 mentioned above is welded to the lower end of a long screw 54 which is housedwithin the tube 5l and which is threaded into a nut 55 which is mounted in the upper end of tube 52, as shown in Figs. 3 and 8. This nut is held from turning by plate 56 which is welded to tube 52 at its outer edge and which has its inner edge formed of hexagonal shape closely surrounding the nut 55. rIhe nut is held from longitudinal movement by means of plate 51 which is welded at its outer periphery to tube 52, and has an inner edge which lies within an annular groove 55a in the mid portion of nut 55. It results from the above construction that as gear 43 turns gear 45 the shaft 46 causes rotation of nut 49. This in turn causes rotation oi square tube 5l which causes rotation of nut 50 and therefore of screw 54 which is integral therewith. Since the screw 54 passes through stationary nut 55 the screw is caused to move axially. On the upper end of the screw is mounted a bracket 58 which in turn is 4 secured by means not shown, such as welding or the like, to the outer cylindrical tube 25. This outer tube is guided by means presently to be described ior stabilized movement vertically, and carries at its upper end the cup shaped casting 6U on which is mounted the bracket 2l previously described. The upper end of the screw 54 is rotatably supported in the member 58 by means of bearings 6i which are held in position by cover plate 62. On the upper end of the screw 54 is mounted a spiral gear 63 for rotation with the screw. Coacting with this gear is a second spiral gear 64 rotatably mounted in the member 60 and adapted to be operated by the hand crank 65, if manual operation is used. Between tubes 52 and 25 there is housed a long helical spring 6B,
which is under sufllcient stress when the stand is in its lower position, as shown in Fig. 3, to counterbalance the weight of the parts which raise and lower with the stand, which in the case of the column 25 would include also the camera 33, hood 26, and parts carried thereby. In the case of the stand 2 l, it would include the X-ray tube and parts carried thereby.
Alternative means for providing a motor drive for the raising and lowering stands is indicated in Fig. 3 and shows a motor 61 housed in cabinet 24 although the motor might be housed in cabinet 26 in an analogous position, if desired. This motor drives reduction gearing in housing 68, the outlet shaft for which is shown at 69 as driving a sleeve '55, which may be -attached by a pin, not shown, to the inner end of shaft 40.
The stabilizing means for column 25 during its vertical movement comprises a vertically extending rib l'l secured to the outer wall of tube 25 by means of spot welding through the recesses 11a. As best seen in Figs. 3 and 8, a pair of rollers 12 lie on opposite sides of the ribe 'll near the upper end thereof. These rollers are mounted on bolts i3 which in turn are held by a bracket'14 secured by welding to the cross brace 24a. vertical movement of the column '25 is further stabilized by means of the construction shown in Fig. 6. A plate 'i5 is secured to cabinet 24 and to vertical walls 24h which complete a housing around three sides of columnl 25. At four points equally spaced around the column 25 are positioned bearing rolls l5, each of which is rotatably mounted on the eccentric portion lla of a shaft 'il which is rotatably mounted in the upper ends of screws 1S, which are threaded into plate 'l5 on opposite sides of roll i6. Each shaft 'il has a screw slot llb in one end thereof and the shaft is frictionally held in screw 'iS so that it remains in any position to which it is turned. By adjusting the eccentric lla the rolls 'E6 may. bel
caused to bear rmly against the walls of the column 2 5 at the four spaced points shown. The plate 'i5 is properly apertured to receive the rolls T6 and to permit the vertical movement of column 25 and rib 'ii as clearly shown in Fig. 6. The plate 19 which closes thetop of the housing formed by walls 24 and 24h has an opening at 19a permitting the vertical movement of rib 1i. In a like manner, the top walls of cabinet 2-4 have similar apertures. The cover 24e .is loosely connected to cabinet 24 by means of hinges 24d and is swung over from the position of Fig. 1 to that shown in Fig. 3 when the parts are being transported. When the device is in use, this cover occupies the position of Fig. l, where it is swung out of the way.
It should be thoroughly understood, that all of the parts associated with column 2l are eX- Theactly like those shown in Fig. 3 associated with column 25, there being a similar shaft 49 in the position of shaft 40 and connected by the mechanical connection later described for the purpose of synchronizing the vertical movements of columns 2l and 25.
Means is provided for automatically properly spacingithe cabinets 2li and 24 when the apparatus is set up. This means comprises a platform 80 adapted to rest on the oor or other supporting surface and connected to the cabinets 2U and 24, as best seen in Figs. 9, 12 and 13. The platform may be constructed in any suitable manner, but as shown in the various views, we have provided a hollow construction comprising a top plate 8|, a bottom plate 82, and a sufficient number of vertically positioned spacer plates of Z form B3, so as to provide strength. The top plate is flanged downwardly as shown at Bla and SIb, and all of these plates are welded together to give a strong unitary structure. The bottomplate 82 is preferably extended laterally beyond the-upper platform, as shown at 82a., and the extreme end edges are then bent upwardly, as indicated at B2b, to provide a support for the side ramp members, as will later appear. Preferably also cross rib members 84 are secured to the under side of the platform near each end to support the same slightly above the floor level. At each of the longitudinal side edges of the platform, there is provided a sloping ramp 85 hinged along its upper edge by the hinges 85a to the top of the platform. Each ramp slopes downwardly and outwardly away from the platform with its outer edge resting upon the floor and with an intermediate portion of the ramp resting upon the support B2b previously mentioned. Preferably, but not necessarily, the top of the platform 8l and the ramps 85 are given a non-skid surfacefsuch as rubber, so that as the patients pass across the platform, up one ramp and down the other and position themselves, as shown at 32 in Fig. 1, they will be assured of a firm footing.
The connections of the ends of the platform into the spaced cabinets are clearly shown in Figs. 9, 12 and 13. Straps 8B are welded along each end of the platform and are bent endwise outwardly to provide two handles at each end. These handles also serve as pilot members as they engage inthe pockets 3l of cabinet 24 at one end and in the pockets 88 or" the cabinet 20 at the other end.r These pockets are formed by metal partition walls which completely surround the handles 86 and are provided with small slotted openings 81a, shown in Fig. 12, to receive the upwardly extending latch members of the platform when the parts are assembled. Each of the pockets has one of these slotted openings directly above its associated latch member. There .are four of these latch members, as clearly shown in Figs. 9, 12 and 13, they are all alike, so a description of one will be suiiicient. On the inner face of one of the vertical plates 81a is welded a nut 89. Into this nut is threaded a shoulder bolt 90 on which is oscillatably mounted the latch 9|. Spacer collar 92 holds the latch away from the wall Bla for free movement. The outer end of the latch has the upwardly extending hook member Bla which engages in one of the slotted openings 81a, previously mentioned.
The top of each latch is bent over as at 91h. Normally the latch hook is down as shown in dotdash lines in Fig. 12. A tongue 9|c on the latch engages in opening 93 in wall 81a to limit downward movement of the latch hook. When the latch hooks engage in slots 81a and ramps 85 are folded down, they engage the portions Blb as shown in Fig. 13 and hold the latch hooks firmly engaged. It results from this construction that when the equipment is being set up it is only necessary to engage the handle straps 86 in their respective pockets 81 and 88 and this automatically guides the latch hooks 91a to position beneath their respective slots 81a upon which the ramps cause the latches to engage in the slots, thus establishing the correct distance between cabinets 20 and 24.
Means is provided for collapsing the platform and ramps for transportation. As best shown in Fig. 11, the ramps may be folded over above the platform 8| and a hold-down strap 94' pivotally mounted on one of the ramps at 94a is swung across the other ramp and engaged beneath a spring clip 95. This locks the folded ramps in position, as shown in Fig. 11, and the strap may be provided with the handle 94h for locking purposes. When the equipment is in use, as shown in Figs. 9 and 10, this strap is held over a clip 96.
There is a mechanical connection, as previously mentioned, running beneath the platform 8l and providing a connection between shaft 40 which operates column 25 and shaft 42 which operates column 2|. This construction is more clearly shown in Figs. 3, 9 and 14. A shaft 91 is rotatably mounted in suitable bearings carried by the platform 8|. Each end of this shaft is provided with half of a jaw clutch 98d. Coacting jaw clutch members 98o are pinned to shafts 40 and 40 respectively. It results from this construction that when cabinets 253 and 24 are connected together by means of the platform 8| and the latches 9|, as previously described, the jaw clutch members 98a and 98h are engaged so as to provide a mechanical drive connecting the tube stand and the camera stand. For ease in assem.' bly, the shaft 91 may be provided at opposite ends with tapered pilot members 91a which enter into suitable pockets 98C formed by sleeves on shafts 4|) and 4D. Thus when motor El is operated, the motion is transmitted simultaneously to both the tube stand and the camera stand so that they are run upwardly or downwardly by equal amounts, so that the central beam from tube 22 is always directed at the center of screen 29 when once the parts have been properly assembled and adjusted. It is thus possible to quickly adjust the height of our device to accommodate persons of different stature as they present their chests to f the front of the hood as indicated in Fig. 1. The
' and 45 which operate column 2|.
As previously mentioned, the electrical equipment for operating tube 22 is normally positioned alongside cabinet 23. Low voltage electrical connections are made available at this end of our equipment. It is desirable to transmit low volt- 'age current to the camera end of our equipment 'and for this purpose we have provided a novel construction. A low voltage plug IUI) is provided in cabinet `23 and electrical conduits IDI pass f from this cabinet through the tunnel or passageway beneath 'ramps t5,` as cieany shown in Figs'. 9 and 10. There may be more than one of these circuits if desired, and separate description of each of them is unnecessary. The equipment at the camera end of our device which requires low voltage electrical current includes the motor 3ft which drives the camera and may include a light, not shown, to illuminate an` identiiication card which is placed in the slit I 02 of the hood or a phot-electric cell positioned inside of hoed 25 for controlling the exposure oi the camera hlm when taking a picture of the fluorog'raph. This arrangement protects the electrical lines 'itl against damage and prevents the patients tripping over the cables.V
A protective screen IGS is shown in Fig. l, mounted on top of cabinet 23 and held in posi tion by thumb screws Hill which pass through the door |05 of cabinet 23. This screen is provided with leadv glass windows Il3a so that the Operator may stand behind the screen or to the left thereof, as viewed in Fig. 1, while he operates the equipment protected from stray X-rays.
Means is provided at HJG permitting the adjust ment of the tube above or below the center of the camera hood. It can then be angulated so that the beam will pass through the center of the hood to give predominance to shadows either up or down, if desired. This construction is more clearly disclosed and claimed in the copending application of Edwin R. Goldiield,l Robert J. Stava, and Edgar J. Bastin, Jr., Serial No. 676,410, led June 13, 1946, for X-ray tube focusing apparatus.
The control equipment for the X-ray tube is housed in the cabinet 23 in a manner not necessary to be described in connection with the present invention.
The cabinet 24 is so designed that the hood 26 may be housed therein for transportation. Packing means is also provided for the camera 33 and for tube 22.
It is obvious that by removal of the camera 33 from the hood 26 the screen 29 might be viewed directly for the purpose of making quick visual examination if no record were desired. In most cases however, the camera record is an important part of the apparatus.
We have thus provided equipment which is in packages readily transported and the total weight of which is a little over sixteen hundred pounds. This equipment may be readily set up for operation in nfteen to thirty minutes by means of a trained crew, and is then capable of providing very high-grade fiuorographs and photoluorographs to which we have given the trade name "Minograph as indicating a radiograph produced on miniature film.
What we claim is:
l. In X-ray apparatus, a vertically movable stand comprising two tubular members, one in'- side the other, said inside member being relatively stationary, means supporting said outside member for vertical movement, a device mounted on said outside member, a helical spring housed between said tubular members and engaging said outside member and tending to raise the latter, said spring substantially counterbal-Y ancing the weight of said device, a screw within said inside tubular member and having a vertically disposed axis and operatively connected with said outside member, a non-circular part rigidly connected with said screw for turning the same,va second noncircular part vertically alinedwith said irstmamed part,means rotatable with one of said parts and sudablealong the other of said parts, a nut into which said screw is threaded, vr'neans connected with Said inside tubular member `for holding said nut against rotation and against axial mov-ement. and means for rotating said second non-'circular part.
2. In apparatus for nuoroscopy, 'two vertically movable stands, a iluorosco'pic screen carried one stand, an X-r'ay tube carried by the other stand, a platform between said stands and de-` tachably connected to each of them, a rota-table shaft carried by said platform, each of said stands comprising two tubular members, 'onei'n side the other, said inside member being relai. tively stationary, means supporting said outside ymember for vertical movement, a device mounted on 'said outside member, a helical 'spring housed between said tubular members v'and rengaging said outside member and tending to raise the latter, said spring substantially counterbalancing the weight of said device, a screw within said inside tubular member and having a vertically disposed axis and operatively connected with said outside member, a non-circular partrigidly connected with said screw for turning the same, a second non-circular part vertically valined with said firsts named part, means rotatable with one of said parts and slidable along the other of said parts, a nut into which said screw is threaded, means connected with said inside tubular `member for holding said nut against rotation and against axe ial movement, and means for rotating `said sec-j ond non-circular part associated with each `stand including a clutch member connected 'with said rotatable shaft.
V3. In X-ray apparatus, a vertically movable stand comprising two tubular members, one in'- side the other, means supporting one Vof said tuaV bular members in relatively stationary position, means supporting the vother of said tubular meme` bers for vertical movement, a device mounted on said movable tubular member, a helical spring housed between said tubular members and en gagging said movable member and tending to raise the latter, said spring substantially counterbal: ancing the weight of said device, means for rasi ing said movable tubular member, said last named means comprising a screw having a verti-` cally disposed axis and operatively vconnected with said movable tubular member, a non-circa# la'r part rigidly connected 'with said screw for turning the same, a second non-circular part vertically alined with said iirst-named part, means rotatable with one of said parts and slid; able along the other or said parts, a nut into which said screw is threaded, means connected with said lstationary tubulaimember for hold-j ing said nut against rotation and against axial movement, and means for 'rotating said second non-circular part.
4. Portable apparatus for fluoroscopy comprising two cabinets adapted to be placed upon a iioor, a vertical column in each cabinet, means supporting each column in its associated cab'4 inet yfor vertical movement, an X-ray tube carried by one of said columns, a `fluorescent screen carried by the other of said columns, a platform adapted to rest upon the floor between said cabinets, means for detachably connecting opposite ends of said platform respectively to said cab# inets constructed and arranged to x the dis-v tance between them, means below the top level fof said platform detachably connectable between the lower ends of said columns for vcausingthemv to move in unison, and positive drive means for producing column movement, whereby said cabinets and platform and connectable means may be quickly placed upon a floor and connected and persons may stand on said platform between said tube and screen and said columns may be moved up and down in unison to accommodate persons of varying height.
5. Portable apparatus for fiuoroscopy comprising two cabinets adapted to be placed upon a floor, a vertical column in each cabinet, means supporting each column in its associated cabinet for vertical movement, each of said columns adapted to be substantially Wholly retracted into its cabinet, an X-ray tube mounted at the,l
of said columns for causing them to move in l unison, and drive means for producing column movement, whereby said cabinets and platform and connectable means may be quickly placed upon a floor and connected and persons may stand on said platform between said tube and screen and said columns may be moved up and 10 down in unison to accommodate persons of varying height.
EDWIN R. GOLDFIELD. ROBERT J. STAVA. EDGAR J. BASTIN, JR.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 616,513 Wertheimer Dec. 27, 1898 1,041,701 Thornley Oct. 15, 1912 1,859,223 Stevenson May 17, 1932 1,926,902 Kelley Sept. 12, 1933 2,060,981 Fischer et al. Nov. 17, 1936 2,078,340 Powers Apr. 27, 1937 2,142,570 Martin Jan. 3, 1939 2,176,536 McCauley Oct. 17, 1939 2,331,225 Powers Oct. 5, 1943 2,398,194 Sicular Apr. 9, 1946 2,433,129 Land Dec. 23, 1947 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 100,591 Germany Dec. 19, 1898 366,837 Great Britain Feb. 11, 1932 548,538 Great Britain Oct. 14, 1942 556,883 Great Britain Oct. 26, 1943