US 2497229 A
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Feb. 14, 1950 E. B. MOLLER 2,497,229
DENTAL FORCE? 2 sheen-sheet 1 Filed oop. 9, 1947 rweutor Edu/md5 W70/fer En /yw I i (Ittorneg Feb. 14, 1950 E. B. MOLLER DENTAL FORCEP 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Oct. 9, 1947 Patented Feb. 14, 1950 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE DENTAL FORCEP Edward B. Moller, Falconer, N. Y. Application October 9, 1947, Serial No. '778,890
This invention relates to improvements in dental forceps, and more particularly to the provision of means by which tooth extraction may be rendered less painful to a patient through the employment of means adapted to loosen the tooth in such manner as to prevent material damage to the area surrounding the tooth or the tooth itself.
More specifically the invention is directed to an instrument in which two separate sets of beaks are provided, one set being located between the beaks of the other set. The outer set of beaks is intended to engage the alveolar process, whereas the inner set of beaks is adapted to have clamping engagement with the tooth. A pair of handles are so associated with the two sets of beaks that, when these handles are drawn toward each other, the process beaks serve to provide a support to enable the tooth engaging beaks to not only have clamping engagement with the tooth, but move in the direction of vthe handles. Thus, when the instrument is operated, the two sets of beaks exert equal force in opposite directions.
It is an object of the invention to provide forceps which may effect the loosening and removal of teeth without requiring twisting or turning at any time during the operation of extraction.
It is another object of the invention to provide forceps in which one set of beaks exerts pressure against the process equal, but opposite, to the force required by the other set of beaks ln the extraction of a tooth.
Another object of the invention lies in the provision of forceps which, through the direction of movement of the operative'parts that effect the extracting of a tooth, tend to prevent breaking or splintering. y
A still further object of the invention lies in the provision of forceps that include a readily interchangeable unit embodying operable tooth engaging beaks.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be more fully `understood from afconsderation of the following speciflcation, taken in iconjunction with the accompanying drawings, and in which l A Figs. 1, 2, and 3 are side elevational views of one form of the invention, showing various positions of the movable parts during a tooth loosening operation, a portion of the casing in each of these figures being broken away to better disclose certain of the structural details;
Fig. l is an edgewise view of the structure shown in Fig.v1;
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 4, showing the handles bent to better facilitate the extraction of certain teeth;
Fig. 6 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view, partly in section;
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary side elevational view, partly in section;
Fig. 8 is an enlarged sectional view, stantially on the line 8-8 of Fig. 4;
Fig. 9 is a head end view, partly in section, being taken substantially as indicated by the line l-S of Fig. 7; and
Fig. 1G is a fragmentary side elevational view showing the tooth clamping unit removed from the casing in which it is adapted to function.
Referring more particularly to the drawing,- the reference numeral I0 is employed to generally designate dental forceps embodying one form of the invention. The forceps include a casing II which, in the present instance, is formed by a base block I2 and cover plates I3.v When the block and plates I2 and I3 are suitably joined by screws I4, the plates I3 are spaced apart and capable of receiving corresponding ends of the forceps handles I6. The plates I3 are formed with spaced wings I1, the corresponding wing of each plate being connected by a pivot pin I8. Each of the handles I6 is formed'with a transversely apertured end boss I9, through which pin I8 projects to pivotally join the casing and handle'. A pair of beaks 2I are formed at one end with process engaging shoulders 22, and at the other end, with a pair of spaced apart Wings 23 which, as may be seen in Fig. 4, are adapted to provide a space in which the boss I9 of the handle I6 may fit. Of course, the wings 23 are also apertured to receive the pin I8 and, thus, one handle and one beak are pivotally connected tothe wing-like portion of each side of the casing Il. As will hereinafter be more fully understood,` it is desired that the beaks 2I be normally urged to a position such that the shoulders 22 of the 'free ends thereof are in near proximity, and one means by which this relative position of the beak's may taken subbe obtained is through the use ofv springs 24 which, as may be seen in the drawing, encircle a free area of the pin lI8 and include a U-shaped portion 26 that bears against the outer surface of the beak. Each handle I6, adjacent the boss I9, is formed with an inwardly extending .pair of lugs 21 between whichis located a roller 28. A pin 29 serves to mount the roller of each handle substantially in the position shown in various figures of the drawing.
The casing II is intended to receive a unit-29 which includes a pair of beaks 3| having tooth engaging jaws 32. These beaks have crossed arms 33 that are pivotally joined by a pin 34. A portion of the area of each arm that surrounds the pin 34 is cut away to provide a cavity 35 (see Fig. 8). Mounted in this cavity is a flat, circular spring 36 having anged ends 31 adapted to contact adjacent portions of the arms 33 in a manner and for the purpose of urging the jaws 32 into open: orgspaced. apart relationship. 'Thebase ends S13-'of each of the arms 33 are vprovided with transversely arranged pins 39. A mount 4I for the beak arms 33, in the present disclosure, takes the form of a pair of plates 42 that are spacediy joined midway of their length by an integral or permanently attached block 43. --Each'-plate-is formed with a pair of slots IV44.arranged in an arch about pin 34 as a center. The end portions of the arms 33 are located in the open-ended slots 46 formed by the plates 42, and pins 39, carried :bythesearma project into and are movable` the length tofs`slotsz44. i Under .urgingcofi' the.` spring 36, the arms will normally occupy;the:po'sition shownt 1infanyf; oiifseveral off the :figures: such,.` or example, as Figs. 6 and 10. :.lldidwayflthellength of'seaclr otitheplates2,':a3transverse recessv 4l. is formed. A corresponding rib 48Lisiforrned oni the inner; facer offfeachfof'the covenplates: I 3: or the base. Thus, whenthe unit29,f.carrying the tooth engaging-beakafis mounteddnzthe. casing?! i; :iti is guided'tfinto.properrpositiontiby.thejnterfitting.of recesses 4'I and ribs 48. As may be observed in Fig:8,thefbase.block I2 `is formed with a recess 491m whiclnis locatedione: endoftfa coiledspring I :Thepthertend'rofiithis sprngabutsV the' solid, central: portion^43tof .thezmount'4 Iiandz normally urgesv thiswmountgntoz a positionfsuch.: that the outerfsurfacei? ofiarms `33conta'ctnrollersf2I3.
:Attention issnowfdirected: to-the assembly: and operation-"of the fdevice. that theV `unit29 is ronly l.oneA ofi.I several such units it:isi1conteimiiated5to;interchangeablyv mountin the'casi-ng I I. .Thesersunitszwillieacmbeiprovided witha. different*sizevorshapedrpair:ofzbeaks .:fIhe mount 1- 4 I, .'however, iwillibe substantially as: idescribed inforder thats-fit; may; readily be; inserted and removed in the casing. Discourse? the purpose fof; providing i; a Aremovable..a-nd :replaceable unit is to'enable the use of the present invention inV the extraction "of: teethA regardless of'their: llocationor size. Referring #particularly to. EgrlO of the drawing; it will.-berobservedjthatfthev process lengaging *beaks f 2 I #are #spread apart i"suiciently to permit fentryptherebetweeni efr-theA ninit 29 for thegpurpose of mountingthisunit'ain the casing. 2F01# .purposesof-.clarity5 theifbeaks 2 I are shown 'as though: thev 'were 'held apart-against tension :fof `springs -26, -it :being 4understood of course that'l theirv normal 'positionfis substantially as-'shown inthe otherfviews ofthe drawings. vThe length of the plates-420i* thenmountM 'isgreater than the space between the :bosses I91of the :handles'and thus, the:mo\.u'1t-:must4 :be tiltedv to -rst project =one f endf` behind .one vlugfand' thenv moved sufficiently into the casing ltopermit entryzofthe other .wend :past the *boss 1 -of z the other handle. Whenthe =unit `Zllahas been. thus far assembled. therecesses.andr;ribs41: and 48 are-:aligned and the :unit may vnow be: moved'tintoia position such th at the bottom-I ofythe: block v43fabutsf. the. spring 48. `-1hould=v the'rollers 28. carried by the'handles I 6:. interfere. with moving; the (unit 2 9.to its proper place.l .the casing,Y the handles! may' :bel swung somewhat apart in order thatathesends .ofethe arms-38 mayiclearthese.rollers. .Of coursawhen it is desired to remove the unit 29, the reverse of the assembly procedure is carried out.
It will be found, in the operation of the device, that the forceps may be positioned with respect to a tooth to be extracted, substantially as shown in Fig. 1. Herein the beaks 2I are shown to have cut into or depressed the gum 53 to an extent that they yieldingly contact the tooth 54 and abut the process 5B. Of course, this posivtioning of the process engaging beaks is obtained with the handles of the forceps' in a somewhat spread apart position. It will be noted that the ends of the tooth engaging beaks 3| are in close -prc'lximity with the ends of the beaks 2I and are It 1 will be :understood @40 not in engagement with the tooth asv the handles 54. However, I6 of the instrument are drawn ctogether, the beaks 3| move into clamping engagement with the tooth 54 (see Fig. 2). Further drawing'- together of the handles IS causes the unit 29 to be drawn inwardly into the casing II alsuicient distance: .to loosen the' toothl fromiits socket. Once .the toothrhasbeen loosened; the entire .instrument .is moved andthe tooth.: is successfully extracted.
'Referringaagain toFigs. .laand 8, which-:show thel variousrnovableparts of therinstrument in the same: relativev positions,i.iit'.will beffnoted. that the surfaces 52 of arms 38 are in contact with rollers 28 through .the actionoigspring 31,. and that-thexpins 39 of'thesezarmszare attheoutermostends of their:respectivefslots 44. As the handlesl IS are drawntogetherl to'an extent such as :shown Lin'Fig. 2;'the .rollers act to pivot'the arms .about pin ;=34,` bringing 1 the jaws -32 f into clampingengagement :with .the tooth. Further drawing togetherofxthe handles'.` I B continues the pressure of rollers. 28 against. the=arm surfaces' 52. However, sincez'thebeaks 3 I .areralready'in clam-ping :engagement with l.theitoo.th,: there. can be ino further .zpivotingsofz arms .38;'arxd1.thus, :the .action of; vtherrollers. -12 8.1.effects .fmovementrnf the iunitftg inea-direction; tmovfurtherdntothe casing I I infwhichfiteis1mounted. Suchsxnovementziaeof course, clearly indicated in Fig. 3. Should .the tootht54 be oirlargerzproportions;the withdrawal of .the .unit intothe. casing` willv be Veiected beforegthe; pins` 39 off thefarms-ihave ytraveled to ithe extents shown infFigszf2 andr). Again-1. if-a. tooth smaller thanrthezone' illustrated fistoibefextracted, pins. 39 will'have moved beyond their travel shown iny slots 44. fIn'rany :event-:asi` soonfias the. tooth isf gripped'z-by the :beaks f3 I 'andr -theirv respective arms may no longer movetabout'theinpivotf34;the entire ;unit,' by; continue d::squeezing;:orthe" handles, must mover inwardly-'off.then-casing. 1 Particu'larffattention.z is idirected ito,the fact'v that the instrument, during the operation of loosening a tooth, is not moved or twisted. -Thei action by which*v the 'tooth isloosened'lis suchthatfedual force in opposite-directionsisexerted'on the processr through `beaksf2l 'and on the toothfby means of beaks 3I.
Although applicantfhasv shown-.and .described only one Yform of his invention, it will be apparent .thatvariations' vin .thestructureof the two sets .of beaks' andzot-herrparts, may be. altered or modified insofar as such alteration or modication -is within .the spirit :and scope -of :fthe inventionfas set outin .the-annexed claims.
Having I.thus set t forth` :my invention, 'what I claimfas new and for-"which I.-.desire protection byLettersfPatentyis:
1. A dental forceesrfcomprisinga casing. a pair of.. handles. separately andi individually pivotally joined to said casing, a pair of process engaging beaks joined to said casing, a pair of pivotally connected tooth engaging beaks located between said process engaging beaks and movably carried by said casing, and means operable to move said tooth engaging beaks away from said process engaging beaks by movement of said handles toward each other.
2. A dental forceps comprising a casing, a pair of handles individually pivotally joined at corresponding ends to said casing, a pair of process engaging beaks joined to said casing, a pair of tooth engaging beaks having pivotally connected arms located in said casing, and means, operable by movement of said handles, for positively moving said arms to move said tooth engaging beaks toward the pivotal ends of said handles and away from said process beaks.
3. A dental forceps comprising a casing, a pair of handles pivotally joined to said casing, a pair of process engaging Ibeaks individually pivotally joined to said casing, means yieldingly urging the free ends of said beaks into close proximity, a pair of convergeable tooth engaging beaks having their jaw ends in close proximity with the ends of said process engaging beaks, means mounting said tooth engaging beaks for movement with respect to said casing, and other means operable by said handles to move said tooth engaging beaks out of close proximity with said process engaging beaks.
4. A dental forceps comprising a casing, a pair of handles individually pivotally joined to. said casing, a pair of process engaging beaks joined to said casing and extending beyond and in the same general direction of said handles, a
pair of pivotally connected tooth engaging beaks normally in close proximity with said process beaks, said beaks having portions located in said casing, said beaks in their entirety lbeing adjustable with respect to said casing and means operable by movement of said handles to engage said portions and rst pivot said tooth engaging beaks and second withdraw them from proximity with said process engaging beaks.
5. In a dental forceps having a casing, a pair of handles individually pivotally joined to said casing, and a pair of process engaging beaks pivotally joined to said casing and extending therebeyond and in substantially the general plane of said handles; a removable unit including a pair of pivotally joined arms having tooth engaging beaks, means normally mounting said unit in said casing to locate said tooth engaging beaks between and in close proximity with said process engaging beaks, and other means operable iby movement of said handles to engage said arms and move said tooth engaging beaks in the direction of the length of said forceps and away from said process engaging beaks.
6. In a dental forceps having a casing, a pair of handles individually pivotally joined to said casing, and a pair of process engaging beaks pivotally joined to said casing and extending therebeyond and in substantially the general plane of said handles; a removable unit adapted to be mounted in said casing, said unit including a pair of pivotally connected arms, tooth engaging beaks at corresponding ends of said arms, means in said unit for limiting the relative pivotal movement of said arms, and means carried by said handles engageable with and adapted to pivotally move said arms in a direction to move said tooth engaging beaks toward each other.
7. In a dental forceps having a casing, a pair of handles individually pivotally joined to said casing, and a pair of process engaging beaks pivotally joined to said casing and extending therebeyond and in substantially the general plane of said handles; a unit adapted to be mounted in said casing, said unit comprising a pair of pivotally connected arms, tooth engaging beaks at corresponding ends of said arms, said tooth engaging beaks being normally in close proximity with said process engaging beaks, means in said unit for limiting the relative pivotal movement of said arms, and means carried by said handles engageable with and adapted to successively pivot said arms and move said unit in a direction to withdraw said tooth engaging beaks from proximity with said process engaging beaks.
8. In a dental forceps having a casing, a pair of handles individually pivotally joined to said casing, and a pair of process engaging beaks pivotally joined to said casing and extending therebeyond and in substantially the general plane of said handles; a unit adapted to be mounted in said casing, said unit comprising a lbase, a pair of pivotally connected arms, given ends of said arms being mounted in said base, the other ends of said arms having tooth engaging beaks, means normally urging said tooth engaging beaks into open relationship, and means, associated with said handles, operable to engage said given ends, to move said unit inwardly of said casing and eiect pivotal movement of said arms to bring said beaks into tooth engaging relationship.
9. In a dental forceps having a pair of handles pivotally mounted at corresponding ends and a pair of individually and separably pivotal process engaging beaks; a pair of convergeable tooth engaging beaks having their jaw ends located between and normally in close proximity with said process engaging beaks and also having portions in contact with the pivotal ends of said handles, said handles being pivotally movable toward each other to move said portion-s and eifect movement of said tooth engaging beaks away from and out of proximity with said process engaging beaks.
EDWARD B. MOLLER.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the iile of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,498,285 Lorenz June 17, 1924 2,140,280 Buskirk Dec. 13, 1938